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JournalISSN: 0997-7538

European Journal of Mechanics A-solids 

Elsevier BV
About: European Journal of Mechanics A-solids is an academic journal published by Elsevier BV. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Finite element method & Boundary value problem. It has an ISSN identifier of 0997-7538. Over the lifetime, 3260 publications have been published receiving 82785 citations. The journal is also known as: EJM & Eur. J. mech..


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TL;DR: In this paper, an extension of the Gurson model is proposed that incorporates damage growth under low triaxiality straining for shear-dominated states, which can be used to characterize important growth and coalescence features.
Abstract: Recent experimental evidence points to limitations in characterizing the critical strain in ductile fracture solely on the basis of stress triaxiality A second measure of stress state, such as the Lode parameter, is required to discriminate between axisymmetric and shear-dominated stress states This is brought into the sharpest relief by the fact that many structural metals have a fracture strain in shear, at zero stress triaxiality, that can be well below fracture strains under axisymmetric stressing at significantly higher triaxiality Moreover, recent theoretical studies of void growth reveal that triaxiality alone is insufficient to characterize important growth and coalescence features As currently formulated, the Gurson Model of metal plasticity predicts no damage change with strain under zero mean stress, except when voids are nucleated Consequently, the model excludes shear softening due to void distortion and inter-void linking As it stands, the model effectively excludes the possibility of shear localization and fracture under conditions of low triaxiality if void nucleation is not invoked In this paper, an extension of the Gurson model is proposed that incorporates damage growth under low triaxiality straining for shear-dominated states The extension retains the isotropy of the original Gurson Model by making use of the third invariant of stress to distinguish shear dominated states The importance of the extension is illustrated by a study of shear localization over the complete range of applied stress states, clarifying recently reported experimental trends The extension opens the possibility for computational fracture approaches based on the Gurson Model to be extended to shear-dominated failures such as projectile penetration and shear-off phenomena under impulsive loadings

921 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the incremental form of the energy criterion gives a lower bound of admissible crack lengths, while the stress criterion leads to an upper bound, and the consistency between these two conditions provides a general form of a criterion for crack nucleation.
Abstract: Both energy and stress criteria are necessary conditions for fracture but neither one nor the other are sufficient. Experiments by Parvizi et al. on transverse cracking in cross-ply laminates corroborate this assumption. Thanks to the singularity at the tip of the notch, the incremental form of the energy criterion gives a lower bound of admissible crack lengths. On the contrary, the stress criterion leads to an upper bound. The consistency between these two conditions provides a general form of a criterion for crack nucleation. It enjoys the desirable property of coinciding with the usual Griffith criterion to study the crack growth and with the stress criterion for the uniform traction along a straight edge. Comparisons with experiments carried out on homogeneous notched materials and on bimaterial structures show a good agreement.

768 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-layer structural model is proposed for predicting reliably the passive (unstimulated) time-dependent three-dimensional stress and deformation states of healthy young arterial walls under various loading conditions.
Abstract: In this paper we present a two-layer structural model suitable for predicting reliably the passive (unstimulated) time-dependent three-dimensional stress and deformation states of healthy young arterial walls under various loading conditions. It extends to the viscoelastic regime a recently developed constitutive framework for the elastic strain response of arterial walls (see Holzapfel et al. (2001)). The structural model is formulated within the framework of nonlinear continuum mechanics and is well-suited for a finite element implementation. It has the special merit that it is based partly on histological information, thus allowing the material parameters to be associated with the constituents of each mechanically-relevant arterial layer. As one essential ingredient from the histological information the constitutive model requires details of the directional organization of collagen fibers as commonly observed under a microscope. We postulate a fully automatic technique for identifying the orientations of cellular nuclei, these coinciding with the preferred orientations in the tissue. The biological material is assumed to behave incompressibly so that the constitutive function is decomposed locally into volumetric and isochoric parts. This separation turns out to be advantageous in avoiding numerical complications within the finite element analysis of incompressible materials. For the description of the viscoelastic behavior of arterial walls we employ the concept of internal variables. The proposed viscoelastic model admits hysteresis loops that are known to be relatively insensitive to strain rate, an essential mechanical feature of arteries of the muscular type. To enforce incompressibility without numerical difficulties, the finite element treatment adopted is based on a three-field Hu-Washizu variational approach in conjunction with an augmented Lagrangian optimization technique. Two numerical examples are used to demonstrate the reliability and efficiency of the proposed structural model for arterial wall mechanics as a basis for large scale numerical simulations.

456 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A coupled constitutive model of viscoplasticity and ductile damage for penetration and impact related problems has been formulated and implemented in the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA.
Abstract: A coupled constitutive model of viscoplasticity and ductile damage for penetration and impact related problems has been formulated and implemented in the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA. The model, which is based on the constitutive model and fracture strain model of Johnson and Cook, and on continuum damage mechanics as proposed by Lemaitre, includes linear thermoelasticity, the von Mises yield criterion, the associated flow rule, non-linear isotropic strain hardening, strain-rate hardening, temperature softening due to adiabatic heating, isotropic ductile damage and failure. For each of the physical phenomena included in the model, one or several material constants are required. However, all material constants can be identified from relatively simple uniaxial tensile tests without the use of numerical simulations. In this paper the constitutive model is described in detail. Then material tests for Weldox 460 E steel and the calibration procedure are presented and discussed. The calibrated model is finally verified and validated through numerical simulations of material and plate perforation tests investigated experimentally.

383 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a micro scale Timoshenko beam model based on strain gradient elasticity theory was developed and the governing equations, initial conditions and boundary conditions were derived simultaneously by using Hamilton's principle.
Abstract: A micro scale Timoshenko beam model is developed based on strain gradient elasticity theory. Governing equations, initial conditions and boundary conditions are derived simultaneously by using Hamilton's principle. The new model incorporated with Poisson effect contains three material length scale parameters and can consequently capture the size effect. This model can degenerate into the modified couple stress Timoshenko beam model or even the classical Timoshenko beam model if two or all material length scale parameters are taken to be zero respectively. In addition, the newly developed model recovers the micro scale Bernoulli–Euler beam model when shear deformation is ignored. To illustrate the new model, the static bending and free vibration problems of a simply supported micro scale Timoshenko beam are solved respectively. Numerical results reveal that the differences in the deflection, rotation and natural frequency predicted by the present model and the other two reduced Timoshenko models are large as the beam thickness is comparable to the material length scale parameter. These differences, however, are decreasing or even diminishing with the increase of the beam thickness. In addition, Poisson effect on the beam deflection, rotation and natural frequency possesses an interesting “extreme point” phenomenon, which is quite different from that predicted by the classical Timoshenko beam model.

377 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2023135
2022330
2021217
2020160
2019217
2018150