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Showing papers in "Engineering, Technology & Applied Science Research in 2020"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a tool for early detection of banana diseases by using a deep learning approach is proposed, which is capable of detecting diseases with a confidence of 99% of the captured leaves from the real environment.
Abstract: In Tanzania, smallholder farmers contribute significantly to banana production and Kagera, Mbeya, and Arusha are among the leading regions. However, pests and diseases are a threat to food security. Early detection of banana diseases is important to identify the diseases before too much damage is done on the plants. In this paper, a tool for early detection of banana diseases by using a deep learning approach is proposed. Five deep learning architectures, namely Vgg16, Resnet18, Resnet50, Resnet152 and InceptionV3 were used to develop models for banana disease detection, achieving all high accuracies, varying from 95.41% for InceptionV3 to 99.2% for Resnet152. InceptionV3 was selected for mobile deployment because it demands much less memory. The developed tool was capable of detecting diseases with a confidence of 99% of the captured leaves from the real environment. This tool will help smallholder farmers conduct early detection of banana diseases and improve their productivity.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyze the characteristics of concrete by partially replacing cement with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Fly Ash (FA) and investigate indirect tensile and compressive strength.
Abstract: Cement production involves high amounts of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions. Pakistan is facing a serious energy crisis and cement’s cost is increasing. In addition, landfilling of potential concrete components can lead to environmental degradation. The use of waste as cement replacement not only reduces cement production cost by reducing energy consumption, but it is also environmentally friendly. The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of concrete by partially replacing cement with Rice Husk Ash (RHA) and Fly Ash (FA). This study is mainly focused on the performance of concrete conducting a slump test, and investigating indirect tensile and compressive strength. Cement was replaced with RHA and FA by 5% (2.5% RHA + 2.5% FA), 10% (5% RHA + 5% FA), 15% (7.5% RHA + 7.5% FA) and 20% (10% RHA+10% FA) by weight. Ninety concrete samples were cast with mix proportions of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water/cement ratio. Cube and cylindrical samples were used for measuring compressive and split tensile strength respectively, after 7 and 28 days. The results showed that after 28 days, the 5% RHA+5% FA sample’s compressive strength was enhanced by 16.14% and its indirect tensile strength was improved by 15.20% compared to the conventional sample. Moreover, the sample’s slump value dropped as the content of RHA and FA increased.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper addresses a multi-objective optimization technique to obtain simultaneous EVCS & DG placement and sizing and finds that HHO is reasonably successful in accomplishing the desired goals.
Abstract: The acceptance rate of Electric Vehicles (EVs) in the transport industry has increased substantially due to the augmented interest towards sustainable transportation initiatives. However, their impact in terms of increased power demand on the electric power market can increase real power losses, decrease voltage profile, and consequently decrease voltage stability margins. It is necessary to install Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs) and Distributed Generators (DGs) at optimal locations to decrease the EV load effect in the Radial Distribution System (RDS). This paper addresses a multi-objective optimization technique to obtain simultaneous EVCS & DG placement and sizing. The problem is formulated to optimize real power losses, Average Voltage Deviation Index (AVDI), and Voltage Stability Index (VSI) of the electrical distribution system. Simulation studies were performed on the standard IEEE 33-bus and 69-bus test systems. Harries Hawk Optimization (HHO) and Teaching-Learning Based Optimization (TLBO) algorithms were selected to minimize the system objectives. The simulation outcomes reveal that the proposed approach improved system performance in all aspects. Among HHO and TLBO, HHO is reasonably successful in accomplishing the desired goals.

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the critical risk factors for design-build projects in the construction industry, and identify and manage these risk factors will help projects succeed and will increase the confidence of owners and contractors who seek to use the DB contract form.
Abstract: The constant demand for construction in developing countries like Vietnam causes more and more challenges and difficulties to Project Management Units (PMUs) in carrying projects to completion on schedule, with quality assurance and fewer costs. In order to do this, PMUs need to have better and tighter management tools and forms. However, in order to minimize risks during project implementation, the binding terms in contracts are also becoming stricter with more and more new forms of contracts. One of them is the design-build (DB) contract form. This paper presents the critical risk factors for design-build projects in the construction industry. Good identification and management of these risk factors will help projects succeed and will increase the confidence of owners and contractors who seek to use the design-build form.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the properties of fresh and hardened concrete by partially replacing cement with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and limestone fines (LSF), and the optimum result displayed that the crushing strength and split tensile strength increased by 10.33% and 10.10% while using 5% SCBA+ 5% LSF as a substitute for cement in concrete after the 28th day.
Abstract: Cement production releases huge amounts of carbon dioxide having a significant impact on the environment while also having huge energy consumption demands. In addition, the disposal and recovery of natural concrete components can lead to environmental degradation. The use of waste in concrete not only reduces cement production, but it also reduces energy consumption. The aim of this study is to evaluate the properties of fresh and hardened concrete by partially replacing cement with sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) and limestone fines (LSF). In this investigation work the cement was replaced with SCBA ash and LSF by 0% (0% SCBA+ 0% LSF), 5% (2.5% SCBA+ 2.5% LSF), 10% (5% SCBA+ 5% LSF), 15% (7.5% SCBA+ 7.5% LSF) and 20% (10% SCBA+ 10% LSF) by weight of cement. In this regard, a total of 60 samples of concrete specimens were made with mix proportion of 1:1.5:3 with 0.56 water-cement ratio. Cube specimens were tested for compressive strength and cylindrical specimens were used for determining splitting tensile strength at 7 and 28 days respectively. The optimum result displayed that the crushing strength and split tensile strength increased by 10.33% and 10.10% while using 5% SCBA+ 5% LSF as a substitute for cement in concrete after the 28th day. The slump value of concrete declined as the content of SCBA and LSF increased.

23 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A structure of a Deep Learning model is proposed which allows improving the existing state-of-the-art precision and processing time of the face recognition application for a biometric system based on Convolutional Neural Networks.
Abstract: Face recognition is an important function of video surveillance systems, enabling verification and identification of people who appear in a scene often captured by a distributed network of cameras. The recognition of people from the faces in images arouses great interest in the scientific community, partly because of the application interests but also because of the challenge that this represents for artificial vision algorithms. They must be able to cope with the great variability of the aspects of the faces themselves as well as the variations of the shooting parameters (pose, lighting, haircut, expression, background, etc.). This paper aims to develop a face recognition application for a biometric system based on Convolutional Neural Networks. It proposes a structure of a Deep Learning model which allows improving the existing state-of-the-art precision and processing time.

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the feasibility of a 10MW grid-connected PV power plant in Libya was investigated by using the RETScreen software to estimate the energy production, GHG emissions, and financial parameters for the 22 locations.
Abstract: Libya is currently interested in utilizing renewable energy technologies to reduce the energy dependence on oil reserves and Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions. The objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of a 10MW grid-connected PV power plant in Libya. NASA data are used to analyze the global horizontal irradiation, direct normal irradiation, and air temperature of 22 selected locations in Libya and to evaluate the potential of solar energy. RETScreen software is used to estimate the energy production, GHG emissions, and financial parameters for the 22 locations. Based on the solar atlas map, it is noticed that the highest global horizontal irradiation is in the southern part of Libya, which ranged from 2100 to 2500kWh/m2. These results indicate that Libya has a huge solar energy potential that can be used to ‎generate electricity. Moreover, based on techno-economic results, it is observed that the highest electricity generation of 22067.13MWh is recorded at Al Κufrah and the lowest at Al Jabal al Akhdar with a value of 17891.38MWh. Furthermore, Al Kufrah and Murzuq are the best locations for the future installation of PV power plants from annual energy and the economic parameters point of view. The maximum value of power that can be generated by the plant was estimated to be 22.06GW.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a detailed literature review was conducted in order to identify the critical factors that affect mobile banking users, and the research model was based on the Technology Acceptance Model, investigating the additionally perceived risk.
Abstract: Mobile banking services are widely adopted in developed and developing countries, while their adoption by Malaysian consumers is relatively low. The effective adoption of mobile banking mostly depends on consumers. This study’s objective was to examine the factors that influence Malaysian customers’ behavioral intention toward mobile banking. A detailed literature review was conducted in order to identify the critical factors that affect mobile banking users. The research model was based on the Technology Acceptance Model, investigating the additionally perceived risk. Primary data were collected from 384 generation Y bank customers. Structure equation modeling through Smart-PLS was used for data analysis. Results revealed that consumers’ behavioral intention was significantly and positively influenced by perceived usefulness and ease of use, while a significant negative relationship was found between consumers’ behavioral intention and perceived risk. The findings also revealed a mediating relationship of attitude between perceived usefulness, ease of use and risk, and behavioral intention to use mobile banking. The study provides appropriate guidelines to Malaysian banks and mobile banking application developers for the effective implementation and design of mobile banking services.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper tries to define such active methods by presenting a complete analysis of LVRT strategies for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) in terms of overall adaptive performance, operation complexity of controllers, and cost-effectiveness.
Abstract: When a Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) primarily based Type-III Wind Turbine (WT) is connected to the grid without a digital power interface, the terminal voltage or reactive electricity output can’t be managed accordingly. Many techniques have been developed to overcome the issue of low voltage due to faults. This paper tries to define such active methods by presenting a complete analysis of LVRT strategies for DFIG-based Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECS) in terms of overall adaptive performance, operation complexity of controllers, and cost-effectiveness. This paper aims to highlight the methods of increasing the ability of LVRT relying on the configuration of the relationship into 3 major areas according to its grid integrations. Shunt connections of FACTS devices are used in WECS to study their effectiveness and benefits. The system models are simulated in MATLAB/Simulink and the results are discussed.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study intends to review several optimization algorithms that could be applied as possible solutions for the university student course timetable problem and takes into account the demands of institutional constraints for course timetable management.
Abstract: The university course timetabling problem looks for the best schedule, to satisfy given criteria as a set of given resources, which may contain lecturers, groups of students, classrooms, or laboratories. Developing a timetable is a fundamental requirement for the healthy functioning of all educational and administrative parts of an academic institution. However, factors such as the availability of hours, the number of subjects, and the allocation of teachers make the timetable problem very complex. This study intends to review several optimization algorithms that could be applied as possible solutions for the university student course timetable problem. The reviewed algorithms take into account the demands of institutional constraints for course timetable management.

16 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of fly ash as cement replacement in green concrete made with partial replacement of conventional coarse aggregate with coarse aggregates from demolishing waste was investigated. But, the results of the experiment were limited.
Abstract: This research paper aims at investigating the effects of fly ash as cement replacement in green concrete made with partial replacement of conventional coarse aggregates with coarse aggregates from demolishing waste. Green concrete developed with waste materials is an active area of research as it helps in reducing the waste management issues and protecting the environment. Six concrete mixes were prepared using 1:2:4 ratio and demolishing waste was used in equal proportion with conventional aggregates, whereas fly ash was used from 0%-10% with an increment of 2.5%. The water-cement ratio used was equal to 0.5. Out of these mixes, one mix was prepared with all conventional aggregates and was used as the control, and one mix with 0% fly ash had only conventional and recycled aggregates. The slump test of all mixes was determined. A total of 18 cylinders of standard size were prepared and cured for 28 days. After curing the compressive strength of the specimens was evaluated under gradually increasing load until failure. It is observed that 5% replacement of cement with fly ash and 50% recycled aggregates gives better results. With this level of dosage of two waste materials, the reduction in compressive strength is about 11%.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of using different ratios of silica fume on the mechanical and microstructural properties of hardened cement paste and concrete were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM).
Abstract: The effects of using different ratios of silica fume on the mechanical and microstructural properties of hardened cement paste and concrete were investigated in this study. Portland cement was replaced with 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% silica fume (SF) by weight. Microstructural properties of obtained samples were investigated by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The XRD analysis showed that the ratio of calcium hydroxide (CH), which is produced by hydration, decreases depending on the concrete age and the amount of silica fume. The SEM analysis showed that the use of silica fume decreases gaps and calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) which is also a hydration production. Silica fume content of up to 15% improved the observed mechanical and microstructural properties of concrete. At the optimum value of 15%, improvement in the paste was observed due to the filler effect and the reaction between the silica fume and calcium hydroxide, leading to a reduction in calcium hydroxide in the concrete.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study focused on investigating the properties of fresh, physical and hardened concrete blended with marble (MP) and tile powder (TP) of several proportions, such as 0, 5% (2.5%MP + 2.5%).
Abstract: The use of agricultural and industrial waste products as raw materials in the construction industry is investigated extensively. These products are inexpensive and help in environmental sustainability, as environmental pollution is thus reduced. This study focused in investigating the properties of fresh, physical and hardened concrete blended with marble (MP) and tile powder (TP) of several proportions, such as 0%, 5% (2.5%MP + 2.5%TP), 10% (5%MP + 5%TP), 15% (7.5%MP + 7.5%TP), and 20% (10%MP + 10%TP) by weight. A total of 60 concrete cylinders were cast with 0.45 water/cement ratio, 1:1.96:2.14 mix ratio, and were cured for 7 and 28 days. These cylinders were used for checking the compressive and splitting tensile strength of concrete. The experimental results showed that compressive and splitting tensile strengths were increased by 8.90% and 8.30% respectively for the 2.5%MP + 2.5%TP sample after 28 days.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna (CPMPA) miniaturization with parasitic elements, suitable for UHF RFID systems.
Abstract: This paper presents a Circularly Polarized Microstrip Patch Antenna (CPMPA) miniaturization with parasitic elements, suitable for UHF RFID systems. The antenna consists of a half E-shaped patch with cuts. A truncated corner patch can generate an additional Circular Polarization (CP) radiation mode and further enhance the axial ratio. Two symmetric cross shaped slots along the horizontal axis of the CPMPA have been embedded, and its dimension optimization has been based on parametric analysis. Thanks to this slotted structure and reduced surface area, good CP quality has been obtained with a 25% overall size reduction. The proposed antenna is lightweight, low profile, simple, and easily produced. The structure’s simulation is made using CST Studio Suite 2014 to compute return loss (S11), gain, and the axial ratio of the antenna while the overall miniaturized antenna’s volume is 77mm×58mm×1.6mm operating at 915MHz.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the buckling strength of steel plane frame semi-rigid beam-column connections is assessed using the Newton-Raphson method and Monte Carlo simulation method.
Abstract: The buckling strength of a structure depends hugely on material properties, geometry dimensions, and boundary conditions that are potentially random. This paper presents an assessment of the safety of buckling strength of steel plane frame semi-rigid beam-column connections. The Newton-Raphson method is used to solve the nonlinear equation for the buckling limit of the column. The reliability of the structure is evaluated by the Monte Carlo simulation method. The effects of input parameters are also investigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of vertical positioning and size of openings was investigated through subjecting the beams to a four-point bending test after 28 days of curing, and the results showed that openings of depth greater than 0.4d significantly affect the beams' strength and lead to earlier cracking, while the failure mode remains essentially the same, a diagonal tension crack through the opening except for opening of 0.5d size where the failure occurred by a sudden formation of two independent shear cracks above and below the opening.
Abstract: Transverse openings are often provided to reinforced concrete beams to accommodate utility ducts and pipes. This technique is usually adopted to avoid the creation of dead space in structures caused by extended dropped ceilings and leads to significant cost saving. On the other hand, the provision of openings through a beam creates a reduction in its strength and affects serviceability. In this study, ten reinforced concrete beams were cast using C30 concrete. Material characterization and engineering properties tests were carried out to ensure compliance with the requirements provided by the codes of practice. The effect of vertical positioning and size of openings was investigated through subjecting the beams to a four-point bending test after 28 days of curing. Maximum load capacity, first cracking load, and deflections at mid-span were recorded and crack pattern and failure mode were evaluated. Test data showed that openings of depth greater than 0.4d significantly affect the beams’ strength and lead to earlier cracking, while the failure mode remains essentially the same, a diagonal tension crack through the opening except for opening of 0.5d size where the failure occurred by a sudden formation of two independent shear cracks above and below the opening. When holes were located above the centroid of the section, the beams exhibited a lesser deflection characterized by the absence of plastic deformation. Furthermore, a significant reduction in strength was recorded compared to cases where the positioning of openings was in tension chords. This was validated using equations from the ACI code of reinforced concrete design.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper aims to demonstrate how Blockchain Technology can be used to secure mobile agents in the context of the IoT using Ethereum and a Smart Contract and aims to provide a secure migration of mobile agents to ensure security and protect the IoT applications against malevolent agents.
Abstract: The Internet of Things (IoT) is becoming an indispensable part of the actual Internet and continues to extend deeper into the daily lives of people, offering distributed and critical services. Mobile agents are widely used in the context of IoT and due to the possibility of transmitting their execution status from one device to another in an IoT network, they offer many advantages such as reducing network load, encapsulating protocols, exceeding network latency, etc. Also, Blockchain Technology is growing rapidly allowing for the addition of an approved security layer in many areas. Security issues related to mobile agent migration can be resolved with the use of Blockchain. This paper aims to demonstrate how Blockchain Technology can be used to secure mobile agents in the context of the IoT using Ethereum and a Smart Contract. The transactions within the Blockchain are used to detect the malevolent mobile agents that could infiltrate the IoT systems. The proposed model aims to provide a secure migration of mobile agents to ensure security and protect the IoT applications against malevolent agents. The case of a smart home with multiple applications is applied to verify the proposed solution. The model presented in this paper could be extended to a wider selection of IoT systems outside of the smart home.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The INMTD framework is the first effort in exploiting IBN for the design of an efficient Moving Target Defense (MTD) framework and substantiate the efficient protection against reconnaissance attacks at lower computational cost.
Abstract: Intent-Based Networking (IBN) is an emerging networking paradigm while Moving Target Defense (MTD) is an active security technique. In this paper, the Intent-based Moving Target Defense (INMTD) framework using Software Defined Networks is proposed. INMTD is the first effort in exploiting IBN for the design of an efficient Moving Target Defense (MTD) framework. INMTD uses the concept of shadow servers in order to counter the first stage of cyber-attacks, i.e. reconnaissance attacks targeted against servers running in SDN networks. INMTD comprises of an MTD application running on an SDN controller. The MTD application has reconnaissance detection, MTD movement, and MTD monitoring modules. The MTD application is integrated with the intent-based northbound API of SDN controller. INMTD not only provides protection against probing attacks, but it also provides high availability due to shadow servers. The proposed framework was implemented using Mininet and ONOS SDN controller. The proposed framework was assessed in terms of defender cost, attacker’s effort, and introduced complexity in the system. The results substantiate the efficient protection against reconnaissance attacks at lower computational cost.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller for the active vibration control of a smart flexible cantilever beam was designed on the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the piezoelectric theory.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to design a Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) controller for the active vibration control of a smart flexible cantilever beam. The mathematical model of the smart beam was created on the basis of the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory and the piezoelectric theory. State-space and finite element models used in the LQR controller design were developed. In the finite element model of the smart beam containing piezoelectric sensors and actuators, the beam was divided into ten finite elements. Each element had two nodes and two degrees of freedom were defined for each node, transverse displacement, and rotation. Two Piezoelectric ceramic lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) patches were affixed to the upper and lower surfaces of the beam element as pairs of sensors and actuators. The location of the piezoelectric sensor and actuator pair changed and they were consecutively placed on the fixed part, the middle part, and the free end of the beam. In each case, the design of the LQR controller was made considering the first three dominant vibratory modes of the beam. The effect of the position of the sensor-actuator pair on the beam on the vibration damping capability of the controller was investigated. The best damping performance was found when the sensor-actuator pair was placed at the fixed end.

Journal ArticleDOI
Phu-Cuong Nguyen1
TL;DR: It is shown that the initial residual stresses of steel should be considered in nonlinear inelastic time-history earthquake analysis of 2D steel frames while SAP2000 does not consider the effects of residual stresses.
Abstract: In this work, a new method for nonlinear time-history earthquake analysis of 2D steel frames by a fiber plastic hinge method is presented. The beam-column element based on the displacement-based finite element method is established and formulated in detail using a fiber plastic hinge approach and stability functions. Geometric nonlinearities are taken into accounting by stability functions and the geometric stiffness matrix. A nonlinear dynamic algorithm is established based on the combination of the Newmark integration method and the Newton-Raphson iterative algorithm for solving dynamic equations. The proposed program predicts the nonlinear inelastic responses of 2D steel frames subjected to earthquakes as efficiently and accurately as commercial software. This study also shows that the initial residual stresses of steel should be considered in nonlinear inelastic time-history earthquake analysis of 2D steel frames while SAP2000 does not consider the effects of residual stresses.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a groundwater quality evaluation of Islamkot, Tharparkar, using Water Quality Index (WQI) and Geospatial tools was presented, which indicated that water quality varied from very poor to unsuitable for drinking.
Abstract: Groundwater is the only source of fresh water in the Thar Desert which is located in an arid region of Pakistan with dense population and spreads over 19,638km2. Low rainfall, low groundwater recharge, high evaporation and absence of perennial streams are the general reasons for water scarcity. Being the single water source for drinking, domestic and industrial uses, and livestock activities, this source is highly overexploited. Realizing the gravity of the situation, this paper presents a groundwater quality evaluation of Islamkot, Tharparkar, using Water Quality Index (WQI) and Geospatial tools. 40 samples were collected from dug wells. The TDS of 28 samples was found higher than 3000mg/L and 12 samples ranged from 1500 to 3000mg/L. Many (28) samples were not further analyzed due to their very high TDS which made the water unfit for drinking. Twelve samples with TDS ranging from 1500 to 3000 mg/L were further analyzed. The analyzed results revealed the average values of pH, EC, TDS, salinity, chloride, total alkalinity, fluoride, and arsenic. The results did not meet NEQS and WHO guidelines. Pearson correlation analysis was conducted among parameters. Further, groundwater quality was assessed by WQI and indicated that water quality varied from very poor to unsuitable for drinking. The consumption of polluted groundwater has been the main cause of prevalent waterborne diseases and poses a very high risk for public health

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is applied for determining ATC problem between the buses in deregulated power systems without violating system constraints such as thermal, voltage constraints and results show that the CSA is an effective method for determine ATC.
Abstract: In the electricity market, power producers and customers share a common transmission network for wheeling power from generation to consumption points. All parties in this open access environment may try to produce energy from cheaper sources for greater profit margin, which may lead to transmission congestion, which could lead to violation of voltage and thermal limits, threatening the system security. To solve this, available transfer capability (ATC) must be accurately estimated and optimally utilized. Thus, accurate determination of ATC to ensure system security while serving power transactions is an open and trending research topic. Many optimization approaches to deal with the problem have been proposed. In this paper, Cuckoo Search Algorithm (CSA) is applied for determining ATC problem between the buses in deregulated power systems without violating system constraints such as thermal, voltage constraints. The suggested methodology is tested on IEEE 14 and IEEE 24-bus for normal and contingency cases. The simulation results are compared with the corresponding results of EP, PSO, and GWO and show that the CSA is an effective method for determining ATC.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An integrated multi-objective framework of a single machine for a single cutting tool problem that allows simultaneous optimization of the two conflicting time and cost objectives is presented.
Abstract: In this paper, we present an integrated multi-objective framework of a single machine for a single cutting tool problem. Our maintenance policy is based on performing minimal repairs in case of a minor failure and Preventive Maintenance (PM) to avoid a major failure that results in the replacement of the tool. This framework allows simultaneous optimization of the two conflicting time and cost objectives. A redundant system is proposed as a part of the model to assist the production line under a major failure. In addition, the tool’s preventive maintenance time is synchronized with the completion of the machine tool’s work cycle to reduce the machine’s set-up time. The model was optimized using a customized Non-dominated Sorting Genetic Algorithm (NSGA-II). An experimental study based on real-market data was conducted and the results were compared with the ones obtained from classical methods.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of Module Assessment Index (MAI) on the prediction process using Random Forest and Naive Bayes classification techniques was investigated. And it was shown that considering MAI as attribute increases the accuracy of predicting students' second year averages based on their first-year averages.
Abstract: Choosing the right and effective way to assess students is one of the most important tasks of higher education. Many studies have shown that students tend to receive higher scores during their studies when assessed by different study methods - which include units that are fully assessed by varying the duration of study or a combination of courses and exams - than by exams alone. Many Educational Data Mining (EDM) studies process data in advance through traditional data extraction, including the data preparation process. In this paper, we propose a different data preparation process by investigating more than 230,000 student records for the preparation of scores. The data have been processed through diverse stages in order to extract a categorical factor through which students’ module marks are refined during the data preparation stage. The results of this work show that students’ final marks should not be isolated from the nature of the enrolled module’s assessment methods. They must rather be investigated thoroughly and considered during EDM’s data pre-processing stage. More generally, educational data should not be prepared in the same way normal data are due to the differences in data sources, applications, and error types. The effect of Module Assessment Index (MAI) on the prediction process using Random Forest and Naive Bayes classification techniques were investigated. It was shown that considering MAI as attribute increases the accuracy of predicting students’ second year averages based on their first-year averages.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study predicts the strength and behavior of 2D steel frames as efficiently and accurately as the plastic zone method did.
Abstract: In this study, a new method for nonlinear analysis of 2D steel frames, by improving the conventional plastic hinge method, is presented. The beam-column element is established and formulated in detail using a fiber plastic hinge approach. Residual stresses of I-shape sections are declared at the two ends through fibers. Gradual yielding by residual stresses along the member length due to axial force is accounted for by the tangent elastic modulus concept. The P-δ effect is captured by stability functions, whereas the P-Δ effect is estimated by the geometric stiffness matrix. A nonlinear algorithm is established for solving nonlinear problems. The present study predicts the strength and behavior of 2D steel frames as efficiently and accurately as the plastic zone method did.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new compact 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna is presented, suitable for the new wireless communications, and covers the complete ultra-wideband for short wireless systems.
Abstract: A new compact 2×2 Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) antenna is presented in this paper, suitable for the new wireless communications. The proposed design also covers the complete ultra-wideband for short wireless systems. The antenna system is characterized by a super wideband covering radio frequency (RF) band starting from 2.97GHz to 19.82GHz. The MIMO system contains two ship-shaped monopoles with trimmed edges. These antennas are printed on a single layer of Rogers Duroid RT5880Lz with relative permittivity er=1.96 and loss tangent δ of 0.0009. The overall size of the MIMO system is 20mm×47mm×1.6mm. The peak-achieved gain is 8.12dB with nearly omni-directional isotropic far field patterns. The design and simulation has been performed via an industrial simulation code.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a mathematical model based on experimental data was proposed to predict the maximum height of the surface as a function of two laser cutting parameters, namely cutting speed and assist-gas pressure.
Abstract: This paper investigates high power CO2 laser cutting of 5mm-thick Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy sheets, aiming to evaluate the effects of various laser cutting parameters on surface roughness. Using multiple linear regression, a mathematical model based on experimental data was proposed to predict the maximum height of the surface Sz as a function of two laser cutting parameters, namely cutting speed and assist-gas pressure. The adequacy of the proposed model was validated by Analysis Of Variance (ANOVA). Experimental data were compared with the model’s data to verify the capacity of the proposed model. The results indicated that for fixed laser power, cutting speed is the predominant cutting parameter that affects the maximum height of surface roughness.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: With the help of the proposed method, dentists will be able to predict osteoporosis accurately and efficiently without the need for further examination since CBCT has been widely accepted in dentistry and the dentist is the most common health care professional that elderly visit regularly.
Abstract: Osteoporosis is a common health problem that affects one-third of women over the age of 50 and it may not be detected until bone fractures occur. Osteoporosis is low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue, which affects bone fragility and raises fracture risks. Early mandible bone osteoporosis detection could help reduce the risk of jaw fracture and dental implant failure. To solve this problem, a diagnostic algorithm for automatic detection of osteoporosis in Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images is presented and 120 mandible CBCT images of 50-85 year-old women have been utilized. These images are classified into two classes: normal and osteoporotic. Their classification is based on the T-score which derives from the Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DEXA). The proposed algorithm consists of image processing, feature extraction, and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classification. Images are segmented and edges are detected. Then, texture features are extracted from the segmented regions. Finally, a feed-forward back-propagation ANN classifier is employed. Seven parameters were involved in the experiment data preparation as input: coarseness, contrast, direction, number of edges, length of edges, mean length of edges, and the number of edge pixels. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. With the help of the proposed method, dentists will be able to predict osteoporosis accurately and efficiently without the need for further examination since CBCT has been widely accepted in dentistry and the dentist is the most common health care professional that elderly visit regularly.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new ultra wideband (UWB) antenna design with 2.08GHz to 12GHz impedance bandwidth and triple-band specifications is presented, which is formed by a truncated square patch, a partial ground plane, and a 50Ω microstrip line.
Abstract: In this work, a new ultra-wideband (UWB) antenna design with 2.08GHz to 12GHz impedance bandwidth and triple-band specifications is presented. The proposed antenna is formed by a truncated square patch, a partial ground plane, and a 50Ω microstrip line. Three different types of slots were used in order to induce notched bands. A C-shaped slot is etched on the radiating patch to obtain a notched band in 3.31-4.21GHz for WiMAX. An inverted U-shaped slot in the micro-strip line induces a second notched band in order to reduce the interference with the WLAN [5.04-6.81GHz]. Finally, two inverted L-shaped slots around the micro-ribbon line on the ground plane allow the X-band [9.13 to 10.75GHz]. The antenna has dimensions of 32×28×1.6mm3. The Ansoft software (HFSS) was used to simulate the proposed structure. The simulation results are in good agreement with the measurement results. The antenna shows an omnidirectional radiation pattern.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An industrial monitoring system design using the Internet of Things that detects the leakage of gas under most atmospheric conditions and helps prevent the gas leakage hence minimizing the chances of fire and damage.
Abstract: This paper presents an industrial monitoring system design using the Internet of Things (IoT). The gas sensor (MQ-5) captured information is posted into a data cloud. The sensor detects the leakage of gas under most atmospheric conditions. All the components are controlled by an Arduino (UNO-1) that acts as a central processor unit in the setup t. As soon as a gas leakage is detected by the sensor, the alarm is raised in the form of a buzzer. This alarm is supported by an LCD to display the location of leakage, alert the observer, and activate the exhaust fan in the particular section to extract leaked gas. The requirement of a gas detection system is not only to monitor continuously the surroundings but also to help prevent the gas leakage hence minimizing the chances of fire and damage.