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Showing papers in "European Journal of Special Needs Education in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that supports teachers to respond to individual differences between learners but avoids the marginalisation that can occur when some students are treated differently as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: This study reports on the development and use of an analytical framework for interrogating the practice of newly qualified mainstream teachers recently graduated from a one-year Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) that was informed by a concept of inclusive pedagogy. Inclusive pedagogy is an approach to teaching and learning that supports teachers to respond to individual differences between learners but avoids the marginalisation that can occur when some students are treated differently. The analytical framework was based on the principles of inclusive pedagogy, which were linked to the core themes of Aberdeen University’s PGDE course. Its purpose was to provide a robust and coherent framework for documenting inclusive pedagogy in action. This study describes how the framework was developed and used with new teachers in order to further understanding of how reforms of initial teacher education can impact inclusive teaching and learning. The framework was initially designed in the context of...

238 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article found that day-to-day support for pupils with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream UK schools is often provided by teaching assistants (TAs), instead of teachers.
Abstract: Findings from the Deployment and Impact of Support Staff project showed that day-to-day support for pupils with special education needs (SEN) in mainstream UK schools is often provided by teaching assistants (TAs), instead of teachers. This arrangement is the main explanation for other results from the project, which found TA support had a more profound, negative impact on the academic progress of pupils with SEN than pupils without SEN. There is, however, surprisingly little systematic information on the overall support and interactions experienced by pupils with the highest levels of SEN attending mainstream schools (e.g. those with Statements). The Making a Statement project was designed to provide such a picture in state-funded primary schools in England (e.g. schools attended by children aged between five and 11). Extensive systematic observations were conducted of 48 pupils with Statements and 151 average-attaining ‘control’ pupils. Data collected over 2011/12 involved researchers shadowing pupils i...

62 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It will be demonstrated how RTI can be used to address at least four barriers to inclusion by providing a clear implementation strategy for inclusion practices and enabling the allocation of resources for instruction and intervention.
Abstract: Many students with learning and behaviour problems are routinely excluded from regular education. Although calls have been made to educate students with these problems in the same settings as their typically developing peers, it remains unclear how best to support their needs for academic and behavioural support. We address this question first by describing response-to-intervention (RTI), a specific model of prevention and early intervention for learning and behaviour problems. A comprehensive summary of the RTI literature is provided. Second, we will discuss the feasibility and applicability of RTI as one approach to facilitate inclusion of students with learning and behaviour problems. Specifically, we will demonstrate how RTI can be used to address at least four barriers to inclusion by (1) providing a clear implementation strategy for inclusion practices; (2) clearly defining the roles, responsibilities and collaboration of general and special education teachers; (3) enabling the allocation of resourc...

59 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors created a descriptive map of international research which explores the notion of the continuum of educational provision for children with special educational needs and identified implications for the development of provision within the Irish context.
Abstract: This project aimed to create a descriptive map of international research which explores the notion of the continuum of educational provision for children with special educational needs. It also aimed to determine and examine the nature of how the continuum of provision is conceptualised, operationalised and enacted in a sample of selected countries. Commissioned by the National Council for Special Education, it also identified implications for the development of provision within the Irish context. The research involved a systematic identification and thematic review of theory, identifying and examining literature associated with the conceptualisation of the continuum; it examined the policy and provision across 55 administrations as publically reported, primarily to international agencies; it carried out more detailed examination of policy and practice in 10 countries using a survey and vignette study; and it involved a series of interviews with a range of individuals in a range of settings in four countr...

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Inclusion in education represents a fundamental challenge to existing theories and practices in education, moving from the historical legacy of special needs education in segregated schools to the current challenge of inclusion in education.
Abstract: Inclusion in education represents a fundamental challenge to existing theories and practices in education, moving from the historical legacy of special needs education in segregated schools to the ...

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyse teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education by examining the ways in which cultural-historical factors in South Africa and Finland may impact on teachers’ attitudes.
Abstract: Complex cultural and historical forces are often neglected when the development of inclusive education in international comparative research projects are discussed. The purpose of this study was to analyse teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education by examining the ways in which cultural-historical factors in South Africa and Finland may impact on teachers’ attitudes. Data collection methods included the analysis of education policy documents and other relevant documents in countries, an open-ended question on teachers’ own definition of inclusive education and the results of the initial study on teachers’ attitudes to and concerns about inclusive education. A sample of 310 South African and 833 Finnish primary and secondary education teachers in mainstream and special education settings took part. An analysis of the data within a cultural-historical framework indicated that each country’s historical commitment to inclusive education and its attendant legacies about diversity in education have clearl...

46 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore some of the challenges in enhancing pre-service teacher education programs (PSTEPs) to take on more inclusive perspectives and content and highlight some key facilitators for enhancing PSTEPs.
Abstract: Positive changes to pre-service teacher education programmes (PSTEPs), driven in part by changing worldwide policy frameworks around inclusion, are occurring, albeit slowly After briefly reviewing international trends and key policy and legislation platforms in New Zealand and Australia, this paper explores some of the challenges in enhancing PSTEPs to take on more inclusive perspectives and content Examples of innovative changes in one programme in New Zealand and one in Australia are then described and discussed, particularly around how these changes seek to address these challenges Some key facilitators for enhancing PSTEPs are put forward, namely positioning and embedding policy and practice in national and international contexts; embracing practices; working with the broader education faculty around the integration of course structures and content; listening to the views of practicing teachers; exploring pre-service teachers’ values, beliefs, attitudes, knowledge and concerns about engaging with a

44 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a cohort of second-level pre-service teachers completed the attitudes toward inclusive education, the concerns about inclusive education scale, the teacher efficacy scale and a school climate survey.
Abstract: Attitudes in relation to inclusive education have a direct impact on teaching behaviours, and are a significant factor in the success of inclusion policies. However, little is known about Irish pre-service teachers’ attitudes and concerns in relation to inclusive education, nor about the factors that may influence these variables. In the current study, a cohort of second-level pre-service teachers completed the attitudes toward inclusive education scale, the concerns about inclusive education scale, the teacher efficacy scale and a school climate (SC) survey. Results showed that the student–teachers were generally positive about inclusion, and were only a little concerned about the implementation of inclusive practices in their classrooms. The participants were least positive about including students with behavioural difficulties. A more positive SC was associated with higher levels of personal efficacy, and lower levels of concern. Results are discussed in terms of the construal of behavioural difficulti...

42 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Sweden, since 1995 all Swedish compulsory schools have had a legal obligation to establish Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs as mentioned in this paper, but this obligation has not yet been satisfied.
Abstract: Since 1995 all Swedish compulsory schools have had a legal obligation to establish Individual Educational Plans (IEPs) for pupils with special educational needs. However, previous research shows th ...

41 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the quality of IEP goals for 135 Portuguese students with additional support needs and their fit to the students' level of severity and educational level was evaluated using the Revised IFSP/IEP Goals and Objectives Rating Instrument and the content was categorised in reference to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, version for Children and Youth.
Abstract: The Individualised Education Programme (IEP) is a fundamental document that describes all educational responses to the additional support needs of students, setting up the guideline for their learning and developmental experiences. Specifically, the IEP goals represent the personal destination translated into desirable behaviours and skills that will enable students with additional support needs to meet their educational and functional needs. This paper analysis the quality of the 2497 IEP goals established for 135 Portuguese students with additional support needs and their fit to the students’ level of severity and educational level. The quality of IEP goals was measured using the Revised IFSP/IEP Goals and Objectives Rating Instrument and the content was categorised in reference to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, version for Children and Youth. Findings showed that goals are generally poorly written, particularly in terms of their measurability and that their qual...

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the social position and inherent sense of belonging of 418 primary school pupils with special educational needs (SEN) was analyzed using The social inclusion survey and The belonging scale.
Abstract: Almost uniquely, a full inclusion model spanning all educational levels has been present in the Italian school for more than 30 years. However, the availability of empirical data is still very limited, meaning that we know little about the social and academic outcomes of students with special educational needs (SEN). This study attempts to bridge the gap. The social position and inherent sense of belonging of 418 (122 SEN) primary school pupils, aged 8–11, was analysed using The social inclusion survey and The belonging scale. Within the group of typically developing students, the findings demonstrate that it pays to be proficient. Indeed, the higher the proficiency, the higher the peer acceptance and the sense of belonging to their own school. Within the group of SEN students, the results support the idea that they struggle to gain a good social position, are less accepted and more peripheral within the class and feel quite distant from their school. These findings are strongly consistent with data from ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Increasing the level of independence for people with DS within adolescence within adolescence may have beneficial effects for PA participation in later life.
Abstract: Primary objective: The aim of this study was to explore physical activity (PA) amongst children and young people with Down syndrome (DS). Method and procedures: The youth physical activity promotion model (YPAP) was used to inform semi-structured interviews to explore PA of children and young people with DS. Participants were three males and five females, aged between 6 and 21 years (16.38 + 5.04 years (mean + SD)) who had been diagnosed with the condition DS. Dyadic interviews were conducted with the participant and their parent(s). The interviews were recorded and transcribed, and inductive and deductive analyses of the data were completed. Main outcomes and results: The results were structured around the YPAP Model’s key themes included: enabling factors (seasonal variation, transport, type of activity and independence); predisposing factors (enjoyment, social interaction, dislikes of PA, following instructions, and understanding of PA); reinforcing factors (support and opportunities, parents, and care...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored how the qualitative lived experience of dyslexia was implicated in degree choice and found that the influence of school and family, influence of education, and having a passion for art were three superordinate themes.
Abstract: Increasing numbers of students in Higher Education (HE) have dyslexia and are particularly over represented in the visual and creative arts. While dyslexia has been associated with artistic talent, some applicants may perceive their academic opportunities as limited because of negative learning experiences associated with their dyslexia. This study explored how the qualitative lived experience of dyslexia was implicated in degree choice. Transcripts of semi-structured interviews with 13 arts students provided data for an interpretative phenomenological analysis. Three superordinate themes emerged which can be described under the broad headings: (1) Influence of school and family, (2) Dyslexia as a strength, (3) Having a passion for art. The data from eight students clearly suggested that they had actively chosen to study art because of a long standing interest and acknowledged talent. The others had perceived their academic options as otherwise limited. However, for all participants, studying and practisi...

Journal ArticleDOI
Uzi Levi, Michal Einav, Ilana G Raskind1, Orit Ziv1, Malka Margalit1 
TL;DR: The authors identified profiles of teachers, based on their personal resources of sense of coherence (SOC) and hopeful thinking, and examined their self-efficacy in helping students with learning disabilities acquire learning skills.
Abstract: Teachers play a critical role in facilitating the academic achievements of students with learning disabilities (LD). The personal resources of teachers, such as sense of coherence (SOC) and hopeful thinking, may predict self-perception of the competency and efficacy they possess to help students with LD acquire needed learning skills. Several studies have shown the importance of SOC and hope to the success of students with LD, but research has not focused on how the hope of their teachers may help these students succeed in inclusive classrooms. The goal of the current study was to identify profiles of teachers, based on their personal resources of SOC and hope, and to examine their self-efficacy (SE) in helping students with LD acquire learning skills. The sample consisted of 624 teachers (567 females and 57 males) from inclusive classes; 143 teachers in this sample had special education training. Using cluster analysis four distinct clusters were identified suggesting that both SOC, as a global personali...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors point out problems for students with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosis who have a propensity to drop out of mainstream schools and have a tendency to be disruptive.
Abstract: While progress has been made for including students with disability into mainstream schools, trends point to problems for students with Asperger syndrome (AS) diagnosis who have a propensity to dro ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used the findings from a research study focused on the educational experiences of two groups of Myanmar (Burmese) refugee children in the Czech Republic to explore the generic and specific teacher development requirements in a country where pro-inclusive education development still faces a range of barriers.
Abstract: The article supports the view that teachers are key to quality inclusive education and that continuing professional development (CPD) plays an essential role in promoting pro-inclusion changes in education systems. It reports and uses the findings from a research study focused on the educational experiences of two groups of Myanmar (Burmese) refugee children in the Czech Republic to explore the generic and specific teacher development requirements in a country where pro-inclusive education development still faces a range of barriers. The authors describe a specifically designed refugee-relevant CPD seminar participated in by teachers and other professionals involved with the second group of refugee children. The outcomes from the seminar, including improved support for children’s learning, teacher’s grasp of relevant information, inter-teacher and inter-agency collaboration, and school staff’s willingness to undertake further relevant CPD, are discussed. Alongside such positive developments, some exclusiv...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a range of methodological strategies for consulting children with special educational needs about their experiences of and accessibility to physical education (PE) were explored, and guidelines for including and empowering children with SEN to participate in PE research, have their voices heard and ensure teachers and schools respond effectively to their views.
Abstract: Children have the right to be consulted regarding their life choices and experiences. This has been examined in a plethora of research specific to the education of children. However, methods for engaging children with special educational needs (SEN) in research have met with mixed results. This paper explores a range of methodological strategies for consulting children with SEN about their experiences of and accessibility to physical education (PE). Based on a review of the methodological strategies, the paper concludes with proposed guidelines for including and empowering children with SEN to participate in PE research, have their voices heard and ensure teachers and schools respond effectively to their views.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the role of special education teachers in Cyprus in the light of policy concerns about providing the "least restrictive" learning environment for this group of students and enabling them to reach their full potential.
Abstract: Notwithstanding the recent signing and ratification by Cyprus of another International Convention on the rights of students designated as having special educational needs and/or disabilities to attend mainstream schools on an equal basis with their peers, local policy and practice promote an ‘exclusionary inclusion’ that draws a discernible line between general and special education. This paper concentrates on exploring the role of special education teachers in Cyprus in the light of policy concerns about providing the ‘least restrictive’ learning environment for this group of students and enabling them ‘to reach their full potential’. It is suggested that the role of special education teachers embodies and reflects reductionist forms of inclusion informed by deficit-oriented and assimilationist special education perspectives, while there is also evidence of a lack of professionalism and accountability. The paper draws on head teachers’ and special education teachers’ interviews in order to portray the wa...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined and compared the school-based learning and outcomes of postgraduate teacher trainees in primary and secondary programs that used different approaches to preparing teachers for the special educational needs aspects of their future teaching.
Abstract: The project reported in this paper addresses the issue of trainee teacher learning with regard to special educational needs and disabilities (SEND) during the school placement element of one-year postgraduate teacher training programmes in England. Through a focus on the university/school partnership, school organisational and classroom pedagogic processes, the project aimed to improve knowledge and understanding about teacher education relevant to the special educational needs and inclusive education fields. Specifically, the project examined and compared the school-based learning and outcomes of postgraduate teacher trainees in primary and secondary programmes that used different approaches to preparing teachers for the special needs aspects of their future teaching. Three kinds of school-based approaches are examined: one that involved a practical teaching task; a second which involved a pupil-focused task (but not practical teaching); and a third where there was no specific pupil-focused SEND task oth...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a framework for the classification of local school ideologies in relation to inclusion that provides a tool for classifying the general educational directio... and used it to classify the teachers' attitudes towards inclusion.
Abstract: This paper reports on the development of a framework for the classification of local school ideologies in relation to inclusion that provides a tool for classifying the general educational directio ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assessed parent-child and family-related stress at two points of time and analyzed relationships between stress, child and family characteristics and parent satisfaction with early intervention services.
Abstract: This study assessed parent–child and family-related stress at two points of time and analysed relationships between stress, child and family characteristics and parent satisfaction with early intervention services. In Germany, 125 parents of young children with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment or visual impairment responded to a questionnaire. Eighty-seven parents agreed to participate in the second survey. Results indicated that (a) perceived parenting competence is associated with general self-efficacy and satisfaction with professional support, (b) parent–child interactional stress increased with time, specifically in families with children with intellectual disability or visual impairment, (c) the level of satisfaction with amount and quality of family support was low in a considerable subgroup of parents, (d) regression analyses support predictive relationships among parent–child stress, family-related stress, perceived parenting competence and satisfaction with early intervention services.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus, based on a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools, concluding that despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cyprus educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully support the active inclusion and participation of all children in the school life.
Abstract: This paper provides a framework for understanding inclusion in Cyprus. The evidence base is the result of a six-month qualitative research study in five Cypriot mainstream primary schools. Despite the rhetoric in favour of inclusion, it seems that the Cypriot educational system is still highly segregating in its philosophy and does not fully support the active inclusion and participation of all children in the school life. Overall, the framework is grounded on three key themes emerging from the research: inclusion is concerned only with the education of specific groups of children; the medical model is still prevalent within inclusion discourse; and inclusion is understood as consisting of different levels. As a result, a restructuring and transformation of inclusive education are necessary so as to reduce marginalisation and exclusion of many children and in particular those who have been identified as having special educational needs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored parent perceptions of teacher empathy and identified how empathy and understanding were developed in pre-service teachers, where most parents identified that teachers could not empathise with them unless they had children with SEN themselves.
Abstract: Teacher education for inclusive education is a key priority in the UK and internationally, with much research exploring how pre-service teachers can be prepared to educate pupils with Special Educational Needs (SEN). However, this has resulted in less consideration of how pre-service teachers can be prepared to work with the parents of these pupils. One specific aspect of the home–school relationship that has elicited little attention is empathy. This article details a study that explored parental perceptions of teacher empathy and consequently identifies how empathy and understanding were developed in pre-service teachers. Parental perceptions of teacher empathy were elicited, where most parents identified that teachers could not empathies with them unless they had children with SEN themselves. As it is clearly impossible for all teachers to have children with SEN, the second part of the study explored how empathy could be developed during pre-service teacher education. This involved a mother of two chil...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), with/without metacognitive guidance, on the emergent literacy (rhyming) and emergent math (essence of addition, ordinal numbers) of kindergartners at risk for learning disability (LD) was examined.
Abstract: The purpose of the study reported here was to examine the effect of activity with an educational electronic book (e-book), with/without metacognitive guidance, on the emergent literacy (rhyming) and emergent math (essence of addition, ordinal numbers) of kindergartners at risk for learning disability (LD). Seventy-seven children (M = 5.88, SD = .67) participated in the study. The children’s cognitive level (verbal and non-verbal), emergent literacy (rhyming) and emergent math (essence of addition and ordinal numbers) were examined pre- and post-intervention. The findings indicate a significant improvement in these variables among the two groups of subjects who worked with the e-book when compared to the control group. The experimental group that received metacognitive guidance as part of their e-book experience exhibited the greatest improvement in rhyming. The findings are discussed in light of the still meager research on the effectiveness of e-books for promoting learning of children at risk for LD.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors report findings from an 18-month qualitative study that followed the experiences of nine teacher residents, their site professors, site coordinators, clinical teachers and principals in three professional learning schools.
Abstract: This paper reports findings from an 18-month qualitative study that followed the experiences of nine teacher residents, their site professors, site coordinators, clinical teachers and principals in three professional learning schools. The study examined the tensions that emerged as teacher preparation theory intersected with the context-bound realities of daily life in schools and the political constraints that diminish possibilities for inclusive education. The paper addresses implications for teacher preparation programmes by reporting how teacher residents negotiated their understanding of and commitment for inclusive education through three themes: (a) critical reflection as an emergent practice, (b) whose learning, and (c) the trouble with behaviour. Interpreting these themes has implications for programmatic designs in teacher preparation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the barriers to and opportunities for supporting the development of inclusive teachers, based on a case study describing two schools in Bangkok, Thailand using an ethnographic approach whereby the author positioned as a consultant-researcher visited and worked alongside teachers in the schools several times a year during this period.
Abstract: This article explores the barriers to and opportunities for supporting the development of inclusive teachers, based on a case study describing two schools in Bangkok, Thailand. Data were collected between 2003 and 2009 using an ethnographic approach whereby the author positioned as a consultant–researcher visited and worked alongside teachers in the schools several times a year during this period. The case study indicates that there are significant challenges to a view of teacher development for inclusion, which suggests that teacher training is a core component, such as the model presented recently by the World Report on Disability. The cultural world of school leaders and teachers needs to be taken into consideration when trying to understand the ways in which inclusive teacher development can be effectively supported. In the case study, the cultural world of the school principal gives her resources that she then used, as an agent, to directly promote teacher development. She also recognises that teache...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that the strongest underlying teaching strategy that predicted the academic growth of the children on the autism spectrum in the short and long term was the provision of structure in place, time and activities.
Abstract: The cognitive growth of children with developmental disorders, like autism, can be seriously impaired due to the disorder. If so, in the Netherlands, these children can attend special schools where they are treated to ameliorate disorder symptoms and to stimulate cognitive growth. The aim of this paper was to identify teaching strategies that stimulate the growth of academic skills in children diagnosed with autism, attending a special needs education school in the Netherlands. Findings showed that the strongest underlying teaching strategy that predicted the academic growth of the children on the autism spectrum in the short and long term was the provision of structure in place, time and activities. It was further found that long-term academic gains were partly predicted by the emotional support from their teachers. The implications of the findings are discussed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present data drawn from a national questionnaire designed for schools to use to identify their disabled pupils and examine, in detail, parental responses to a question on the kinds of support their child finds helpful in offsetting any difficulties they experience.
Abstract: Schools in England (as elsewhere in Europe) have a duty to promote equality for disabled people and make reasonable adjustments for disabled children. There is, however, a degree of uncertainty about how well-placed parents are addressed to use the legislation to ensure their child’s needs. This paper presents data drawn from a national questionnaire designed for schools to use to identify their disabled pupils and examines, in detail, parental responses to a question on the kinds of support their child finds helpful in offsetting any difficulties they experience. It illustrates the complex and varied nature of the ‘reasonable adjustments’ that are required and an overriding sense that need to be underpinned by the values of a responsive child-centred approach, one that recognises that parents’ knowledge and understanding of their child are important. Schools need to have in place the two-way communication process that supports them in ‘knowing’ about the visible and invisible challenges that pupils with difficulties and disabilities face in participating in school life.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the special educational resources in Swedish upper secondary schools using a total population survey that covers all Swedish secondary schools and found that special educators and special teachers were well-represented in the Swedish higher secondary schools.
Abstract: This paper analyses the special educational resources in the Swedish upper secondary schools using a total population survey that covers all upper secondary schools. Special educators and special t ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored deaf and hearing university students' metacognitive awareness with regard to comprehension difficulties during reading and classroom instruction and found that deaf students were no more likely than hearing students to report adopting inappropriate strategies, but both groups indicated they were more likely to do so in classroom contexts than during reading.
Abstract: This study explored deaf and hearing university students’ metacognitive awareness with regard to comprehension difficulties during reading and classroom instruction. Utilising the Reading Awareness Inventory (Milholic, V. 1994. An inventory to pique students’ metacognitive awareness of reading strategies. Journal of Reading 38: 84–6), parallel inventories were created to tap metacognitive awareness during comprehension of sign language (deaf students) and spoken language (hearing students). Overall, both deaf and hearing students appeared to have greater metacognitive awareness of ongoing comprehension and repair strategies during reading than during instruction in the classroom, but deaf students scored lower than hearing students in both modalities. Deaf students were no more likely than hearing students to report adopting inappropriate strategies, but both groups indicated they were more likely to do so in classroom contexts than during reading.