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Open accessJournalISSN: 2234-943X

Frontiers in Oncology

About: Frontiers in Oncology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Cancer & Breast cancer. It has an ISSN identifier of 2234-943X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 12322 publication(s) have been published receiving 128503 citation(s). more

Topics: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2014.00064
Abstract: The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are two pathways crucial to many aspects of cell growth and survival, in physiological as well as in pathological conditions (e.g., cancer). Indeed, they are so interconnected that, in a certain sense, they could be regarded as a single, unique pathway. In this paper, after a general overview of the biological significance and the main components of these pathways, we address the present status of the development of specific PI3K, Akt, and mTOR inhibitors, from already registered medicines to novel compounds that are just leaving the laboratory bench. more

Topics: PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway (65%), RPTOR (63%), Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (59%) more

787 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2018.00086
Abstract: Melanoma, a skin cancer associated with high mortality rates, is highly radio- and chemotherapy resistant but can also be very immunogenic. These circumstances have led to a recent surge in research into therapies aiming to boost anti-tumor immune responses in cancer patients. Among these immunotherapies, neutralizing antibodies targeting the immune checkpoints T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) are being hailed as particularly successful. These antibodies have resulted in dramatic improvements in disease outcome and are now clinically approved in many countries. However, the majority of advanced stage melanoma patients do not respond or will relapse, and the hunt for the "magic bullet" to treat the disease continues. This review examines the mechanisms of action and the limitations of anti-PD-1/PD-L1 and anti-CTLA-4 antibodies which are the two types of checkpoint inhibitors currently available to patients and further explores the future avenues of their use in melanoma and other cancers. more

Topics: Magic bullet (58%), Immunotherapy (53%), Skin cancer (53%) more

482 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2015.00155
Mohit Kumar Jolly1, Marcelo Boareto2, Marcelo Boareto1, Bin Huang1  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Understanding cell-fate decisions during tumorigenesis and metastasis is a major challenge in modern cancer biology. One canonical cell-fate decision that cancer cells undergo is Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and its reverse Mesenchymal-to-Epithelial Transition (MET). While transitioning between these two phenotypes – epithelial and mesenchymal, cells can also attain a hybrid epithelial/ mesenchymal (i.e. partial or intermediate EMT) phenotype. Cells in this phenotype have mixed epithelial (eg. adhesion) and mesenchymal (eg. migration) properties, thereby allowing them to move collectively as clusters of Circulating Tumor Cells (CTCs). If these clusters enter the circulation, they can be more apoptosis-resistant and more capable of initiating metastatic lesions than cancer cells moving individually with wholly mesenchymal phenotypes, having undergone a complete EMT. Here, we review the operating principles of the core regulatory network for EMT/MET that acts as a ‘three-way’ switch giving rise to three distinct phenotypes – epithelial, mesenchymal and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal. We further characterize this hybrid E/M phenotype in terms of its capabilities in terms of collective cell migration, tumor-initiation, cell-cell communication, and drug resistance. We elucidate how the highly interconnected coupling between these modules coordinates cell-fate decisions among a population of cancer cells in the dynamic tumor, hence facilitating tumor-stroma interactions, formation of CTC clusters, and consequently cancer metastasis. Finally, we discuss the multiple advantages that the hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype have as compared to a complete EMT phenotype and argue that these collectively migrating cells are the primary ‘bad actors’ of metastasis. more

Topics: Cancer stem cell (57%), Cancer cell (52%), Mesenchymal stem cell (51%) more

449 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2012.00073
Abstract: Approximately 100,000 primary and metastatic brain tumor patients/year in the US survive long enough (>6 months) to experience radiation-induced brain injury. Prior to 1970, the human brain was thought to be highly radioresistant; the acute CNS syndrome occurs after single doses >30 Gy; white matter necrosis occurs at fractionated doses >60 Gy. Although white matter necrosis is uncommon with modern techniques, functional deficits, including progressive impairments in memory, attention, and executive function have become important, because they have profound effects on quality of life. Preclinical studies have provided valuable insights into the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Given its central role in memory and neurogenesis, the majority of these studies have focused on the hippocampus. Irradiating pediatric and young adult rodent brains leads to several hippocampal changes including neuroinflammation and a marked reduction in neurogenesis. These data have been interpreted to suggest that shielding the hippocampus will prevent clinical radiation-induced cognitive impairment. However, this interpretation may be overly simplistic. Studies using older rodents, that more closely match the adult human brain tumor population, indicate that, unlike pediatric and young adult rats, older rats fail to show a radiation-induced decrease in neurogenesis or a loss of mature neurons. Nevertheless, older rats still exhibit cognitive impairment. This occurs in the absence of demyelination and/or white matter necrosis similar to what is observed clinically, suggesting that more subtle molecular, cellular and/or microanatomic modifications are involved in this radiation-induced brain injury. Given that radiation-induced cognitive impairment likely reflects damage to both hippocampal- and non-hippocampal-dependent domains, there is a critical need to investigate the microanatomic and functional effects of radiation in various brain regions as well as their integration at clinically relevant doses and schedules. Recently developed techniques in neuroscience and neuroimaging provide not only an opportunity to accomplish this, but they also offer the opportunity to identify new biomarkers and new targets for interventions to prevent or ameliorate these late effects. more

Topics: Human brain (52%), Poison control (52%), Population (52%) more

414 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FONC.2014.00001
Abstract: Ionizing radiation is a non-specific but highly effective way to kill malignant cells. However, tumor recurrence sustained by a minor fraction of surviving tumor cells is a commonplace phenomenon caused by the activation of both cancer cell intrinsic resistance mechanisms, and also extrinsic intermediaries of therapy resistance, represented by non-malignant cells and structural components of the tumor stroma. The improved accuracy offered by advanced radiotherapy (RT)-technology permits reduced volume of healthy tissue in the irradiated field, and has been triggering an increase in the prescription of high-dose oligo-fractionated regimens in the clinics. Given the remarkable clinical success of high-dose RT and the current therapeutic shift occurring in the field, in this review we revise the existing knowledge on the effects that different radiation regimens exert on the different compartments of the tumor microenvironment, and highlight the importance of anti-tumor immunity and other tumor cell extrinsic mechanisms influencing therapeutic responses to high-dose radiation. more

407 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Xuelei Ma

15 papers, 145 citations

Xiujuan Qu

10 papers, 86 citations

Simeng Suy

10 papers, 55 citations

Brian T. Collins

10 papers, 92 citations

Charles A. Kunos

8 papers, 112 citations

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