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JournalISSN: 0308-0501

Fire and Materials 

Wiley-Blackwell
About: Fire and Materials is an academic journal published by Wiley-Blackwell. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Poison control & Cone calorimeter. It has an ISSN identifier of 0308-0501. Over the lifetime, 1941 publications have been published receiving 38620 citations. The journal is also known as: FAM.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements, and discuss the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone.
Abstract: There is little consensus within the fire science community on interpretation of cone calorimeter data, but there is a significant need to screen new flammability modified materials using the cone calorimeter. This article is the result of several discussions aiming to provide guidance in the use and interpretation of cone calorimetry for those directly involved with such measurements. This guidance is essentially empirical, and is not intended to replace the comprehensive scientific studies that already exist. The guidance discusses the fire scenario with respect to applied heat flux, length scale, temperature, ventilation, anaerobic pyrolysis and set-up represented by the cone calorimeter. The fire properties measured in the cone calorimeter are discussed, including heat release rate and its peak, the mass loss and char yield, effective heat of combustion and combustion efficiency, time to ignition and CO and smoke production together with deduced quantities such as FIGRA and MARHE. Special comments are made on the use of the cone calorimeter relating to sample thickness, textiles, foams and intumescent materials, and the distance of the cone heater from the sample surface. Finally, the relationship between cone calorimetry data and other tests is discussed. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

1,116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a method based on the generalization that the heats of combustion per unit of oxygen consumed are approximately the same for most fuels commonly encountered in fires, which can then be converted to a measure of heat release.
Abstract: Measurement of the rate of oxygen consumption provides a simple, versatile and powerful tool for estimating the rate of heat release in fire experiments and fire tests. The method is based on the generalization that the heats of combustion per unit of oxygen consumed are approximately the same for most fuels commonly encountered in fires. A measurement of the rate of oxygen consumption can then be converted to a measure of rate of heat release. Data on heats of combustion are presented to support this generalization. The applicability of the technique to combustion under fire conditions is examined, possible sources of error in the measurements are discussed, and applications of the method are reviewed. It is concluded that the accuracy of oxygen consumption based rate of heat release measurements should compare favorably with those derived from conventional calorimetric measurements.

813 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a new bench-scale rate of heat release calorimeter utilizing the oxygen consumption principle has been developed for use in fire testing and research, which is capable of higher accuracy than existing instruments and yet to be simple to operate and moderate in construction cost.
Abstract: A new bench-scale rate of heat release calorimeter utilizing the oxygen consumption principle has been developed for use in fire testing and research. Specimens may be of uniform or composite construction and may be tested in a horizontal, face-up orientation, or, for those which do not melt, in a vertical orientation. An external irradiance of zero to over 100 kW m−2 may be imposed by means of a temperature-controlled radiant heater. The rate of heat release is determined by measuring combustion product gas flow and oxygen depletion, while the mass loss is also recorded simultaneously. The instrument has been designed to be capable of higher accuracy than existing instruments and yet to be simple to operate and moderate in construction cost. The instrument is thermed a ‘cone calorimeter’ because of the geometric arrangement of the electric heater.

454 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A general overview of commercial flame retardant technology is given in this article, which covers the drivers behind why flame retardants are used today, the current technologies in use, how they are applied, and where the field of flame-retardant research is headed.
Abstract: SUMMARY Flame retardancy of polymeric materials is conducted to provide fire protection to flammable consumer goods, as well as to mitigate fire growth in a wide range of fires. This paper is a general overview of commercial flame retardant technology. It covers the drivers behind why flame retardants are used today, the current technologies in use, how they are applied, and where the field of flame retardant research is headed. The paper is not a full review of the technology, but rather a general overview of this entire field of applied science and is designed to get the reader started on the fundamentals behind this technology. This paper is based upon presentations given by the authors in late 2009 at the Flame Retardants and Fire Fighters meeting held at NIST. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

334 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a flame retardant (FR) intumescent formulations for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) using charring polymers polyamide-6 (PA-6) and polyamide6 clay nanocomposite hybrid was used as carbonization agents.
Abstract: This work deals with new flame retardant (FR) intumescent formulations for ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers (EVA) using charring polymers polyamide-6 (PA-6) and polyamide-6 clay nanocomposite hybrid (PA-6-nano) as carbonization agents. Use of PA-6 nano improved both the mechanical and fire properties of FR EVA-based materials. The part played by the clay in the improvement of the FR performance was studied using FTIR and solid state NMR. It is shown that the clay allowed the thermal stabilization of a phosphorocarbonaceous structure in the intumescent char which increased the efficiency of the shield and, in addition, the formation of a ‘ceramic’ which can act as a protective barrier. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

310 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202341
202277
2021165
202094
201987
201897