About: Evolution is an academic journal published by Wiley. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Sexual selection. It has an ISSN identifier of 0014-3820. Over the lifetime, 11716 publications have been published receiving 1006321 citations. The journal is also known as: biological evolution.
Topics: Population, Sexual selection, Natural selection, Selection (genetic algorithm), Reproductive isolation
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The recently‐developed statistical method known as the “bootstrap” can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies and shows significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.
Abstract: The recently-developed statistical method known as the "bootstrap" can be used to place confidence intervals on phylogenies. It involves resampling points from one's own data, with replacement, to create a series of bootstrap samples of the same size as the original data. Each of these is analyzed, and the variation among the resulting estimates taken to indicate the size of the error involved in making estimates from the original data. In the case of phylogenies, it is argued that the proper method of resampling is to keep all of the original species while sampling characters with replacement, under the assumption that the characters have been independently drawn by the systematist and have evolved independently. Majority-rule consensus trees can be used to construct a phylogeny showing all of the inferred monophyletic groups that occurred in a majority of the bootstrap samples. If a group shows up 95% of the time or more, the evidence for it is taken to be statistically significant. Existing computer programs can be used to analyze different bootstrap samples by using weights on the characters, the weight of a character being how many times it was drawn in bootstrap sampling. When all characters are perfectly compatible, as envisioned by Hennig, bootstrap sampling becomes unnecessary; the bootstrap method would show significant evidence for a group if it is defined by three or more characters.
TL;DR: The purpose of this discussion is to offer some unity to various estimation formulae and to point out that correlations of genes in structured populations, with which F-statistics are concerned, are expressed very conveniently with a set of parameters treated by Cockerham (1 969, 1973).
Abstract: This journal frequently contains papers that report values of F-statistics estimated from genetic data collected from several populations. These parameters, FST, FIT, and FIS, were introduced by Wright (1951), and offer a convenient means of summarizing population structure. While there is some disagreement about the interpretation of the quantities, there is considerably more disagreement on the method of evaluating them. Different authors make different assumptions about sample sizes or numbers of populations and handle the difficulties of multiple alleles and unequal sample sizes in different ways. Wright himself, for example, did not consider the effects of finite sample size. The purpose of this discussion is to offer some unity to various estimation formulae and to point out that correlations of genes in structured populations, with which F-statistics are concerned, are expressed very conveniently with a set of parameters treated by Cockerham (1 969, 1973). We start with the parameters and construct appropriate estimators for them, rather than beginning the discussion with various data functions. The extension of Cockerham's work to multiple alleles and loci will be made explicit, and the use of jackknife procedures for estimating variances will be advocated. All of this may be regarded as an extension of a recent treatment of estimating the coancestry coefficient to serve as a mea-
TL;DR: Technique non parametrique pour la signification statistique de tables de tests utilisees dans les etudes sur l'evolution notamment.
Abstract: Technique non parametrique pour la signification statistique de tables de tests utilisees dans les etudes sur l'evolution notamment
TL;DR: Measures of directional and stabilizing selection on each of a set of phenotypically correlated characters are derived, retrospective, based on observed changes in the multivariate distribution of characters within a generation, not on the evolutionary response to selection.
Abstract: Natural selection acts on phenotypes, regardless of their genetic basis, and produces immediate phenotypic effects within a generation that can be measured without recourse to principles of heredity or evolution. In contrast, evolutionary response to selection, the genetic change that occurs from one generation to the next, does depend on genetic variation. Animal and plant breeders routinely distinguish phenotypic selection from evolutionary response to selection (Mayo, 1980; Falconer, 1981). Upon making this critical distinction, emphasized by Haldane (1954), precise methods can be formulated for the measurement of phenotypic natural selection. Correlations between characters seriously complicate the measurement of phenotypic selection, because selection on a particular trait produces not only a direct effect on the distribution of that trait in a population, but also produces indirect effects on the distribution of correlated characters. The problem of character correlations has been largely ignored in current methods for measuring natural selection on quantitative traits. Selection has usually been treated as if it acted only on single characters (e.g., Haldane, 1954; Van Valen, 1965a; O'Donald, 1968, 1970; reviewed by Johnson, 1976 Ch. 7). This is obviously a tremendous oversimplification, since natural selection acts on many characters simultaneously and phenotypic correlations between traits are ubiquitous. In an important but neglected paper, Pearson (1903) showed that multivariate statistics could be used to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of selection to determine which traits in a correlated ensemble are the focus of direct selection. Here we extend and generalize Pearson's major results. The purpose of this paper is to derive measures of directional and stabilizing (or disruptive) selection on each of a set of phenotypically correlated characters. The analysis is retrospective, based on observed changes in the multivariate distribution of characters within a generation, not on the evolutionary response to selection. Nevertheless, the measures we propose have a close connection with equations for evolutionary change. Many other commonly used measures of the intensity of selection (such as selective mortality, change in mean fitness, variance in fitness, or estimates of particular forms of fitness functions) have little predictive value in relation to evolutionary change in quantitative traits. To demonstrate the utility of our approach, we analyze selection on four morphological characters in a population of pentatomid bugs during a brief period of high mortality. We also summarize a multivariate selection analysis on nine morphological characters of house sparrows caught in a severe winter storm, using the classic data of Bumpus (1899). Direct observations and measurements of natural selection serve to clarify one of the major factors of evolution. Critiques of the "adaptationist program" (Lewontin, 1978; Gould and Lewontin, 1979) stress that adaptation and selection are often invoked without strong supporting evidence. We suggest quantitative measurements of selection as the best alternative to the fabrication of adaptive scenarios. Our optimism that measurement can replace rhetorical claims for adaptation and selection is founded in the growing success of field workers in their efforts to measure major components of fitness in natural populations (e.g., Thornhill, 1976; Howard, 1979; Downhower and Brown, 1980; Boag and Grant, 1981; Clutton-Brock et
TL;DR: August Weismann's theory is subject to a number of criticisms, the most forceful of which are: 1) The fallacy of identifying senescence with mechanical wear, 2) the extreme rarity, in natural populations, of individuals that would be old enough to die of the postulated death-mechanism, 3) the failure of several decades of gerontological research to uncover any deathmechanisms, and 4) the difficulties involved in visualizing how such a feature could be produced
Abstract: A new individual entering a population may be said to have a reproductive probability distribution. The reproductive probability is zero from zygote to reproductive maturity. Later, perhaps shortly...