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JournalISSN: 0014-0139

Ergonomics 

About: Ergonomics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Poison control & Task (project management). It has an ISSN identifier of 0014-0139. Over the lifetime, 6493 publication(s) have been published receiving 245764 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basis for selecting the three criteria (biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical) that were used to define the 1991 equation are provided, and the derivation of the individual components are described.
Abstract: In 1985, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) convened an ad hoc committee of experts who reviewed the current literature on lifting, recommend criteria for defining lifting capacity, and in 1991 developed a revised lifting equation. Subsequently, NIOSH developed the documentation for the equation and played a prominent role in recommending methods for interpreting the results of the equation. The 1991 equation reflects new findings and provides methods for evaluating asymmetrical lifting tasks, lifts of objects with less than optimal hand-container couplings, and also provides guidelines for a larger range of work durations and lifting frequencies than the 1981 equation. This paper provides the basis for selecting the three criteria (biomechanical, physiological, and psychophysical) that were used to define the 1991 equation, and describes the derivation of the individual components (Putz-Anderson and Waters 1991). The paper also describes the lifting index (LI), an index of relative physical stress, that can be used to identify hazardous lifting tasks. Although the 1991 equation has not been fully validated, the recommended weight limits derived from the revised equation are consistent with or lower than those generally reported in the literature. NIOSH believes that the revised 1991 lifting equation is more likely than the 1981 equation to protect most workers.

1,688 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Women were significantly more prone to harmless lapses than men, consistent with the view that errors and violations are indeed mediated by different psychological mechanisms.
Abstract: In considering the human contribution to accidents, it seems necessary to make a distinction between errors and violations; two forms of aberration which may have different psychological origins and demand different modes of remediation. The present study investigated whether this distinction was justified for self-reported driver behaviour. Five hundred and twenty drivers completed a driver behaviour questionnaire (DBQ) which asked them to judge the frequency with which they committed various types of errors and violations when driving. Three fairly robust factors were identified: violations, dangerous errors, and relatively harmless lapses, respectively. Violations declined with age, errors did not. Men of all ages reported more violations than women. Women, however, were significantly more prone to harmless lapses (or more honest) than men. These findings were consistent with the view that errors and violations are indeed mediated by different psychological mechanisms. Violations require explanation in terms of social and motivational factors, whereas errors (slips, lapses, and mistakes) may be accounted for by reference to the information-processing characteristics of the individual.

1,422 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
John D. Lee1, Neville Moray1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: An experiment is reported to characterize the changes in operators' trust during an interaction with a semi-automatic pasteurization plant, and a regression model identifies the causes of changes in trust and a 'trust transfer function' is developed using time series analysis to describe the dynamics of trust.
Abstract: As automated controllers supplant human intervention in controlling complex systems, the operators' role often changes from that of an active controller to that of a supervisory controller. Acting as supervisors, operators can choose between automatic and manual control. Improperly allocating function between automatic and manual control can have negative consequences for the performance of a system. Previous research suggests that the decision to perform the job manually or automatically depends, in part, upon the trust the operators invest in the automatic controllers. This paper reports an experiment to characterize the changes in operators' trust during an interaction with a semi-automatic pasteurization plant, and investigates the relationship between changes in operators' control strategies and trust. A regression model identifies the causes of changes in trust, and a ‘trust transfer function’ is developed using lime series analysis to describe the dynamics of trust. Based on a detailed analysis of ...

1,100 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yrjö Engeström1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Cultural-historical activity theory is a new framework aimed at transcending the dichotomies of micro- and macro-, mental and material, observation and intervention in analysis and redesign of work, and finds from a longitudinal intervention study of children's medical care illuminate the theoretical arguments.
Abstract: Cultural-historical activity theory is a new framework aimed at transcending the dichotomies of micro- and macro-, mental and material, observation and intervention in analysis and redesign of work. The approach distinguishes between short-lived goal-directed actions and durable, object-oriented activity systems. A historically evolving collective activity system, seen in its network relations to other activity systems, is taken as the prime unit of analysis against which scripted strings of goal-directed actions and automatic operations are interpreted. Activity systems are driven by communal motives that are often difficult to articulate for individual participants. Activity systems are in constant movement and internally contradictory. Their systemic contradictions, manifested in disturbances and mundane innovations, offer possibilities for expansive developmental transformations. Such transformations proceed through stepwise cycles of expansive learning which begin with actions of questioning the existing standard practice, then proceed to actions of analyzing its contradictions and modelling a vision for its zone of proximal development, then to actions of examining and implementing the new model in practice. New forms of work organization increasingly require negotiated 'knotworking' across boundaries. Correspondingly, expansive learning increasingly involves horizontal widening of collective expertise by means of debating, negotiating and hybridizing different perspectives and conceptualizations. Findings from a longitudinal intervention study of children's medical care illuminate the theoretical arguments.

988 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Bmca. Sayers1Institutions (1)
TL;DR: Results suggest that mean heart rate and variance are unreliable measures, but that consistent changes in interval spectrum occur; these have been traced to alterations mainly in the 0·1 Hz region, perhaps originating with changes in the patterns of respiration which interact with the 0 1 Hz vasomotor activity.
Abstract: Spontaneous variability of heart-rate has been related to three major physiological originating factors: quasi-oscillatory fluctuations thought to arise in blood-pressure control, variable frequency oscillations due to thermal regulation, and respiration; frequency selective analysis of cardiac interbeat interval sequences allows the separate contributions to be isolated. Using this method, a laboratory and field study of the effects of mental work load on the cardiac interval sequence has been carried Out. Results suggest that mean heart rate and variance are unreliable measures, but that consistent changes in interval spectrum occur; these have been traced to alterations mainly in the 0·1 Hz region, perhaps originating with changes in the patterns of respiration which interact with the 0·1 Hz vasomotor activity,

898 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2021188
2020124
2019135
2018142
2017159
2016145