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JournalISSN: 0141-0229

Enzyme and Microbial Technology 

About: Enzyme and Microbial Technology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Immobilized enzyme & Fermentation. Over the lifetime, 7784 publication(s) have been published receiving 297024 citation(s).


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TL;DR: In all cases, enzyme engineering via immobilization techniques is perfectly compatible with other chemical or biological approaches to improve enzyme functions and the final success depend on the availability of a wide battery of immobilization protocols.
Abstract: In spite of their excellent catalytic properties, enzyme properties have to be usually improved before their implementation at industrial scale (where many cycles of high yield processes are desired). Generally, soluble enzymes have to be immobilized to be reused for long times in industrial reactors and, in addition to that, some other critical enzyme properties have to be improved like stability, activity, inhibition by reaction products, selectivity towards non-natural substrates. Some strategies to improve these enzyme properties during the performance of tailor-made enzyme immobilization protocols are here reviewed. In this way, immobilized enzymes may also exhibit much better functional properties than the corresponding soluble enzymes by very simple immobilization protocols. For example, multipoint and multisubunit covalent immobilization improve the stability of monomeric or multimeric enzymes. Moreover, enantioselectivity of different enzymes (e.g., lipases) may be also dramatically improved (from E = 1 to >100) by performing different immobilization protocols of the same enzyme. In all cases, enzyme engineering via immobilization techniques is perfectly compatible with other chemical or biological approaches to improve enzyme functions and the final success depend on the availability of a wide battery of immobilization protocols.

2,733 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: Various industrial applications of microbial lipases in the detergent, food, flavour industry, biocatalytic resolution of pharmaceuticals, esters and amino acid derivatives, making of fine chemicals, agrochemicals, use as biosensor, bioremediation and cosmetics and perfumery are described.
Abstract: Lipases are a class of enzymes which catalyse the hydrolysis of long chain triglycerides. Microbial lipases are currently receiving much attention with the rapid development of enzyme technology. Lipases constitute the most important group of biocatalysts for biotechnological applications. This review describes various industrial applications of microbial lipases in the detergent, food, flavour industry, biocatalytic resolution of pharmaceuticals, esters and amino acid derivatives, making of fine chemicals, agrochemicals, use as biosensor, bioremediation and cosmetics and perfumery.

1,630 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a review article summarizes bio-hydrogen production from some waste materials, including cellulose and starch containing agricultural and food industry wastes and some food industry wastewaters.
Abstract: Hydrogen is a valuable gas as a clean energy source and as feedstock for some industries. Therefore, demand on hydrogen production has increased considerably in recent years. Electrolysis of water, steam reforming of hydrocarbons and auto-thermal processes are well-known methods for hydrogen gas production, but not cost-effective due to high energy requirements. Biological production of hydrogen gas has significant advantages over chemical methods. The major biological processes utilized for hydrogen gas production are bio-photolysis of water by algae, dark and photo-fermentation of organic materials, usually carbohydrates by bacteria. Sequential dark and photo-fermentation process is a rather new approach for bio-hydrogen production. One of the major problems in dark and photo-fermentative hydrogen production is the raw material cost. Carbohydrate rich, nitrogen deficient solid wastes such as cellulose and starch containing agricultural and food industry wastes and some food industry wastewaters such as cheese whey, olive mill and bakers yeast industry wastewaters can be used for hydrogen production by using suitable bio-process technologies. Utilization of aforementioned wastes for hydrogen production provides inexpensive energy generation with simultaneous waste treatment. This review article summarizes bio-hydrogen production from some waste materials. Types of potential waste materials, bio-processing strategies, microbial cultures to be used, bio-processing conditions and the recent developments are discussed with their relative advantages.

1,426 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: A review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade, is presented in this paper, where one hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.
Abstract: As functional materials, chitin and chitosan offer a unique set of characteristics: biocompatibility, biodegradability to harmless products, nontoxicity, physiological inertness, antibacterial properties, heavy metal ions chelation, gel forming properties and hydrophilicity, and remarkable affinity to proteins. Owing to these characteristics, chitin- and chitosan-based materials, as yet underutilized, are predicted to be widely exploited in the near future especially in environmentally benign applications in systems working in biological environments, among others as enzyme immobilization supports. This paper is a review of the literature on enzymes immobilized on chitin- and chitosan-based materials, covering the last decade. One hundred fifty-eight papers on 63 immobilized enzymes for multiplicity of applications ranging from wine, sugar and fish industry, through organic compounds removal from wastewaters to sophisticated biosensors for both in situ measurements of environmental pollutants and metabolite control in artificial organs, are reviewed.

1,236 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

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TL;DR: In this article, different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeast, and recombinant were reviewed with emphasis on their performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors.
Abstract: Ethanol production from lignocellulosic hydrolysates in an economically feasible process requires microorganisms that produce ethanol with a high yield from all sugars present (hexoses as well as pentoses) and have a high ethanol productivity in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, i.e., can withstand potential inhibitors. Different fermentation organisms among bacteria, yeasts, and fungi (natural as well as recombinant) are reviewed with emphasis on their performance in lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Depending on the type of lignocellulosic hydrolysate, the composition of inhibitors will differ and their influence on the microorganisms and the fermentation performance will consequently vary. The inhibition may be partly overcome by the removal of inhibitors, i.e., detoxification. Microbial constraints on parameters such as pH, temperature, and nutrient supplementation are discussed in relation to their implication on the process economy. Not only are the properties of the microorganism of importance in the process, but also the choice of fermentation strategies such as batch culture, continuous culture with cell recycling and in situ ethanol removal. For the realization of the ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials, the fermentation step has to be integrated with the rest of the process. These aspects are also discussed.

1,033 citations

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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202215
2021206
2020242
2019186
2018178
2017206