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Showing papers in "Geodesy and Cartography in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors aimed at the promotion of voluntary land consolidation through the improvement of land plots exchange, and the issue of the existing land plots boundaries adjustment in the course of land consolidation has been singled out.
Abstract: The paper is aimed at the promotion of voluntary land consolidation through the improvement of land plots exchange. The issue of the existing land plots boundaries adjustment in the course of voluntary land consolidation has been singled out. Possibilities, advantages and risks of land plots exchange without changing the existing boundaries as a constituent of land consolidation measures have been substantiated. The improvement of approaches to land plots exchange modelling without the existing boundaries adjustment has been suggested. Demands to the formation of consolidated land tenures as the result of exchange have been singled out. Theory of combinations has been applied to specify land plots exchange options. Calculation formulas for the number of the optimal consolidated agricultural land tenure placement options have been suggested. The calculations can be applied in the optimization and heuristic approaches to land reallocation and at land consolidation performance evaluation. Suggested approaches facilitate the implementation of heuristic methods especially in non-standard conditions, allow to increase the number of developers, especially involving experts with little experience. The results can be used for land plots lease optimization.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors developed a working method for classifying the land cover using high-resolution satellite images using object based method, which showed that use of textural data during the object image classification approach can considerably enhance land use classification performance.
Abstract: Land Use / Land Cover (LULC) classification is considered one of the basic tasks that decision makers and map makers rely on to evaluate the infrastructure, using different types of satellite data, despite the large spectral difference or overlap in the spectra in the same land cover in addition to the problem of aberration and the degree of inclination of the images that may be negatively affect rating performance. The main objective of this study is to develop a working method for classifying the land cover using high-resolution satellite images using object based method. Maximum likelihood pixel based supervised as well as object approaches were examined on QuickBird satellite image in Karbala, Iraq. This study illustrated that use of textural data during the object image classification approach can considerably enhance land use classification performance. Moreover, the results showed higher overall accuracy (86.02%) in the o object based method than pixel based (79.06%) in urban extractions. The object based performed much more capabilities than pixel based.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article deals with the matter of restoring the geofield based high-intensity spatio-temporal data streams received from a highly mobile geosensors network in real time, and proposes to apply the method of local smoothing for solving this task.
Abstract: The article deals with the matter of restoring the geofield based high-intensity spatio-temporal data streams received from a highly mobile geosensors network in real time. It includes dozen thousands of active measuring devices that measure at a frequency of up to 5 Hz and are installed on mobile platforms moving at speeds of up to 80–100 km/h. For solving this task, we propose to apply the method of local smoothing. To adapt a kernel of local regression to the conditions of a specific task, such as the features of the terrain or the simulated geofield, as well as the characteristics of the geosensor network, the authors suggested using the kernel of local regression obtained through using stochastic optimization methods. The application of genetic algorithms and the method of simulating annealing for this purpose are considered. The structure of a generalized method based on this idea is presented in the article. The results of model experiments aimed to confirm the operability of this method and those of evaluating the performance of this method in single-threaded mode are given.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The research shows that the National atlas site (nationalatlas.ru) has been functioning for fifteen years already, and the information provided still remains relevant.
Abstract: Exploring the relevance of the contents loaded in site Russian federation National atlas is considered in the article. Its attendance and the provided data’s importance for the period of the recent 7 years are analyzed. This analysis made a background for the author on renovation of the resource. During the research some foreign experience on creating printed and digital national atlases was studied. Basing on the modernization results the change in activities of the users was noted in comparison with their previous ones. The research shows that the site has been functioning for fifteen years already, and the information provided still remains relevant. Due to connecting the domain .ru the renovated resource became more easily available for foreign audience. In the period of the Russian Federation digital transformation the National atlas site (nationalatlas.ru) with its updated contents can make a part of the National spatial data system.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify key components to amplify signals and reduce noise in observations, and used Self-organizing Map Algorithm (SOM) to cluster total water storage (TWS) in 4 categories.
Abstract: The gravity recovery and climate experiment (GRACE) and GRACE-Follow on (FO) data provide valuable information about dynamic total water storage (TWS). The complexity of the computational process and the influence of various parameters on TWS changes are complicated in their interpretation. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to identify key components to amplify signals and reduce noise in observations. For this purpose, in this research, the Self-organizing map algorithm (SOM) has been used to cluster TWS in 4 categories. The results show that the western regions of Greenland and part of Antarctica are in the critical cluster and have a TWS rate of about –0.2 m/year, which indicates the melting of ice in these regions. The advantage of PCA-SOM is the easy interpretation of TWS, which reduces the impact of seasonal parameters, observation noise and measurement error, and facilitates global policy decisions in the face of climate change.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the performance of the ERA5 reanalysis model in estimating and monitoring the variability of atmospheric water vapour content over Nigeria was investigated at sub-daily, diurnal, and seasonal scales in relation to KöppenGeiger climate classification using standard statistical metrics (namely, coefficient of correlation (r), Root mean square error (RMSE), Reliability index (RI), Mean absolute errors (MAE) and mean bias).
Abstract: This study research the performance of the ERA5 reanalysis model in estimating and monitoring the variability of atmospheric water vapour content over Nigeria. The ERA5 is a fifth-generation reanalysis model recently released by the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF). The ERA5 model comes with excitingly high spatial and temporal resolution when compared to earlier models like the ERA-Interim and ERA-40. However, like the previous models, the ERA5 comes with numerous modelling uncertainties arising from data fusion methods and observation schemes, which often affects its performance at the different regions of the Earth. In this study, ERA5 precipitable water vapour (PWV) was validated with GNSS PWV from permanent GNSS stations in Nigeria NIGNET for the period of 2012–2013. The performance of ERA5 was investigated at sub-daily, diurnal, and seasonal scales in relation to KöppenGeiger climate classification using standard statistical metrics (namely, coefficient of correlation (r), Root mean square error (RMSE), Reliability index (RI), Mean absolute errors (MAE) and mean bias). The r, RI, RMSE, MAE and mean bias values at sub-daily, diurnal and seasonal scales were computed as, (0.8670, 0.882, 0.979), (3.697 mm, 3.400 mm, 7.014 mm), (1.015, 1.019, 1.008), (2.769 mm, 2.706 mm, 1.939 mm) and (0.826 mm, 2.033 mm, 1.739 mm), respectively. The results indicate the strongest performance of ERA5 at seasonal scale with more than 95% agreement. The pattern of variability of ERA5 within the different climate zones of Nigeria showed good consistency with GNSS PWV and Köppen-Geiger climate classification. The study recommended the use of ERA5 in the retrieval of historic PWV records and near real-time GNSS applications.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a spatial test field was designed on which a multivariate calibration of the UAV camera and control of the obtained results were carried out, and it was shown that using the elements of the camera's internal orientation obtained during the calibration process, it was not possible to achieve high accuracy of photogrammetric measurements on control images.
Abstract: For several years, the widening range of applications of unmanned aerial vehicles can be noticed not only in the literature review but also in the market of services offered – also in the geodetic sector. While there is a wide range of professional UAVs for aerial mapping tasks, these platforms are expensive. In this study, it was checked whether the calibration of a low-cost drone camera allows for obtaining an accuracy acceptable for photogrammetric studies. For this purpose, a spatial test field was designed on which a multivariate calibration of the UAV camera and control of the obtained results were carried out. Using the elements of the camera’s internal orientation obtained during the calibration process, it was not possible to achieve high accuracy of photogrammetric measurements on control images. This may indicate a problem with the repeatability of determining the elements of internal orientation of the analyzed camera, and thus with the instability of the autofocus system. Nevertheless, the use of the obtained results from the camera calibration as precise approximations of the elements of the camera’s internal orientation had a positive effect on the solution of the image network using the bundle adjustment and the fitting of the spatial model to the ground control points. In addition, the UAV flight over the created spatial test field allowed for a reliable assessment of the possibilities and accuracy that can be obtained on the basis of images from a low-cost drone.

1 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors investigated the geographic patterns of COVID-19 dissemination in Iraq from May 1 to July 29, 2021, using spatial analysis tools such as standard deviational ellipse (SDE) with in GIS environment, in addition to incidence rates calculations.
Abstract: At the end of 2019, a new form of Coronavirus (later dubbed COVID-19) emerged in China and quickly spread to other regions of the globe. Despite the virus’s unique and unknown characteristics, it is a widely distributed infectious illness. Finding the geographical distribution of the virus transmission is therefore critical for epidemiologists and governments in order to respond to the illness epidemic rapidly and effectively. Understanding the dynamics of COVID-19’s spatial distribution can help to understand the pandemic’s scope and effects, as well as decision-making, planning, and community action aimed at preventing transmission. The main focus of this study is to investigate the geographic patterns of COVID-19 dissemination in Iraq from May 1 to July 29, 2021. The analysis was primarily based on using spatial analysis tools such as standard deviational ellipse (SDE) with in GIS environment, in addition to incidence rates calculations. The results revealed that the direction of COVID-19 spread is NW-SE. Furthermore, the findings showed that the rate of COVID-19 infections is greater at the middle and south of Iraq. This may aid decision-makers in identifying priority areas for emergency efforts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors present the assessment of determining the deformation marks' coordinates accuracy at constructing a network in the form of a linear spatial intersection using the distance between the control points and deformation points; their coordinates are defined.
Abstract: The authors present the assessment of determining the deformation marks’ coordinates accuracy at constructing a network in the form of a linear spatial intersection. Using the distance between the control points and deformation marks; their coordinates are defined. The root- and general mean-square errors in determining the coordinates arising from the faults in measuring the lengths and depending on the shape of the spatial intersection are calculated. Computational mistakes enable assessing the possibility of obtaining the desired results at designing a network of deformation marks with an accuracy that meets the requirements of regulatory documents, and taking the expected accuracy of linear measurements into account. Selecting the marks is shown by the example of an elementary model. Two computer programs for that purpose were developed. The convergence of the results obtained in the course of the programs and theoretical modeling indicates the correct operation of the software. The developed algorithm and pro-grams enable optimizing the location of deformation marks at designing a network.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , an additive color composite and spectral mixture analysis method is utilized for multiple fractional cover representation, which gives new vision to the end-user understanding of fuzzy phenomena.
Abstract: Natural phenomena boundaries and complexity of features in an urban area due to the low spatial resolution, lead to more pixels of satellite images included in reflectance of multiple land-cover/object components. The sub-pixel information extracting model outputs are fractional cover maps of interested class (end-member), with membership values between zero and one. These maps represented gradient change in only one fuzzy phenomenon boundaries such as vegetation cover. However, in multiple fuzzy class area or complex fuzzy phenomena such as mangrove forests, in the northwest of the Qeshm Island, Hormozgan, Iran, displaying several fractional covers may cause confusion and misunderstanding for the end-user. In this study, an additive color composite and spectral mixture analysis method is utilized for multiple fractional cover representation. The proposed method is implemented on images acquired from Operational Land Imager (OLI) sensor in the Landsat 8 satellite to extract three fractional covers (water, vegetation, and soil). An RGB color composite was used for each type and percentage of fractional cover for given pixel to display fractional cover separately. Based on such RGB color composite represented both quantitative and qualitative information, we used the RGB color solid cube as map legend for better understanding and map interpretation. The result of this study showed that suggested sub-pixel visualization method, gives new vision to the end-user understanding of fuzzy phenomena.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors compared the vertical accuracy of four digital elevation models (DEMs) in the city of Bucaramanga using central tendency statistical methods such as mean analysis, standard deviation and root mean squared error.
Abstract: Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), are fundamental data that allow to represent topographic information continuously. They are widely used in various applications such as geoscience, and in the graphical representation of the landscape surface. Performing the analysis by using DEMs in which the real shape of the surface is adjusted, this would contribute significantly in obtaining their results as we would be approaching the actual occurrence of the object of study in the landscape. Currently, several global DEMs are freely available. However, various investigations have produced different results, so there are uncertainties as to which model is more appropriate for some areas. In that sense, the research was aimed at comparing the vertical accuracy of four DEMs in the city of Bucaramanga using central tendency statistical methods such as mean analysis, standard deviation and root mean squared error. As a result, the model that showed the best vertical accuracy was the one generated by the Advanced Land Observation Satellite program – Synthetic Aperture Radar and X-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission, with a root mean squared error of 8.22 and 8.55 m respectively. Moreover, the one that best represented the shape of the landscape was the X-band Shuttle Radar Topography Mission X model.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors describe the activities of the Higher Geodetic Department in Siberian Field District, where S. Y. Belykh worked after graduation from the Geodesetic Faculty of Omsk Agricultural Academy in 1922, and the difficulties that the young geodesic university faced in 1940-1950 were highlighted.
Abstract: The paper is about Sergey Yakovlevich Belykh (1901–1963), a practitioner, teacher and military topographer who made a significant contribution to the development of higher geodesic education in Siberia. Information on the activities of the Higher Geodetic Department in Siberian Field District, where S. Y. Belykh worked after graduation from the Geodetic Faculty of Omsk Agricultural Academy in 1922 is presented. It is told about the arrangement of the Siberian Astronomic-and-Geodetic Institute in Omsk. Novosibirsk Institute of Engineers of Geodesy, Aerial Photography and Cartography (NIIGAiK), was subsequently formed there. The difficulties that the young geodesic university faced in 1940–1950 were highlighted. S. Y. Belykh’s military service in the Red Army Military Topographic Service (MTS) troops including work in the Scientific Research Institute of the MTS is described. There is information on colleagues of S. Y. Belykh and fragments of his daughter’s recollections.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors dealt with the identification of the memorials of domestic cartography, and the criteria and methods for determining the significance of various publications, as well as their application to cartography.
Abstract: The article deals with the identification of the memorials of domestic cartography. The study of cartographic heritage is one of the main tasks in the Russian history of this science. The selection of works for classification as artifacts of our cartography is based on scientific analysis and examining the materials. A clear definition of a map-making memorial does not exist today; in this regard much attention is paid to the methods of studying such works. The criteria and methods for determining the significance of various publications, as well as their application to cartography, are considered, the procedure for entering a map or atlas into the Register of Book Monuments of the Russian Federation is investigated. On the example of the Map of Russian possessions in Transcaucasia, the way is shown from the discovery of the source, its examination, the identification of historical value, to classifying a cartographic work as a book and cartographic artifact.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a method for monitoring the vertical displacements of buildings is proposed and tested by using geodetic marks of sedimentary marks of the Shuvar mall building, and the results of measurements were equilibrated by the nodal point method and the leveling line was closed on each floor.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to determine the optimal method of researching the vertical displacements of buildings and stability of the marks, on the basis of which it is possible to make a conclusion about the subsidence of the researched building. Methodology. The main task of geodetic observations for buildings monitoring is to identify changes in the spatial position of load-bearing structures (vertical and horizontal displacements) to assess the risk of structures destruction, dismantling unstable structures, forecasting accidents. In this paper we offered to carry out monitoring by a method of high – precision geometrical leveling on the established geodetic marks, according to one scheme with constant points of devices installation. For testing this method 13 cycles of II class leveling were conducted to determine the vertical displacements of sedimentary marks of the “Shuvar” mall building. To detailed determination of the building deformation, namely its sediment on two floors, we laid 70 marks in the floor on the first floor and 41 marks on the second floor. Stainless steel anchors were used as marks. Findings. According to the results of observations of the laid sedimentary marks we determined their conditional heights. The difference of determined heights of the same marks for a certain period of time allows to determine the vertical displacements. The results of measurements were equilibrated by the nodal point method, and the leveling line was closed on each floor, so the equilibrations were performed separately for each floor. As a result we obtained the heights of sedimentary marks and the mean square errors of their determination. We constructed schedule of heights change of the chosen marks of the first floor within 13 cycles andcarried out the analysis of the reasons of these changes. Practical implications and originality. Observations of landslides, subsidences and deformations of the building have great importance for determining the strength and stability of the building to prevent its destruction or give signal in a timely manner of an emergency, which can become vital. In this paper method for monitoring the vertical displacements of buildings is proposed and tested. The obtained results suggest that proposed method of observations can be recommended to determine the vertical displacements of such buildings and complexes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe the process of office mine-survey geodetic and cartographic works at the fields of PLC Gazprom Dobycha Yamburg using one of the world`s most widespread geographic information systems (GIS) MapInfo.
Abstract: The authors describe the process of office mine-survey geodetic and cartographic works at the fields of PLC Gazprom Dobycha Yamburg using one of the world`s most widespread geographic information systems (GIS) MapInfo. However, it does not have a sufficient number of ready-made tools designed to solve narrowly focused, practical tasks in underground surveying. In particular, at performing works on arranging plane-and-height measurement of pipelines at the Yamburg oil and gas condensate field, they faced the problem of lacking the necessary tools for creating their lengthwise profiles. Using the capabilities of the program, to automate the construction of the mentioned profiles and increase the economic efficiency of the production process in the MapInfo GIS in the MapBasic programming language, a software module "Construction of various purposes pipelines’ lengthwise profiles" was created. The module is designed to automate the processes of constructing such profiles, piping of gas well clusters, gas pipelines-collectors, on-site networks for different goals, associated with the multiple repetitions of many operations previously performed manually. The construction of a lengthwise profile in this software product enables eliminating errors at transferring marks obtained as a result of field changes. The use of the software module can significantly reduce the time at preparation of reporting as- built documentation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors considered the possibility of areas overgrowing automated determination in agricultural territory to reduce the time required to perform tasks of identifying disturbed lands and decrease the human factor influencing the result.
Abstract: The author considers the possibility of areas overgrowing automated determination in agricultural territory to reduce the time required to perform tasks of identifying disturbed lands and decrease the human factor influencing the result. The methodology is based on a system of converting the initial remote sensing data into a segmented image. The purpose is to achieve the highest reliability of percentage at further uncontrolled classification. The initial data is that of space survey with high and medium spatial resolution, geometric and atmospheric correction and vector boundaries of agricultural fields. The author applies the watershed method to the original images to increase the reliability of the final result. The Sobel operator is used as preprocessing method to create a gradient image. Further joining of adjacent homogeneous segments together is carried out using the Full Lambda Schedule method. The segmented image is classified through the k-means clustering technique. Materials from WorldView-3 and Sentinel-2 satellites agricultural territories in the Republic of Kalmykia and Kaluga oblast were used. The classification result is analyzed and on its basis an overgrowth vector mask of agricultural fields is created.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , three direct methods are described in order to calculate: the distance, the azimuth, the coordinates of a point and intermediate positions of an elliptical section.
Abstract: The use of central elliptical sections in the calculation of air and sea routes and normal sections in Geodesy is common. Elliptic sections do not represent the shortest path between two points, although are often used in navigation to replace the geodesic lines. All developments include some kind of iteration to solve one of the problems, direct or inverse. When using vector algebra methods and perturbed series, the problems can be solved using an equidistant circle that represents the path of the elliptical section. This is possible because the flattening of the elliptical section is less than or equal to the Earth’s flattening, which implies that the series calculated for the terrestrial ellipsoid, used in the section, always converge. Three direct methods are described in order to calculate: the distance, the azimuth, the coordinates of a point and intermediate positions of an elliptical section. Those algorithms provide solutions to the inverse and direct algorithms with a consistency of the order of truncation error of double-type numbers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors examined errors of the planned position of the points of the educational and research site of the Chernihiv Polytechnic National University (CPNU) located in a forested area.
Abstract: The article examines errors of the planned position of the points of the educational and research site “Fortuna” of the Chernihiv Polytechnic National University (Ukraine), located in a forested area. Kinematic positioning has been performed using a GNSS receiver GeoMax Zenith 10/20 in real time mode. The network of permanent satellite GNSS stations System NET has been used as a coordinate basis. RTK Master Auxiliary Corrections (MAX) technology has been used to form the corrective amendments. The calculation of RTK corrections has been performed using the software package Leica GNSS Spider v4.3. The Transverse Mercator cartographic projection has been used to determine the flat rectangular coordinates in the USK-2000 system. The values of the coordinates determined in the RTK mode have been compared with the coordinates obtained by the method of electronic polygonometry, which are estimated to be 3 times more accurate. Coordinate differences have formed error vectors. As a result of analysis of the vector field, a stable tendency has been established: the deviation of the planned coordinates of the site points, determined by the method of GNSS-observations in real time mode and located in the forest park zone, in the direction of the base station.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors described anamorphoses for visualizing the ecological situation in the Russian Federation regions, using the pollutants total emissions in the atmosphere, the discharge of contaminated waste into surface water bodies, the production and consumption waste volume generated.
Abstract: The authors described anamorphoses for visualizing the ecological situation in the Russian Federation regions, using the pollutants total emissions in the atmosphere, the discharge of contaminated waste into surface water bodies, the production and consumption waste volume generated. This data can be laid in the foundations of the created anamorphoses or/and used as a thematic load on them as indicators calculated with various characteristics of the Russian Federation regions, and in particular

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the coordinates of the circle shaped seat places that will be applied in indoor space can be obtained by the help of common points determined in numerical project model formed in a local coordinate system.
Abstract: Before the application, the coordinates of the circle shaped seat places that will be applied in indoor space can be obtained by the help of common points determined in numerical project model formed in a local coordinate system. Practically, the coordinates of the points in the digital project model can be also obtained numerically by using the coordinates of the common points. However, converting to numerals manually, the factors such as the support quality of the project, exhaustion of the operator, hand tremble and screen resolution influence the sensitivity of the conversion to numerals. Errors made during the conversion negatively affect the coordinates of the points. The most suitable method not to make errors is the calculation of coordinates of the points in the project model by geodetic method. In this project, the calculation of the coordinates of the seat midpoints placed on the curves in a closed area, benefited from the corner point coordinates of the seats in the indoor space obtained from geodetic measurement in a local coordinate system before the application and benefited from the data of the other points of the indoor space are explained. Furthermore, the ground application of the midpoints of the seats on each curve row is explained. The accuracy of the stake-out of seats in the conference room is obtained between 1 and 2 cm.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the dynamics of changes in the surface water area in Lake Ladoga catchment and its separate catchments using remote sensing data over a long period of time were studied.
Abstract: The purpose of the work is to study the dynamics of changes in the surface water area in Lake Ladoga catchment and its separate catchments using remote sensing data over a long period time. The processed archives of the Earth’s water surface “Global Surface Water” are considered as the initial information. In the present study the following datasets are used

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a dual-channel model was proposed to estimate shallow water depth using Worldview 3 satellite imagery and dual channel models in Karimunjawa waters, Central Java, Indonesia.
Abstract: This research aims to estimate shallow water depth using Worldview 3 satellite imagery and dual-channel models in Karimunjawa waters, Central Java – Indonesia. To build dual-channel models, we used spectral data that had been validated in the field. Twenty-three depth data were recorded synchronous to the spectral data used in forming the semianalytical dual-channel models. Twelve models were tested using 633 depth data with a non-linear model using multiple polynomial regression analysis degrees 1 and 2. This research has shown that the proposed model has been confirmed to improve depth accuracy. Models using blue and green channels of Worldview 3 image result in good accuracies especially for estimating depths with interval from 5 to 20 meters with RMSE of 1,592 meters (5–10 meters), 2,099 meters (10–15 meters), and 1,239 meters (15–20 meters). The wavelengths of two channels have a low absorption rate to penetrate deeper waters than other wavelengths. The research also finds out that there are still models that meet the IHO standard criteria.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors carried out a retrospective critical analysis of information provision of urban planning activity in Russia (ISUP), as a result of which patterns and trends of development were identified and the directions of ISUP transformation were determined.
Abstract: Issues of digitalization and information support of urban planning activities are now becoming particularly relevant against the background of introducing the new innovation economy in all territorial governmental levels. To date, the processes of state information systems implementing for urban planning activities (ISUPA) in the regions of Russia continue, but the conceptual model of the systems in question, which can serve as a basis for developers, has not been formed. The aim of the research is to create a conceptual model of information support for urban planning in the Russian Federation by identifying directions of its transformation. The goal was achieved in the process of retrospective analysis and determining the directions of domestic ISUPA transformation. The authors carried out a retrospective critical analysis of information provision of urban planning activity in Russia (ISUP), as a result of which patterns and trends of development were identified. The directions of ISUP transformation were determined. We formulated the basic principles of construction and functioning of state information systems to ensure urban development (SISUPA). A conceptual model of modern SISUPA was constructed. A set of functional capabilities of the system is defined. The proposed conceptual model of SISUPA and the principles of its construction and operation can be used in the process of SISUPA further improvement in any region of the Russian Federation. The studies show that although digitalization in Russia in the field of urban planning goes steadily, there are problems with the implementation of measures to create a comprehensive ISUP in due time.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the mean motion of the study area was found approximately 7-15 cm for horizontal components (X-Y) and 6 cm for vertical components (Ellipsoidal Height) on the eight permanent International GPS Service (IGS) stations in the both polar regions.
Abstract: People are fascinated today more than ever by the polar regions of the Earth. One reason for this is that wide expanses of the Arctic and Antarctic have not been explored and are therefore still viewed as frontier regions. Another is that they both have very diverse histories with regard to their origins and ice formation. Their numerous aspects still pose many puzzles for science today. The regions of the Earth designated as polar are those areas located between the North or South Pole and the Arctic or Antarctic Circles, respectively. The northern polar region, called the Arctic, encompasses the Arctic Ocean and a portion of some surrounding land masses. The southern polar region, called the Antarctic, contains the continent of Antarctica and areas of the surrounding Southern Ocean. In this paper three tests (2000, 2010 and 2021) of continuous GNSS data recorded by 8 permanent International GPS Service (IGS) stations in both Polar Regions have been processed by using CSRS-PPP Software for geodetic networks. The results also show that all GNSS provide good visibility with low elevation angles, whereas with high elevation angles, which might be needed due to natural barriers, the GLONASS and other satellites provides the highest number of visible satellites. Consequently, the mean motion of the study area was found approximately 7–15 cm for horizontal components (X–Y) and 6 cm for vertical components (Ellipsoidal Height) on the eight IGS points in the both poles.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the results of aerial laser scanning are combined with the data of ground-based taxation, and it is shown that due to the sufficient accuracy of UAVs, it can be used effectively at conducting a state forest inventory.
Abstract: The use of forest resources in the context of globalized markets and implementing new technologies, enhanced competition and increasing environmental restrictions require reliable information. The method of aerial laser scanning opens up great prospects for the state inventory of forests. It is successfully used in many sectors of the economy, but it has not been worked out for state forest inventory. The purpose of the study is assessing the possibility of using aerial laser scanning within the framework of current regulations. The object of the study is a forest area of 11 840 hectares in the Leningrad region. The results of aerial laser scanning are combined with the data of ground-based taxation. It is established that deviations in the accuracy of determining the composition, density, average height and diameter, stand and wood stock are within the limits of permissible standards. It is shown that due to the sufficient accuracy of aerial laser scanning, it can be used effectively at conducting a state forest inventory.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the spatial location of the health institutions from lowerlevel Health Posts (HPs) to higher level Referral Hospitals (RHs) in both Zonal Capital Debre Berhan Town (DBT) and the surrounding Rural Basona Werana Wereda (BWW) using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment and ArcGIS software.
Abstract: The study is principally aimed to assess and analyse the spatial location of the health institutions from lowerlevel Health Posts (HPs) to higher level Referral Hospitals (RHs) in both Zonal Capital Debre Berhan Town (DBT) and the surrounding Rural Basona Werana Wereda (BWW) which includes both government and private owned using Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment and ArcGIS software. The methodological procedure encompasses adjustments of data before use for the analysis, data processing, analysis and final result. On this basis, it could become possible to identify the spatial locations of the health institutions in BWW and DBT including residential areas in both districts. Built up road network data set enabled generation of possible service areas and as a result higher Clinics, Health Centrers and hospitals are either nearly or fully provided for urbanized population of DBT while they are either extremely rare or not provided in the rural population of BWW. Absence of road infrastructures and transport facilities also intensified the rural health service access. The study suggests involvement of scientific approaches of GPS, GIS and other relevant technologies towards health policy implementation will be a remedial action for the government and stake holders of the health sector.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a soft computational simulator for Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) for geomatics research using deep learning has been developed for remote sensing multi-spectral data (RSSM).
Abstract: Artificial neural networks (ANN) obtain more importance after the innovation of deep learning (DL) approach. This research is oriented towards development of soft computational simulator for geomatics research using ANN supporting the deep approach. ANN seems to be a black box due to its sensitivity towards initialization, architecture, and behavior. This research gives a spotlight on the dull areas of ANN algorithm by developing a soft computational simulator for it. The applied examples are chosen to cover geomatics data. DANNDO (Deep Artificial Neural Networks Designer and Optimizer) software is developed to achieve the research objective. Multi-layer perceptron (MLP) architecture is applied in this simulator. Geomatics (remote sensing multi- spectral data) is selected to be a testing paradigm to insure the reliability of the developed simulator. The developed simulator proved the high performance of applying both shallow and deep ANN (DANN).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors analyzed and systematized multi-temporal cartographic material, as well as information on the history of Buinsk city territory development in determining the historic boundaries of settlements.
Abstract: The authors analyze and systematize multi-temporal cartographic material, as well as information on the history of Buinsk city territory development in determining the historic boundaries of settlements. For this, information is presented on the formation of the uezd town of Buinsk on the basis of Buinskoye village in the Simbirsk gubernia in the 18th century and the transformation of its borders during the 19th century. The authors present an overview of historical cartographic sources, the results of analyzing scientific historical and cultural (historical and architectural, historical and urban planning, historical and archival, archaeological) materials, information obtained arising from viewing the ancient buildings of the historical settlement, containing information on the city of Buinsk. Cartographic overlay and spatial referencing of historical and modern materials were carried out, taking into account the location of cultural heritage objects included in the unified state register (historical and cultural monuments) of the Russian Federation’s peoples, identified cultural heritage features and historically valuable cityforming ones. In addition, the results of analyzing compositional-and-species relationships of the historic settlement were taken into account. In this article, for the first time, cartographic sources on the history of Buinsk city are collected and summarized. Our studies served as the basis for defining the boundaries of the regional significance historical settlement territory, as well as identifying the elements of the regional significance historic settlement subject protection – “City of Buinsk”. As a result, the objects of cultural heritage and the subject of protection of the historical settlement were identified; the requirements for the regimes of maintaining the territory and town planning regulations were determined for them.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors show the differentiation of the modern aeolian landforms spatial distribution (natural and anthropogenic origin) for the northern part of the West Siberian Plain (an area of about 800 thousand km2) based on the analytical processing of Sentinel-2 satellite images (resolution 10 m/px).
Abstract: The authors show the differentiation of the modern aeolian landforms spatial distribution (natural and anthropogenic origin) for the northern part of the West Siberian Plain (an area of about 800 thousand km2) based on the analytical processing of Sentinel-2 satellite images (resolution 10 m/px). A deciphering technique was developed; it includes the use of unsupervised ISODATA classification algorithms, visual editing, verification of results based on high-resolution satellite images, and standard spatial analysis procedures. In total, 404,675 aeolian relief objects with a total area of 2228,18 km2 were identified. The average area of natural forms was 0,44 ha (the largest share in the Yamal district of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug – 1,02 %), the average area of anthropogenic forms – 2,84 ha (the largest share in the Purovsky district of the same region – 0,19 %). It was revealed that in the territories of oil and gas production, the maximum area of both natural and anthropogenic aeolian forms corresponds to the boundaries of the Urengoy field (19,14 and 34,58 km2, respectively). It was established that in the Yamal Peninsula, the modern aeolian relief is confined mainly to marine and hydroglacial deposits, while in that of Gydan Peninsula, a connection can be traced with glacial or marine ones that have experienced direct mechanical action of cover ice. It was revealed that the mentioned relief is often formed in areas with increased drainage, facing towards the direction of the prevailing winds in the spring-autumn period (terraces and the watershed of the Pur and Nadym rivers). The results of the study can be used at monitoring the reclamation of disturbed areas and the natural dynamics of vegetation as an indicator of global climate change in the north of Western Siberia.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined an integrated approach to improve the mapping capability of forest change monitoring for data deficient areas in developing countries by integrating ground-based information with Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS in the Man River Basin, India.
Abstract: In developing countries, both deforestation and forest degradation are of serious environmental concern due to various driving factors. This can be more difficult to manage due to the lack of quality data and the unavailability of appropriate mapping techniques. Based on remote sensing data, this study examined an integrated approach to improve the mapping capability of forest change monitoring for data deficient areas. The study is carried out integrating ground-based information with Landsat 5 TM, Landsat 8 OLI and TIRS in the Man River Basin, India. The findings of the current study suggest that the integrated approach enhances the ability of modeling to estimate deforestation and forest degradation associated with responsible drivers, especially in countries such as India where grassroots data are infrequent.