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Showing papers in "English World-wide in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The GloWbE corpus as discussed by the authors is based on 1.9 billion words in 1.8 million web pages from 20 different English-speaking countries, with approximately 60% coming from informal blogs and the rest from a wide range of other genres and text types.
Abstract: In this paper, we provide an overview of the new GloWbE Corpus — the Corpus of Global Web-based English. GloWbE is based on 1.9 billion words in 1.8 million web pages from 20 different English-speaking countries. Approximately 60 percent of the corpus comes from informal blogs, and the rest from a wide range of other genres and text types. Because of its large size, its architecture and interface, the corpus can be used to examine many types of variation among dialects, which might not be possible with other corpora — including variation in lexis, morphology, (medium- and low-frequency) syntactic constructions, variation in meaning, as well as discourse and its relationship to culture. This focus article was commented upon by Christian Mair , Joybrato Mukherjee , Gerald Nelson , and Pam Peters , with a response by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs .

181 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined the possible interface between contact linguistics and second language acquisition research by comparing the institutionalized second-language varieties of English known as “New Englishes” and the foreign versions of English called “Learner Englishes,” with a view to identifying similarities and differences between the two types of varieties at several levels of the language.
Abstract: This paper examines the possible interface between contact linguistics and second language acquisition research by comparing the institutionalized second-language varieties of English known as “New Englishes” and the foreign varieties of English called “Learner Englishes”. On the basis of corpus data representing several populations of various origins, it investigates four linguistic phenomena, ranging from syntax (embedded inversion) to lexis (phrasal verbs with 'up'), through phraseology (word clusters) and pragmatics (discourse markers), with a view to identifying similarities and differences between the two types of varieties at several levels of the language. The paper also explores avenues for going beyond a descriptive account towards a more explanatory one, in an attempt to build the foundations of a theoretical rapprochement between contact linguistics and second language acquisition research.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the divide between English as a native (ENL), second (ESL) and foreign (EFL) language by using comparable corpora for all three varietal types: the International Corpus of English (ICE) for Inner and Outer Circle varieties, and a comparable Corpus of Dutch English to represent the Expanding Circle.
Abstract: The classification of English as a native (ENL), second (ESL) and foreign (EFL) language is traditionally mapped onto Kachru’s (1985) Inner, Outer and Expanding circles, respectively. This paper addresses the divide upheld between these different varietal types. We explore the preposition into using comparable corpora for all three varietal types: the International Corpus of English (ICE) for Inner and Outer Circle varieties, and a comparable Corpus of Dutch English to represent the Expanding Circle. Our results show that the least institutionalised varieties (Hong Kong and Dutch English) are the most dissimilar to the ENL varieties, and the most institutionalised variety (Singapore English) is the most similar. We also compare our results for the Corpus of Dutch English to the Dutch component of the International Corpus of Learner English. While the latter patterns with other learner varieties, the Dutch English corpus patterns with ESL varieties, suggesting that “Expanding Circle” and “EFL” are not synonymous.

37 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs is presented.
Abstract: This is a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs (this issue).

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs is presented.
Abstract: This is a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs (this issue).

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based EnglishCorpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs is presented.
Abstract: This is a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs (this issue).

24 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Pam Peters1
TL;DR: In this paper, a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs is presented.
Abstract: This is a commentary to Expanding horizons in the study of World Englishes with the 1.9 billion word Global Web-based English Corpus (GloWbE) by Mark Davies and Robert Fuchs (this issue).

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article investigated syntactic and prosodic consequences of language contact on two varieties of multilingual Black speakers of South African English (BlSAfE) and a newly emerging variety by Black speakers (crossing over variety).
Abstract: The article presents results of an elicited-production study investigating syntactic and prosodic consequences of language contact on two varieties of multilingual Black speakers of South African English, namely Black South African English (BlSAfE) and a newly emerging variety by Black speakers (“crossing over variety”). The results indicate that contact varieties of South African English share syntactic traits of General South African English (GenSAfE) relating to focus marking. At the same time, BlSAfE also shows differences in the frequency of use of the syntactic structures. The differences cannot be accounted for solely by L1 influence. Also, in prosody, significant differences between the varieties emerge. For BlSAfE, the differences can be related to L1 influence. A language can exert its influence differently on different areas of another language’s grammar: With respect to syntax the “crossing over” variety groups with GenSAfE, with respect to prosody it is in-between GenSAfE and BlSAfE.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined the social meanings that speakers associate with variants of the variable (ing) in Manchester, focusing on a comparison of two age groups: a young age group of adolescents and those in very early adulthood, and an older age group.
Abstract: This study examines the social meanings that speakers associate with variants of the variable (ing) in Manchester, focusing on a comparison of two age groups: a young age group of adolescents and those in very early adulthood, and an older age group. In most English varieties, (ing) has two possible realisations: [ɪŋ] and [ɪn]. However, in Manchester, a third possibility exists: [ɪŋg]. Social meanings differ between age groups on three scales: articulateness, poshness and reliability. When compared to the youths, those in the older age group consider [ɪŋ] to sound substantially more articulate than [ɪn], as well as posher and more reliable than [ɪŋg]. In contrast, those in the younger group consider [ɪŋg] more reliable and posher-sounding than the older speakers. This is due, we argue, to developmental constraints during adolescence, but, more importantly, to life-stage experiences, with social meanings on these three scales altering as speakers leave adolescence behind and become increasingly subject to the standardisation pressures of adult communities.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigated the relative frequencies of the two major syntactic markers of future time expression (FTE), be going to and will in the Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (DECTE).
Abstract: This paper investigates the relative frequencies of the two major syntactic markers of future time expression (FTE), be going to and will in the Diachronic Electronic Corpus of Tyneside English (DECTE). In particular, the rise in the frequency of be going to will be examined in the light of current theories of grammaticalisation. The various grammatical constraints that have been identified in the literature as determining the distribution of will versus be going to will be investigated. It will be shown that a number of interesting changes have occurred within the fifty-year period covered by the data-set. In specific areas of grammar, contrasts have been maintained (e.g. first person versus the other persons in the favouring of will), strengthened (e.g. subordinate clauses versus main clauses in the favouring of going to), weakened (e.g. the dominance of will in contexts of distal future reference) or even introduced (e.g. the apodoses of if-clauses emerging as a syntactic niche for the favouring of will).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provided the first perceptual dialectology survey of Scotland, where respondents from the northeast fishing town of Buckie were asked to mark and label dialect areas on a map, and to rate 12 government regions on five scales: degree-of-difference, correctness, pleasantness, broadness, and sounding Scottish.
Abstract: This paper provides the first perceptual dialectology survey of Scotland. Respondents from the northeast fishing town of Buckie were asked to mark and label dialect areas on a map, and to rate 12 government regions on five scales: “degree-of-difference”, “correctness”, “pleasantness”, “broadness” and “sounding Scottish”. Based on the results of the survey, Scottish dialect perceptions could be placed into three main cultural dimensions: : (i) “Scottishness”, the “Good Scots/Bad Scots” distinction; (ii) “Englishness”, the cultural prominence of the Scotland-England border; and (iii) “Foreignness”, the influence of other languages on its islands. The conflicting responses regarding correctness offer a glimpse into different aspects of linguistic (in)security in Scotland. These findings provide a means of understanding Scotland’s current perceived linguistic landscape through significant regional and cultural dimensions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reported on the first-ever linguistic study of the variety of English spoken in the Gaspe region of eastern Quebec, which is 86 percent French-speaking, focusing on data from the 124 participants who still live in the region.
Abstract: This paper reports on the first-ever linguistic study of the variety of English spoken in the Gaspe region of eastern Quebec, which is 86 percent French-speaking. An on-line survey was used to gather data from 200 participants on 58 phonological, grammatical and lexical variables, drawn mostly, for comparative purposes, from earlier research on Canadian and Quebec English. The analysis, focusing on data from the 124 participants who still live in the Gaspe region, produces a complex linguistic portrait of the community. It displays a unique mixture of Canadian, Quebec, Maritime and rural features, reflecting its location near the boundary between Quebec and New Brunswick, with evidence of both convergence with and divergence from Quebec English as spoken in Montreal. It also shows more frequent use of several Gallicisms, or borrowings from French, suggesting that this effect of language contact is encouraged by its minority status.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A reanalysis of the data in Mishoe (1995), which utilized the Markedness Model (Myers-Scotton 1993), is presented, demonstrating that data previously analyzed using another model of CS receives a better account under Bhatt and Bolonyai’s OT approach.
Abstract: Despite the numerous frameworks for analyzing patterns of code-switching (CS) in multilingual communities, previous analyses have lacked a thorough treatment of the universality of the functions of CS. A recent model (Bhatt and Bolonyai 2011) addresses this gap by presenting a framework that incorporates principles of Optimality Theory (OT) and offers a precise model in which the countless functions of CS are reduced to five meta-constraints, the interaction and satisfaction of which account for the different grammars of bilingual language use. This framework’s applicability to situations of dialectal CS must be tested in order to show the breadth and depth of the model. This paper presents a reanalysis of the data in Mishoe (1995), which utilized the Markedness Model (Myers-Scotton 1993), within Bhatt and Bolonyai’s (2011) OT framework, demonstrating that data previously analyzed using another model of CS receives a better account under Bhatt and Bolonyai’s OT approach.