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Showing papers in "Environment and Planning A in 2014"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The concept of territorial stigmatization weds with Bourdieu's theory of symbolic power and Goffman's model of the management of'spoiled identity' to capture how the blemish of place impacts the residents of disparaged districts, the surrounding denizens and commercial operators, street-level public bureaucracies, specialists in cultural production (such as journalists, scholars, and politicians), and state officials and policies as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: This theme issue of Environment and Planning A builds on the analytic framework elaborated by Wacquant in Urban Outcasts (Polity Press, 2008) and on the activities of the Leverhulme Network on Advanced Urban Marginality to synthesize and stimulate inquiries into the triadic nexus of symbolic space, social space, and physical space at the lower end of the urban spectrum. The concept of territorial stigmatization weds with Bourdieu's theory of 'symbolic power' Goffman's model of the management of 'spoiled identity' to capture how the blemish of place impacts the residents of disparaged districts, the surrounding denizens and commercial operators, street-level public bureaucracies, specialists in cultural production (such as journalists, scholars, and politicians), and state officials and policies. Spatial taint is a novel and distinctive phenomenon that crystallized at century's end along with the dissolution of the neighborhoods of relegation emblematic of the Fordist-Keynesian phase of industrial capitalism. It differs from the traditional topography of disrepute in the industrial city in that it has become autonomized, nationalized and democratized, equated with social disintegration, racialized through selective accentuation, and it elicits revulsion often leading to punitive corrective measures. The sociosymbolic strategies fashioned by the residents of defamed quarters to cope with spatial denigration span a panoply ranging from submission to defiance, and their adoption depends on position and trajectory in social and physical space. Territorial stigmatization is not a static condition or a neutral process, but a consequential and injurious form of action through collective representation fastened on place. By probing how it operates in different urban settings and political formations, the contributors to this issue advance our empirical understanding of the role of symbolic structures in the production of inequality and marginality in the city. They also suggest the need for public policies designed to reduce, not only the burden of material deprivation, but also the press of symbolic domination in the metropolis.

329 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors draw on interdisciplinary theory and insights from urban studies, infrastructure, informatics, and the sociology of the Internet to critique the way the smart city is taken forward.
Abstract: Climate change and advances in urban technology propel forward the ‘smart city’. As decision makers strive to find a technological fix, smart city strategies are often based on technological orthodoxies which are conceptually and empirically shallow. The motivation behind this paper is to address the conceptual adolescence which relates to the wholesale digitisation of the city by pursuing a twin argument about the democratic and environmental consequences. The authors draw on interdisciplinary theory and insights from urban studies, infrastructure, informatics, and the sociology of the Internet to critique the way the ‘smart city’ is taken forward. It is concluded that private firms market smart city services and solutions based on an ideological legacy of ‘ubiquitous computing’, ‘universal infrastructure’, and ‘green technology’. Based on evidence from three UK cities—Manchester, Birmingham, and Glasgow—it is argued that the underlying principle of future city strategies is to expand the market for new ...

309 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the second half of the 20th century, urban shrinkage has become a common pathway of transformation for many large cities across the globe as discussed by the authors, although the appearance of shrinkage is fairly unive.
Abstract: Since the second half of the 20th century, urban shrinkage has become a common pathway of transformation for many large cities across the globe. Although the appearance of shrinkage is fairly unive...

255 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigate the localism agenda using alternative interpretative grammars that are more open to the recognition of interstitial politics of resistance and experimentation that are springing up within, across, and beyond formations of the neoliberal.
Abstract: In the UK the current Coalition government has introduced an unprecedented set of reforms to welfare, public services, and local governance under the rubric of ‘localism’. Conventional analytics of neoliberalism have commonly portrayed the impacts of these changes in the architectures of governance in blanket terms: as an utterly regressive dilution of local democracy; as an extension of conservative political technology by which state welfare is denuded in favour of market-led individualism; and as a further politicised subjectification of the charitable self. Such seemingly hegemonic grammars of critique can ignore or underestimate the progressive possibilities for creating new ethical and political spaces in amongst the neoliberal canvas. In this paper we investigate the localism agenda using alternative interpretative grammars that are more open to the recognition of interstitial politics of resistance and experimentation that are springing up within, across, and beyond formations of the neoliberal. We analyse the broad framework of intentional localisms laid down by the Coalition government, and then point to four significant pathways by which more progressive articulations of localism have been emerging in amongst the neoliberal infrastructure. In so doing we seek to endorse and expand imaginations of political activism that accentuate an interstitial political sensibility that works strategically, and even subversively, with the tools at hand.

186 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the term "measurementality" to signify the governance logic that emerges when transparency comes to stand next to effectiveness and efficiency as neoliberal principles and highlight the connections that are forged between economic, managerial and technocratic discourses.
Abstract: Current policies and practices in biodiversity conservation have been increasingly influenced by neoliberal approaches since the 1990s. The authors focus on the principle of transparency as a self-proclaimed basis of neoliberal environmental governance, and on the role of standardized science-based measurements which it purportedly affords. The authors introduce the term ‘measurementality’ to signify the governance logic that emerges when transparency comes to stand next to effectiveness and efficiency as neoliberal principles and to highlight the connections that are forged between economic, managerial, and technocratic discourses. The example of the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is used to discuss the role of measurementality in global biodiversity governance. The analysis suggests that IPBES aims to coordinate the science–policy interface in order to optimize the generation of user-friendly knowledge of those elements of biodiversity that are c...

178 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the housing pathways of young people in the UK in the years 1999 to 2008, and consider the changing nature of these pathways in the run up to 2020.
Abstract: The authors examine the housing pathways of young people in the UK in the years 1999 to 2008, and consider the changing nature of these pathways in the run up to 2020. They employ a highly innovative methodology, which begins with the identification and description of key drivers likely to affect young people's housing circumstances in the future. The empirical identification and analysis of housing pathways is then achieved using multiple-sequence analysis and cluster analysis of the British Household Panel Survey, contextualised by qualitative interviews with a large sample of young people. The authors describe how the interactions between the meanings, perceptions, and aspirations of young people, and the opportunities and constraints imposed by the drivers, are having a major impact on young people's housing pathways, resulting in considerable housing policy challenges, particularly in relation to the private rented sector.

148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzes the impacts of territorial stigmatization on the experiences and life strategies of residents of Regent Park, Canada's first and largest public housing estate, and offers a counternarrative documenting the many benefits and advantages of living in an area of concentrated poverty.
Abstract: This paper analyzes the impacts of territorial stigmatization on the experiences and life strategies of residents of Regent Park, Canada's first and largest public housing estate. It centers on how discourses of isolation, disorganization, and danger (based on imported theories and depictions of life in social housing developed in a very different time and place than the Canadian inner city) have served to justify the state-driven gentrification of public housing via ‘socially mixed’ redevelopment. Drawing on semistructured, in-depth interviews with over thirty tenants, this paper offers a counternarrative documenting the many benefits and advantages of living in an area of ‘concentrated poverty’. It reveals that tenants have deep attachments to Regent Park despite its reputation, and enjoy a strong sense of community; they have access to dense networks of friendship and support, local amenities and convenience, and services and agencies that suit their needs. While these benefits are real, they are count...

145 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study of two leading Chinese metropolises, Beijing and Guangzhou, identifies a distinct strategy of urbanization financed by land commodification and actively pursued by Chinese municipal governments to contest with state power reshuffling in the era of neoliberalization.
Abstract: Prevailing theories of uneven development see the growth of cities and regions as the spatial outcome of either the functioning of intrinsic agglomeration economies or the intrusion of global neoliberal market forces. Emphasis is placed on human resources and technology with land and capital usually taken for granted. This study of the growth of two leading Chinese metropolises—Beijing and Guangzhou—identifies a distinct strategy of urbanization financed by land commodification and actively pursued by Chinese municipal governments to contest with state power reshuffling in the era of neoliberalization. Contrary to popular notions, land commodification, rather than human capital or advanced technology, has played a role instrumental to the growth and transformation of China's metropolises. The popular practice of landed urbanization owes its political origins more to domestic state power reshuffling than to the intrusion of the global neoliberal agenda. State and market do not function as two diametrically...

144 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the importance of politics in theories on gentrification through analysis of a recent "regeneration" project based in Craigmillar, a stigmatised district on the southeastern edge of Manhattan.
Abstract: This paper reaffirms the importance of politics in theories on gentrification through analysis of a recent ‘regeneration’ project based in Craigmillar, a stigmatised district on the southeastern ed...

137 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that the global search for gentrification risks following a diffusionist logic that either presumes a Euro-American template, or else so sheers gentrification of its analytical specificity that it loses both its explanatory power and its political potency.
Abstract: This paper uses an analysis of key dynamics of sociospatial change in Indian cities to offer a sympathetic critique of recent efforts to extend gentrification theory into the Global South. Despite the postcolonial overtures of this new, Southern gentrification literature, the paper argues that the global search for gentrification risks following a diffusionist logic that either presumes a Euro-American template, or else so sheers gentrification of its analytical specificity that it loses both its explanatory power and its political potency. The paper shows that gentrification theory operates on four implicit presumptions, which fail to characterize the primary dynamics of urban change in India. These include: (1) the presumption that lower-class displacement is driven by a reinvestment of capital into disinvested spaces; (2) a property centrism; (3) an agnosticism on the question of extraeconomic force; and (4) the presumption that land from which lower classes are displaced finds a ‘higher and better use...

117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effects of a change in the wage share on growth at global level in the G20 countries were investigated and the results indicated that the global decline in labour share has had significant negative effects on growth.
Abstract: This paper estimates the effects of a change in the wage share on growth at global level in the G20 countries. A decrease in the wage share in isolation leads to lower growth in the euro area, Germany, France, Italy, the UK, the US, Japan, Turkey, and South Korea, whereas it stimulates growth in Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, China, India, and South Africa. However, a simultaneous decline in the wage share in all these countries leads to a decline in global growth. Furthermore, Canada, Argentina, Mexico, and India also experience negative effects on growth when they decrease their wage share along with their trading partners. The results indicate that the global decline in labour share has had significant negative effects on growth.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article developed the concept of place name commodification, beyond the limited attention it has received within existing critical toponymy research, and examined the issues of endogenous and exogenous contestation that surround it, concluding by discussing how the commodifying effects of places as brand names, with their associated brand values and imagery, can potentially suppress the alternative place perceptions of users.
Abstract: If places are increasingly regarded as brands in both the practice of place marketing and its associated theory, then the study of place names (toponymy) arguably overlaps with theories and concepts involving brand naming within the marketing literature. This paper synthesises the diverse literature streams surrounding critical toponymy and brand naming through an exploration of place branding activities. The paper develops the concept of place name commodification, beyond the limited attention it has received within existing critical toponymy research, before examining the issues of endogenous and exogenous contestation that surround it. The paper concludes by discussing how the commodifying effects of places as brand names, with their associated brand values and imagery, can potentially suppress the alternative place perceptions of users, and in doing so stifle the natural potential for cocreation of the place ‘product’ and its related value.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied travel distances in daily trips based on random day trip diaries and long-distance trips for private and business purposes based on retrospective questions in the same questionnaire, asking about “longer journeys with overnight stay.
Abstract: There is a lot of research on spatial differences in travel behaviour, specifically on travel distances. This research suggests that the distances travelled by the inhabitants of municipalities with lower population and neighbourhoods with lower density and less mixed land use are longer than those travelled by the inhabitants of cities with higher population, high density, and greater mixed land use. However, related studies focus mainly on daily travel. In this paper we study travel distances in daily trips based on random day trip diaries and long-distance trips for private and business purposes based on retrospective questions in the same questionnaire, asking about “longer journeys with overnight stay” within three months of the survey. We use Heckman models and ordinary least squares regressions to study the effects of municipality size classes based on population, population density, and land-use mix, while controlling for sociodemographics. We find distances travelled on long-distance trips and da...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The green economy is a highly complex construct in terms of its attempts to integrate economic, environmental, and social concerns, the wide range of actors involved, its material outcomes, and the forms of governance needed to regulate processes of economic greening.
Abstract: The green economy is a highly complex construct in terms of its attempts to integrate economic, environmental, and social concerns, the wide range of actors involved, its material outcomes, and the forms of governance needed to regulate processes of economic greening. As such, it poses new empirical and theoretical challenges for social science research on socioenvironmental futures. This paper has two main aims. The first is to survey the emergent features and functional domains of the green economy. The second is to consider theoretical tools that might be used to analyse the drivers and processes shaping the green economy. Focusing on literature on sociotechnical transitions, ecological modernisation, the ‘green’ cultural economy, and postpolitical governance, we argue that understanding the functional and spatial heterogeneity of the green economy necessitates a multitheoretical approach. We then explore how combining branches of research on socioenvironmental governance can lead to theoretically and ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a typology of these geographies based on three dimensions that characterize the conditions for knowledge exchange is developed, namely framing, cognitive focus and goals, and trust and risks involved.
Abstract: In the globalizing knowledge economy firms have become less reliant on local production and market networks and increasingly expand their reach to an international or global scale. The argument of this paper suggests that this has given rise to distinct geographies of knowledge transfers over distance, which rely on periodic or regular temporary face-to-face contacts. While some of these settings of temporary knowledge transfers have existed for a long time, they are now being intensively applied throughout the economy. In this paper we develop a typology of these geographies based on three dimensions that characterize the conditions for knowledge exchange: (i) framing, (ii) cognitive focus and goals, and (iii) trust and risks involved. Based on these variables, we identify three configurations and eight subcategories of knowledge transfers that build upon temporary face-to-face interaction, classified as (1) international community gatherings, (2) international business travel, and (3) transnational netw...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the dynamics of symbolic power as affixed to stigmatized neighborhoods in two radically different contexts: Istanbul and Amsterdam, and find that the promoters of gentrification adopted a strategy of "divide and rule" as they differentiated the residents into various groups and fed into territorial, ethnic and class stigmatization.
Abstract: Since gentrification entails significant negative social consequences, one important question is why residents of neighborhoods on the verge of gentrification often do not effectively oppose the process. Why do residents not resist? And, if they resist, why are they not effective? To answer these questions, we attend to the symbolic politics of the gentrification: that is, the ways in which process is framed and experienced. We examine the dynamics of symbolic power as affixed to stigmatized neighborhoods in two radically different contexts: Istanbul and Amsterdam. In spite of stark differences between the cases (with gentrification in Istanbul being more ruthless and contentious), there are also striking similarities in how symbolic politics played out. In both cases the promoters of gentrification adopted a strategy of ‘divide and rule’ as they differentiated the residents into various groups and fed into territorial, ethnic and class stigmatization. The promoters of gentrification in both cases also st...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that many transgressions of the norms of dominant society are ways of deflecting and displacing the language of spatial stigma, and propose instead that their perceptions of stigma are deeply ambivalent, as evidenced by their abiding attachment to place.
Abstract: Territorial stigmatisation in France is produced and enacted through a wide range of agencies: the media, political and policy discourses, academic debates on the alleged ‘ghettoisation’ of French outer city, and the official ‘urban policy’ of the central government. This paper departs from research seeking to analyse the production and diffusion of these disparaging images by focusing on the perspective and reactions of the bearers of the stigma. Drawing on 18 months of field observation in two defamed housing estates in Nimes, in Southern France, I question the thesis of the wholesale internalisation of negative representations by residents of the banlieues. I propose instead that their perceptions of stigma are deeply ambivalent, as evidenced by their abiding attachment to place. Mindful of the danger of romanticising the subaltern, I argue that many transgressions of the norms of dominant society are ways of deflecting and displacing the language of spatial stigma.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored the development of green entrepreneurship and its potential role in transformative change towards a green economy through a study of the green building sector in England and Wales, based on qualitative empirical data from fifty-five semistructured interviews with businesses and with support organisations, including banks, financial sources and business advice and support.
Abstract: This paper explores the development of green entrepreneurship and its potential role in transformative change towards a green economy. It achieves this through a study of the green building sector in England and Wales, based on qualitative empirical data from fifty-five semistructured interviews with businesses in the green building sector and with support organisations, including banks, financial sources, and business advice and support. The paper both critiques and synthesises two bodies of literature— entrepreneurial research and sociotechnical transitions theories, specifically the multilevel perspective (MLP)—to better understand the role of green entrepreneurs in facilitating a shift towards a green economy. This analysis embeds green entrepreneurs in a wider system of actors, rather than reifying the lone entrepreneurial hero, in order to explore how green entrepreneurs facilitate sustainability transitions. The paper challenges the notion that green entrepreneurs are an unproblematic category. We discovered that individuals move between ‘green’ and ‘conventional’ business, evolving over time, such that this is a fluid and blurred, rather than static, state. Moreover, while the green economy and the green building sector are often referred to as coherent sectors, with agreed and consistent practices, our evidence suggests that they are far from agreed, that business models vary, and that there are significant contradictions within so-called green building practices. The paper contributes to the development of sociotechnical transitions theory and suggests that the MLP needs to incorporate complexity and multiplicity within niches, that niches may be inherently conflictual rather than consensual, and that the concept of ‘protection’ for niches is problematic.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The literature concerning local opposition to wind turbine developments has relatively few case studies exploring the felt impacts of people living with turbines in their daily lives as discussed by the authors, and Aitken even s...
Abstract: The literature concerning local opposition to wind turbine developments has relatively few case studies exploring the felt impacts of people living with turbines in their daily lives. Aitken even s...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored the issue of territorial stigmatisation through tenant-driven research chronicling the experiences of social housing tenants as they examined and reflected upon the Australian television series Housos, which depicts the lifestyles of fictional tenant characters on an imaginary social housing estate.
Abstract: This paper explores the issue of territorial stigmatisation through tenant-driven research chronicling the experiences of social housing tenants as they examined and reflected upon the Australian television series Housos. The television series aired on an independent, part publicly funded, television station in 2011 and depicts the lifestyles of fictional tenant characters on an imaginary social housing estate. The series presents satirical and exaggerated parodies about everyday life on the estate, drawing on a range of stereotypes of social housing tenants. Tenants are portrayed as feckless and antisocial individuals who engage in a range of irresponsible and sometimes criminal behaviour in order to avoid work and whose family and other relationships are dysfunctional. Public tenants are far from passive victims of stigmatisation and conducted the analysis presented in this study. They reveal a sophisticated understanding of how stigma operates through the media, various agencies, and the nonresident co...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used mobile phone usage data recorded in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as a proxy for urban activity to test whether the density in different forms of urban land use increases the level of activity in urban areas, and whether mixed land uses can prolong high levels of activity.
Abstract: Dense and mixed land-use configurations are assumed to encourage high and prolonged activity levels, which in turn are considered to be important for the condition of urban neighbourhoods. We used mobile phone usage data recorded in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, as a proxy for urban activity to test whether the density in different forms of urban land use increases the level of activity in urban areas, and whether mixed land uses can prolong high levels of activity in an area. Our results indicate that higher densities correspond with higher activity levels, mixed land uses do indeed diversify urban activity dynamics and colocating particular land uses prolongs high activity levels in the evening hours. We proceed to demonstrate that mixed activity provisions and high urban activity levels coincide with urban neighbourhoods that are considered attractive places in which to live and work, while lower activity levels and markedly low activity mixes coincide with neighbourhoods that are considered disadvantaged.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors evaluate the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption and demonstrate theoretically that they are a necessary informal infrastructure through which best practice circulates: in particular, as a method for developing and strengthening social bonds between delegates and with hosts.
Abstract: Study tours, a form of ‘policy tourism’ in which local actors travel elsewhere to see best practice and meet with those in the exporting locality who implemented it, have become a basic tenet for policy exchange. In the pursuit of these lessons, hundreds of South African public transport enthusiasts visited South America, particularly Bogota, to learn of its thriving bus rapid transit (BRT) network. This paper evaluates the influence of these exchanges on BRT circulation and adoption—what takes place while delegates are overseas and how do these learning experiences influence the adoption and implementation of circulated forms of best practice? This paper reconnoiters these ‘mobility events’ and their outcomes to demonstrate theoretically that they are a necessary informal infrastructure through which best practice circulates: in particular, as a method for developing and strengthening social bonds between delegates and with hosts—relationships integral to policy adoption.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate how the male and female partner's local ties in the migration of couples and families affect the decision-making process of a couple and their families.
Abstract: The migration of couples and families has thus far been approached mainly from human-capital and gender perspectives. In this article, we investigate how the male and female partner’s local ties in ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined a city-building nonprofit created by a public-private growth coalition to execute the redevelopment of urban space and, as an integral part, manage neighborhood resident participation in these efforts.
Abstract: Urban restructuring efforts aimed at redeveloping inner-city neighborhoods are common across the US. They typically involve coalitions of public and private actors that play complementary roles in promoting investments in locales that have been sites of disinvestment, rendering these geographies ripe for economic development and profitmaking (ie, gentrification). Nonprofits are not generally regarded as central players in these initiatives, although they often serve community-development functions for low- income populations living in impoverished city spaces. In this paper we draw on the concept of the shadow state and Foucault's theory of governmentality to examine a city-building nonprofit created by a public-private growth coalition to execute the redevelopment of urban space and, as an integral part, manage neighborhood resident participation in these efforts. As residents began to see themselves as agents of neighborhood change, they came into conflict with the revitalization objectives of the nonprofit's funders. And, while many residents actively challenged the direction that the neighborhood initiative took in focusing on housing redevelopment for more affluent populations, a core group maintained their commitment to a community building approach toward neighborhood redevelopment. Between 1998 and 2014, during CIC's initiative, over half of the original residents were displaced or left as neighborhood housing values dramatically increased, rendering the area inaccessible for low-income populations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an interdisciplinary model which outlines determinants and outcomes of identification and which integrates theories from geography, psychology, and organizational science to introduce a new theoretical perspective to the field of urban research.
Abstract: Research from social and environmental psychology has shown that identification by residents with a place leads to numerous desirable outcomes like increased commitment and residential satisfaction. Thus, in the competition for residents, cities focus on building a favorable identity of a place to increase identification with the place. However, little is known regarding the predictors of resident-city identification and their link to desirable outcomes. We thus present an interdisciplinary model which outlines determinants and outcomes of identification and which integrates theories from geography, psychology, and organizational science to introduce a new theoretical perspective to the field of urban research. We propose that a strong resident-city identification results from a fit between the city prototype and the resident's self-concept. In this relationship, perceived place complexity is a central variable. We develop research propositions and suggest an agenda for testing the model empirically. Fina...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, Park Chung Hee regime's participation in the Vietnam War, and the attendant development of Korean industrial chaebol such as Hyundai, were examined, in particular, the Korean developmental state and chaebols were enabled by their enrollment in the US military offshore procurement (OSP) via OSP.
Abstract: Among scholars of East Asia, the role of US military offshore procurement (OSP) and the military-industrial complex (MIC) has been underplayed in explanations of rapid industrial transformation. Yet the foundations of industrialization in places such as South Korea, when analyzed in strongly 'national-territorial' and state-centric terms of the predominant, so-called 'neo-Weberian' accounts, remain inadequately illuminated. We argue that a geopolitical economy approach focusing on the roles of OSP and relations within the US MIC brings to light crucial sociospatial dimensions of the Korean developmental state's industrial success during the Vietnam War era, dimensions that are largely absent from the neo-Weberian accounts. We examine, in particular, the Park Chung Hee regime's participation in the Vietnam War, and the attendant development of Korean industrial chaebol such as Hyundai, arguing that the successes of the south Korean developmental state and chaebol were enabled by their enrolment in the US MIC, via OSP.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored some of the contested meanings of home for those who are single; and examined how single people have created new forms of home and new spaces of at-homeness with those with whom they are not biologically (or romantically) related.
Abstract: What might it mean to think of ‘the single’ as a potentially queer subject and in what ways does singleness pose a challenge to heteronormative conceptualizations of the lifecourse and household formation? In this paper I explore some of the contested meanings of ‘home’ for those who are single; and examine how single people have created new forms of home and new spaces of at-homeness with those with whom they are not biologically (or romantically) related. I conclude by asking how we might help foster, build, and create new forms of dwelling that might better match single people's imaginings and desires for a home outside of heteronormative coupledom. Ultimately the paper argues that the exclusion of the figure of the single is one of the key omissions in the work of those interested in challenging the geographies of exclusion and inequality.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore the coexistence of relational and territorial spaces through the experiences of EU integration and territorialization and propose that EU integration is best understood as involving an interplay between territorial and relational understandings and approaches that vary through time.
Abstract: This paper explores the coexistence of relational and territorial spaces—soft spaces—through the experiences of EU integration and territorialization. First, we seek a better understanding of EU integration through an engagement with the literature and research on soft spaces. We propose that EU integration is best understood as involving an interplay between territorial and relational understandings and approaches that vary through time, a variation that can be categorized as involving pooled territoriality, supraterritoriality, and nonterritoriality. Second, we seek to add to the current research and literature on soft spaces by focusing upon the changing character of soft spaces and their temporalities. We approach these two dimensions through an exploration of two ex post case studies, the development of which typically shows different stages of softening, hardening, and of differing degrees of Europeanization. With the focus on Europeanization, the paper concludes with three findings: the new spaces ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a case study based on interviews with residents of Villa Lamadrid, a marginalized neighborhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which faces significant public health impacts from an inadequate sewage management system is presented.
Abstract: For many in the Global North, urban life means that your shit is not your problem. We postulate that a possible reason for the global sanitation failure in urban areas is a disconnect between sanitation expectations—what we term the urban sanitation imaginary—and the practices required by proposed sanitation solutions. The case study presented here is based on interviews with residents of Villa Lamadrid, a marginalized neighborhood in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which faces significant public health impacts from an inadequate sewage management system. We solicited feedback regarding specific sanitation technologies frequently prescribed for poor urban communities—among them a urine diversion dry toilet with dehydration vaults. Even as this system is posited as ‘sustainable’ for the context of Villa Lamadrid in terms of ecological and economic factors, conversations with residents revealed why this option might not be sustainable in terms of social expectations. On the basis of interviews with community membe...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass and distance effects, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time.
Abstract: Chinese scientific output has increased dramatically in recent years, but its internal spatial structure has received scant attention. Estimated gravity models of intercity scientific coauthorships show that there are two types of spatial political bias in China, apart from the expected mass and distance effects. Intercity coauthorships involving Beijing are more common than Beijing's output volume and location would imply, and this Beijing bias is increasing over time. The second type of spatial political bias is greater intraprovincial collaboration than is accounted for by size and distance. The geography of Chinese science is thus not only monocentric as regards overall scientific output, but also exhibits unusually hierarchical collaboration patterns. Unlike in Europe and North America, national and regional capitals are becoming ever more important as scientific coordination centers.