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Showing papers in "Fire Safety Journal in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors studied the critical velocity for preventing back-layering in a tunnel model with tilted angles at 0°, 3°, 6° and 9° to the horizontal.

121 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In 2003, five large-scale fire tests, including one pool fire test and four HGV mock-up fire tests were carried out in the Runehamar tunnel in Norway as mentioned in this paper.

121 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new model for the simulation of pre-evacuation behaviour based on the Random Utility Theory is introduced and the main factors influencing the decisions were the time elapsed since the start of the alarm, the occupant’s position, and social influence.

98 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from many real smoke videos have proved that the new dynamic texture descriptor can obtain higher detection accuracy.

65 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Zhiguo Yan1, Yi Shen1, Hehua Zhu1, Xiaojun Li1, Yong Lu2 
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive experimental study on the comparative behavior of the reinforced concrete (RC) and the hybrid fibre reinforced concrete(HFRC) shield TBM (Tunnel Boring Machine) tunnel lining segments exposed to fire is presented.

64 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the importance of the oil slick thickness on two pure oils ( n -octane and dodecane) and two fresh crude oils (Grane and REBCO) was studied in relation to the regression rate, boilover tendency, mass loss rate, burning efficiency and flame height.

60 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a unified model that allows for dynamically changing the thermal ratings of conductors in the vicinity of a wildfire to reduce the current flowing through them, thereby assisting with conductor cooling.

60 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results show that a common assumption employed by evacuation models (the use of a hypothetical path based on the shortest distance) may be an over-simplistic approximation of the evacuation paths.

58 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the upward flame spread over discrete fuels through experiments on vertical arrays of alternating lengths of PMMA and inert insulation board, and found that the fuel coverage was below unity, which indicates that a homogeneous fuel bed approximation is unsuitable for arrays with low fuel coverage.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the exhaust performance of a hybrid ventilation strategy for maintaining a safe evacuation environment for tunnel users in a tunnel fire, which combines the longitudinal ventilation strategy with the point ventilation strategy which is a type of transverse ventilation strategy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a streamlined design framework is proposed for efficient calculation of a steel-supported bridge's response to an open-air hydrocarbon pool fire resulting from a tanker truck crash and subsequent fuel spill.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted detailed measurements of the temperature distribution within a steady fire-driven ceiling jet, formed in a tunnel with a rectangular cross-section, and compared the measured temperature distributions with those for an unconfined smooth-ceiling jet flow, and estimated the relative errors between them.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The probabilistic classification method in this paper provides a robust, real-time algorithm that uses thermal images to classify fire and smoke with high accuracy and is based on four statistical texture features identified through this work to characterize and classify the candidates.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a number of full-scale tests on reinforced concrete columns exposed to Standard Fire (without cooling) was simulated numerically, by implementing four different constitutive models proposed in the literature for concrete at high temperature.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, experimental measurements of flame drag, flame tilt and flame length, which were obtained for 2-m diameter Jet A fires in crosswinds of 3-10m/s and described in Part I of this paper, were compared to values predicted using published semi-empirical correlations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparative study provides new insights into statistically significant differences in risk factors between fatal fires and those fires where all occupants survived.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors review existing knowledge of population demographics and crowd dynamics, derive an indicative flow reduction factor for future populations, and consider the implications for computer models and building design in the future.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the upward flame spread experiments were conducted on long thin composite fabric fuels made of 75% cotton and 25% fiberglass of various widths between 2 and 8.8 cm and lengths greater than 1.5 cm.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the ignition and quenching properties of low-GWP (global warming potential) alternative materials, such as ammonium, fluorinated alkanes and alkenes, and ammonia, and found that the mildly flammable compounds have an ignition energy more than an order of magnitude greater than that of propane.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors carried out a set of full-scale loading tests on an earthquake damaged, reinforced concrete frame subsequently exposed to fire, in the form of a three phase testing procedure: simulated earthquake loading facilitated by cyclic quasi-static lateral loads; followed by a compartment fire; and finally by subjecting the earthquake and fire damaged frame to a monotonic pushover loading to assess its residual capacity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simplified approach for classification of bridges based on fire hazard is presented, which takes into account the degree of vulnerability of different bridge components, critical nature of a bridge from traffic functionality point and fire mitigation strategies present in a specific bridge.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of an increased risk during a simulated tunnel emergency on participants' subjective hazard perception and evacuation behavior in a five-sided CAVE system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the results of two pool fires conducted within the frame of the ETANKFIRE project, one with 97% ethanol and 3% gasoline and the other with 85% ethanol, 15% gasoline, both with a surface area of 254m 2.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the main thermo-physical properties and the fire behaviour of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of methods (i.e., thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, cone calorimeter, scanning electron microscopy).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, two commonly occurring scenarios jetfire and fireball are considered and evaluated with two different fire modelling approaches, solid flame model and Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) model.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the suppression of buoyant, turbulent, methane- and propane-fueled diffusion flames was investigated using a 5×50 cm 2 slot burner surrounded by a co-flowing oxidizer, where Nitrogen gas was added to the oxidizer to achieve suppression.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a large, turbulent, pool fire under controlled wind conditions was modeled as a burning pool of aviation fuel and three parameters describing flame geometry were measured using temperature contour plots and video images.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a 0.4m cubic scale enclosure fire model with various window geometries and a sloping facing wall at different sloping angles from horizontal level was investigated.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a new multiaxial constitutive model for concrete in the fire situation, which can capture, at ambient temperature, the crack pattern in a plain concrete specimen and the influence of the loading path on reinforced concrete (RC) slabs.