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Open accessJournalISSN: 1664-042X

Frontiers in Physiology

About: Frontiers in Physiology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Skeletal muscle & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 1664-042X. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 11309 publication(s) have been published receiving 202976 citation(s). more


Open accessJournal Article
Abstract: The 1983 book, free at last, with corrections and bookmarks. From the original troff, but now with CM (TeX) fonts. more

Topics: Quantization (physics) (58%), Spontaneous symmetry breaking (57%), Superspace (56%) more

1,331 Citations

Open accessJournal Article
J. R. Schrieffer1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Although superconductivity falls into the domain where one would expect ordinary non-relativistic quantum mechanics to be valid, it has proved to be extremely difficult to obtain an adequate theoretical explanation of this remarkable phenomenon. In spite of the large amount of excellent experimental and theoretical work devoted to the problem, there remain major unsettled questions. However, the area in which the answers are to be found has been narrowed considerably. There are very strong indications, if not quite a proof, that superconductivity is essentially an extreme case of diamagnetism rather than a limit of infinite conductivity. The isotope effect indicates that the superconducting phase arises from interactions between electrons and lattice vibrations. more

759 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHYS.2012.00394
Rachael Brown1, Rachael Brown2, Cheree James2, Luke A. Henderson3  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: The sympathetic innervation of the skin primarily subserves thermoregulation, but the system has also been commandeered as a means of expressing emotion. While it is known that the level of skin sympathetic nerve activity (SSNA) is affected by anxiety, the majority of emotional studies have utilized the galvanic skin response as a means of inferring increases in SSNA. The purpose of the present study was to characterize the changes in SSNA when showing subjects neutral or emotionally-charged images from the International Affective Picture System. Skin sympathetic nerve activity was recorded via tungsten microelectrodes inserted into cutaneous fascicles of the common peroneal nerve in ten subjects. Neutral images, positively-charged images (erotica) or negatively-charged images (mutilation) were presented in blocks of fifteen images of a specific type, each block lasting two minutes. Images of erotica or mutilation were presented in a quasi-random fashion, each block following a block of neutral images. Both images of erotica or images of mutilation caused significant increases in SSNA, but the increases in SSNA were greater for mutilation. The increases in SSNA were often coupled with sweat release and cutaneous vasoconstriction, however, these markers were not always consistent with the SSNA increases. We conclude that SSNA, comprising cutaneous vasoconstrictor and sudomotor activity, increases with both positively-charged and negatively-charged emotional images. Measurement of SSNA provides a more comprehensive assessment of sympathetic outflow to the skin than does the use of sweat release alone as a marker of emotional processing. more

Topics: Microneurography (52%)

739 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHYS.2012.00260
Abstract: Changing demographics make it ever more important to understand the modifiable risk factors for disability and loss of independence with advancing age. For more than two decades there has been increasing interest in the role of sarcopenia, the age related loss of muscle or lean mass, in curtailing active and healthy aging. There is now evidence to suggest that lack of strength, or dynapenia, is a more constant factor in compromised wellbeing in old age and it is apparent that the decline in muscle mass and the decline in strength can take quite different trajectories. This demands recognition of the concept of muscle quality; that is the force generating per capacity per unit cross-sectional area (CSA). An understanding of the impact of aging on skeletal muscle will require attention to both the changes in muscle size and the changes in muscle quality. The aim of this review is to present current knowledge of the decline in human muscle mass and strength with advancing age and the associated risk to health and survival and to review the underlying changes in muscle characteristics and the aetiology of sarcopenia. Cross-sectional studies comparing young (18-45yrs) and old (>65yrs) samples show dramatic variation based on the technique used and population studied. The median of values of rate of loss reported across studies is 0.47% per year in men and 0.37% per year in women. Longitudinal studies show that in people aged 75yrs, muscle mass is lost at a rate of 0.64-0.70% per year in women and 0.80-0.98% per year in men. Strength is lost more rapidly. Longitudinal studies show that at age 75yrs, strength is lost at a rate of 3-4% per year in men and 2.5-3% per year in women. Studies that assessed changes in mass and strength in the same sample report a loss of strength 2 – 5 times faster than loss of mass. Loss of strength is a more consistent risk for disability and death than is loss of muscle mass. more

Topics: Sarcopenia (61%), Muscle atrophy (56%), Population (52%)

727 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FPHYS.2013.00026
George E. Billman1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Power spectral analysis of the beat-to-beat variations of heart rate or the heart period (R–R interval) has become widely used to quantify cardiac autonomic regulation (Appel et al., 1989; Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, 1996; Berntson et al., 1997; Denver et al., 2007; Thayler et al., 2010; Billman, 2011). This technique partitions the total variance (the “power”) of a continuous series of beats into its frequency components, typically identifying two or three main peaks: Very Low Frequency (VLF) <0.04 Hz, Low Frequency (LF), 0.04–0.15 Hz, and High Frequency (HF) 0.15–0.4 Hz. It should be noted that the HF peak is shifted to a higher range (typically 0.24–1.04 Hz) in infants and during exercise (Berntson et al., 1997). The HF peak is widely believed to reflect cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity while the LF, although more complex, is often assumed to have a dominant sympathetic component (Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology, 1996; Berntson et al., 1997; Billman, 2011). Based upon these assumptions, Pagani and co-workers proposed that the ratio of LF to HF (LF/HF) could be used to quantify the changing relationship between sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activities (i.e., the sympatho-vagal balance) (Pagani et al., 1984, 1986; Malliani et al., 1991) in both health and disease. However, this concept has been challenged (Kingwell et al., 1994; Koh et al., 1994; Hopf et al., 1995; Eckberg, 1997; Houle and Billman, 1999; Billman, 2011). Despite serious and largely under-appreciated limitations, the LF/HF ratio has gained wide acceptance as a tool to assess cardiovascular autonomic regulation where increases in LF/HF are assumed to reflect a shift to “sympathetic dominance” and decreases in this index correspond to a “parasympathetic dominance.” Therefore, it is vital to provide a critical assessment of the assumptions upon which this concept is based. more

721 Citations

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Pantelis T. Nikolaidis

21 papers, 203 citations

Beat Knechtle

20 papers, 202 citations

Grégoire P. Millet

17 papers, 359 citations

Thimios A. Mitsiadis

13 papers, 177 citations

Andreas Fahlman

13 papers, 270 citations

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