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Open accessJournalISSN: 2297-055X

Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine

About: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Population & Heart failure. It has an ISSN identifier of 2297-055X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 2667 publication(s) have been published receiving 14009 citation(s). more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2020.00025
Chen Chen1, Chen Qin1, Huaqi Qiu1, Giacomo Tarroni1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Deep learning has become the most widely used approach for cardiac image segmentation in recent years. In this paper, we provide a review of over 100 cardiac image segmentation papers using deep learning, which covers common imaging modalities including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound and major anatomical structures of interest (ventricles, atria, and vessels). In addition, a summary of publicly available cardiac image datasets and code repositories are included to provide a base for encouraging reproducible research. Finally, we discuss the challenges and limitations with current deep learning-based approaches (scarcity of labels, model generalizability across different domains, interpretability) and suggest potential directions for future research. more

Topics: Image segmentation (56%)

182 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2018.00135
Abstract: It is widely accepted that regular physical activity is beneficial for cardiovascular health. Frequent exercise is robustly associated with a decrease in cardiovascular mortality as well as the risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Physically active individuals have lower blood pressure, higher insulin sensitivity, and a more favorable plasma lipoprotein profile. Animal models of exercise show that repeated physical activity suppresses atherogenesis and increases the availability of vasodilatory mediators such as nitric oxide. Exercise has also been found to have beneficial effects on the heart. Acutely, exercise increases cardiac output and blood pressure, but individuals adapted to exercise show lower resting heart rate and cardiac hypertrophy. Both cardiac and vascular changes have been linked to a variety of changes in tissue metabolism and signaling, although our understanding of the contribution of the underlying mechanisms remains incomplete. Even though moderate levels of exercise have been found to be consistently associated with a reduction in cardiovascular disease risk, there is evidence to suggest that continuously high levels of exercise (e.g., marathon running) could have detrimental effects on cardiovascular health. Nevertheless, a specific dose response relationship between the extent and duration of exercise and the reduction in cardiovascular disease risk and mortality remains unclear. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms that impart cardiovascular benefits of exercise in order to develop more effective exercise regimens, test the interaction of exercise with diet, and develop pharmacological interventions for those unwilling or unable to exercise. more

181 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2017.00048
Abstract: Serotonin (5-Hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) plays an important role in many organs as a peripheral hormone. Most of the body's serotonin is circulating in the bloodstream, transported by blood platelets and is released upon activation. The functions of serotonin are mediated by members of the 7 known mammalian serotonin receptor subtype classes (15 known subtypes), the serotonin transporter (SERT) and by covalent binding of serotonin to different effector proteins. Almost all immune cells express at least one serotonin component. In recent years, a number of immunoregulatory functions have been ascribed to serotonin. In monocytes/macrophages for example serotonin modulates cytokine secretion. Serotonin can also suppress the release of TNF-α and IL-1β by activating serotonin receptors. Furthermore, neutrophil recruitment and T-Cell activation can both be mediated by serotonin. These are only a few of the known immunomodulatory roles of serotonin that we will review here. more

Topics: Serotonergic (69%), Serotonin transporter (63%), 5-HT receptor (63%) more

173 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2020.00022
Alan Chait1, Laura J. den Hartigh1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Adipose tissue plays essential roles in maintaining lipid and glucose homeostasis. To date several types of adipose tissue have been identified, namely white, brown, and beige, that reside in various specific anatomical locations throughout the body. The cellular composition, secretome, and location of these adipose depots define their function in health and metabolic disease. In obesity, adipose tissue becomes dysfunctional, promoting a pro-inflammatory, hyperlipidemic and insulin resistant environment that contributes to type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Concurrently, similar features that result from adipose tissue dysfunction also promote cardiovascular disease (CVD) by mechanisms that can be augmented by T2DM. The mechanisms by which dysfunctional adipose tissue simultaneously promote T2DM and CVD, focusing on adipose tissue depot-specific adipokines, inflammatory profiles, and metabolism, will be the focus of this review. The impact that various T2DM and CVD treatment strategies have on adipose tissue function and body weight also will be discussed. more

Topics: Adipose tissue (74%), Brown adipose tissue (66%), Adipokine (57%) more

170 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCVM.2018.00012
Fumihiro Sanada1, Yoshiaki Taniyama1, Jun Muratsu1, Rei Otsu1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Aging is a complex process that results from a combination of environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. A chronic pro-inflammatory status is a pervasive feature of aging. This chronic low-grade inflammation occurring in the absence of overt infection has been defined as “inflammaging” and represents a significant risk factor for morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The low-grade inflammation persists even after reversing pro-inflammatory stimuli such as LDL cholesterol and the renin–angiotensin system (RAS). Recently, several possible sources of chronic low-grade inflammation observed during aging and age-related diseases have been proposed. Cell senescence and dysregulation of innate immunity is one such mechanism by which persistent prolonged inflammation occurs even after the initial stimulus has been removed. Additionally, the coagulation factor that activates inflammatory signaling beyond its role in the coagulation system has been identified. This signal could be a new source of chronic inflammation and cell senescence. Here, we summarized the factors and cellular pathways/processes that are known to regulate low-grade persistent inflammation in aging and age-related disease. more

Topics: Senescence (57%), Inflammation (53%)

142 Citations

No. of papers from the Journal in previous years

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Elena Aikawa

9 papers, 76 citations

Yunlong Xia

9 papers, 3 citations

Junbo Ge

8 papers, 9 citations

Cezar Iliescu

8 papers, 19 citations

Steffen E. Petersen

7 papers, 106 citations

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