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Showing papers in "Geomatics and Environmental Engineering in 2021"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, three classification methods were used aimed at comparing their accuracy, using multispectral satellite images with a spatial resolution of 10 m. The classification process was performed using three different algorithms, namely: Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM), and overall accuracy values for MLC, ANN, and SVM were 85.32%, 70.64%, and 77.01% respectively.
Abstract: Land cover mapping of marshland areas from satellite images data is not a simple process, due to the similarity of the spectral characteristics of the land cover. This leads to challenges being encountered with some land covers classes, especially in wetlands classes. In this study, satellite images from the Sentinel 2B by ESA (European Space Agency) were used to classify the land cover of Al‑Hawizeh marsh/Iraq‑Iran border. Three classification methods were used aimed at comparing their accuracy, using multispectral satellite images with a spatial resolution of 10 m. The classification process was performed using three different algorithms, namely: Maximum Likelihood Classification (MLC), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM). The classification algorithms were carried out using ENVI 5.1 software to detect six land cover classes: deep water marsh, shallow water marsh, marsh vegetation (aquatic vegetation), urban area (built‑up area), agriculture area, and barren soil. The results showed that the MLC method applied to Sentinel 2B images provides a higher overall accuracy and the kappa coefficient compared to the ANN and SVM methods. Overall accuracy values for MLC, ANN, and SVM methods were 85.32%, 70.64%, and 77.01% respectively.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comparative analysis of the suggested approaches and their practical approbation have been carried out and the change of land plot spatial characteristics by means of various reallotment scenarios has been analyzed.
Abstract: The study is dedicated to land reallotment in the course of land use alteration in Ukraine. The case of the development of an individual residential block in an agricultural area is considered. The issue of the alteration of the spatial characteristics of land plots and changes in their designated use have been highlighted. The objective of the article is the substantiation of land reallotment at the level of an individual residential block on agricultural land which is privately owned by a number of landowners. The preconditions for the development of land reallotment in a rural‑type settlement in the suburban area of a big city have been substantiated. Alternative approaches to land reallotment have been suggested. A comparative analysis of the suggested approaches and their practical approbation have been carried out. The change of land plot spatial characteristics in the course of reallotment by means of various reallotment scenarios has been analysed. Land plot value after reallotment in each scenario has been specified. The practicability of each approach depending on the initial conditions has been substantiated. The research can be used in the course of rural settlement development planning, the coordination of measures on land use type alteration with landowners and land users, with private landowners or the implementation of local community initiatives.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present how the use of geospatial network analysis can support local decision makers in the evaluation of potential public transport accessibility by citizens in the case of a Central European city -Wroclaw (Poland).
Abstract: Sustainable Development Goals require holistic actions, including activity at the intersection of urban planning and environmental engineering. Turning our cities towards transit‑oriented development might help in reducing pollutant emissions caused by individual transportation modes that rely on crude oil. This research presents how the use of geospatial network analysis can support local decision makers in the evaluation of potential public transport accessibility by citizens in the case of a Central European city – Wroclaw (Poland). The obtained results indicate differentiation in access to railway stations and stops, which results from pedestrian path networks and the number of entrances to railway stations. The visualization of serve area shows which parts of the city are excluded from comfortable access to public transport and in that way high‑ light where future actions should be taken.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research attempted to determine the optimal photo overlap, number of con‐ trol points and method of camera calibration for a photogrammetric 3D model reconstruction of an object of cultural heritage value.
Abstract: This research attempted to determine the optimal photo overlap, number of control points and method of camera calibration for a photogrammetric 3D model reconstruction of an object of cultural heritage value. Terrestrial images of the object were taken with a hand‑held digital camera and processed in the ContextCapture software using the Structure‑from‑Motion (SfM) algorithm. A total station was used to measure ground control points (GCPs) and check points. Here, the research workflow, methodology, and various analyses concerning different configurations of the aforementioned factors are described. An attempt to assess the parameters which should be implemented in order to provide a high degree of accuracy of the model and reduce time‑consumption both during fieldwork and data processing was taken. The manuscript discusses the results of the analyses and compares them with other studies presented by different authors and indicates further potential directions of studies within this scope. Based on the authors’ experience with this research, some general conclusions and remarks concerning the planning of photo acquisition from the terrestrial level for the purpose of 3D model reconstruction were formulated.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the housing price dynamics and forecasting in Polish cities during the COVID-19 pandemic and found that there will be no significant price decline in Poland in the near future.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic represents a combined supply and demand shock to the financial and housing market but also an unusual negative shock in terms of the health of society (households) and national economy. The fall in housing demand was initially assumed together with price decreases as a consequence of the uncertainty of the health of society, significant falls in stock markets and corporate solvency. However, the results of research in selected Polish cities do not indicate such a significant market recession. This article examines the housing price dynamics and forecasting in Polish cities during the COVID-19 pandemic. The TRAMO/SEATS and ARIMA models were used for the decomposition and forecasting of dwelling time series. The Polish housing market, represented by selected local housing markets, still shows a growing trend despite the COVID-19 pandemic throughout 2020. The housing market may slow down in 2021, but the strong forecasted growth trends in Warszawa and Poznan suggest that there will be no significant price decline in Poland in the near future. © 2021, AGH University of Science and Technology Press. All rights reserved.

6 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of lockdown during COVID-19 on the land surface temperature (LST) was assessed using Landsat 8 Imagery for three different periods: before, during and after the COVID19 lockdown.
Abstract: Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important variable within global climate change. With the appearance of remote sensing techniques and advanced GIS software, it is now possible to estimate LST. In this study, the effect of lockdown during COVID-19 on the LST was assessed using Landsat 8 Imagery. LST dynamic was investigated for three different periods: Before, during and after the COVID-19 lockdown. The study was conducted in Casablanca City. The results showed that during the emergence of COVID-19 with lockdown policy applied, the LST decreases remarkably compared to the previous 4-years’ average LST. After the easing of restrictions, the LST increased to exceed the previous 4-year mean LST. Furthermore, throughout all studied periods, the LST recorded its higher values in industrial zones and areas with high urban density and urban transportation, which indicates the conspicuous impact of anthropogenic activities on the LST variation. These findings indicate an ability to assess the feasibility of planned lockdowns intended as a potential preventive mechanism to reduce LST peaks and the loss of air quality in metropolitan environments in the future.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors aimed at analyzing the phenomenon of shoreline retreat in the locality of Rufisque from 1978 to 2018 mainly using geospatial data and field visits.
Abstract: This paper is aimed at analyzing the phenomenon of shoreline retreat in the locality of Rufisque from 1978 to 2018 mainly using geospatial data and field visits. A set of Landsat images from different dates at 10 year intervals was then acquired through the United States Geological Survey platform and shoreline change analysis was run using the Digital Shoreline Analysis System. In addition to that desktop work, interactions with local residents allowed the determination of ongoing adaptation strategies actually in place to cope with coastal erosion. The study showed that Rufisque is subject to serious rates of erosion reaching −19.48 m/year from 1978–1988, close to −8 m/year from 1988–1998, −5.88 m/year from 1998–2008 and −6.67 m/year from 2008–2018. Beside that coastal erosion, it has been noticed that the coastline also experienced in some of its parts cases of accretion reaching 4.94 m/year for 1988–1998, 7.29 m/year from 1998–2008 and 7.68 m/year during the period 2008–2018. In terms of surfaces, Rufisque’ shoreline respectively lost 156.81 ha (1978–1988), 80.55 ha (1988–1998), 6.94 ha (1998–2008), 12.93 ha (2008–2018) and in the same note gained 2.86 ha (1988–1998), 32.51 ha (1998–2008) and 19.16 ha (2008–2018) attesting to the fact that the coastline is subject to both spatiotemporal changes. Finally, this study also reveals that while authorities’ reaction is taking place at much lower pace, local communities are actually using their ingenuity to put in place strategies to tackle coastal erosion.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors compared the results obtained from different sources of free online GPS data processing (AUSPOS, OPUS, CenterPoint RTX, APPS, MagicGNSS, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, and SCOUT) in terms of their accuracy, availability, and operation.
Abstract: The processing of GPS observations in precise positioning is complex and requires professional surveyors since it must be carried out after each static measurement. In GPS network adjustment, the obtaining of the correct coordinates of the determined point is possible after determining the components of GPS vectors and aligning the networks of these vectors, while PPP requires the availability of precise products for the reference satellites orbits and clock. For that reason, surveyors can take advantage of free online GPS data processing. In this paper, the authors compare the results obtained from different sources of free online GPS data processing (AUSPOS, OPUS, CenterPoint RTX, APPS, MagicGNSS, CSRS-PPP, GAPS, and SCOUT) in terms of their accuracy, availability, and operation. This is then compared with free GPS processing software (gLAB and RTKLIB), and finally with commercial software (TBC Trimble Business Center). The results show that online processing services are more accurate than offline processing software, which indicates the strength of their algorithms and processes. The CSRS-PPP online service had the best results. The difference between the relative solution of AUSPOS and OPUS, and CSRS-PPP is insignificant.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the spatial temporal change trend in LULC in the case of Central Haryana in the years 1975-2020 for pre-and post-monsoon periods.
Abstract: Timely and accurate detection of land use/land cover (LULC) change is important for the macro and micro level sustainable development of any region. For this purpose, geospatial techniques are the best tool for change analysis as they supply timely, cheaper, precise and up to date information. This paper examines the spatial temporal change trend in LULC in the case of Central Haryana. Landsat 2, 3, 5, 7 and 8 images for the years 1975–2020 for pre‑ and post‑monsoon periods were analyzed for the study. Radiometric correction was performed to derive better information. ArcGIS 10.2 and ENVI 5.3 are used for thematic layout and thematic change preparation. An unsupervised classification using ERDAS IMAGINE 2015 has also been done to classify study area in eight classes. The year 1975 is considered as the base year for change detection analysis. Results showed an increasing trend for the land use classes of built‑up, water body, and agricultural land without waterlogging in the pre‑ and post‑monsoon periods between 1975 and 2020. Remaining land use classes of agriculture with waterlogging, open waterlogged area, vegetation and fallow land/sand dunes decreased during the same period. Increased human activities have changed the LULC in the region and have had a great impact on its sustainable regional development.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the construction of the CityGML model with different LoDs using several datasets, and introduce a scale unique ID to connect all respective LoDs for cross-LoD information queries within a single viewer.
Abstract: The CityGML model is now the norm for smart city or digital twin city development for better planning, management, risk-related modelling and other applications. CityGML comes with five levels of detail (LoD), mainly constructed from point cloud measurements and images of several systems, resulting in a variety of accuracies and detailed models. The LoDs, also known as pre-defined multi-scale models, require large storage-memory-graphic consumption compared to single scale models. Furthermore, these multi-scales have redundancy in geometries, attributes, are costly in terms of time and workload in updating tasks, and are difficult to view in a single viewer. It is essential for data owners to engage with a suitable multi-scale spatial management solution in minimizes the drawbacks of the current implementation. The proper construction, control and management of multi-scale models are needed to encourage and expedite data sharing among data owners, agencies, stakeholders and public users for efficient information retrieval and analyses. This paper discusses the construction of the CityGML model with different LoDs using several datasets. A scale unique ID is introduced to connect all respective LoDs for cross-LoD information queries within a single viewer. The paper also highlights the benefits of intermediate outputs and limitations of the proposed solution, as well as suggestions for the future.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of the El Nino South Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IOD), and Madden-Julian Oscillations (MJO) on extreme rainfall events in the province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Abstract: In this study, we model extreme rainfall to study the high rainfall events in the province of South Sulawesi, Indonesia. We investigated the effect of the El Nino South Oscillation (ENSO), Indian Ocean Dipole Mode (IOD), and Madden–Julian Oscillation (MJO) on extreme rainfall events. We also assume that events in a location are affected by events in other nearby locations. Using rainfall data from the province of South Sulawesi, the results showed that extreme rainfall events are related to IOD and MJO.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the connection between flood and drought hazards and their impact on crop land and human migration using the Flood and Drought effect on Cropland Index (FDCI), hot spot analysis and the Global Regression Analysis method.
Abstract: The main objective was to explore the connection between flood and drought hazards and their impact on crop land and human migration. The Flood and Drought effect on Cropland Index (FDCI), hot spot analysis and the Global Regression Analysis method was applied for the identification of the relationship between human migration and flood and drought hazards. The spatial pattern and hot and cold spots of FDCI, spatial autocorrelation and Getis-OrdGi* statistic techniques were used respectively. The FDCI was taken as an explanatory variable and human migration was taken as a dependent variable in the environment of the geographically weighted regression (GWR) model which was applied to measure the impact of flood and drought hazards on human migration. FDCI suggests a z-score of 4.9, which shows that the impact of flood and drought frequency on crop land is highly clustered. In the case of the hot spots analysis, out of seventy districts in Uttar Pradesh twenty-one were classified as hot spot and eight were classified as cold spots with a confidence level of 90 to 99%. Hot spot indicate maximum and cold spots show minimum impact of flood and drought hazards on crop land. The impact of flood and drought hazards on human migration show that there are fourteen districts where migration out is far more than predicted while there are ten districts where migration out is far lower.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the above ground biomass and carbon stock in the green space of Bilbao Spain using remote sensing technology was estimated using a linear regression model based on linear regression.
Abstract: Our ecosystem, particularly forest lands, contains huge amounts of carbon storage in the world today. This study estimated the above ground biomass and carbon stock in the green space of Bilbao Spain using remote sensing technology. Landsat ETM+ and OLI satellite images for year 1999, 2009 and 2019 were used to assess its land use land cover (LULC), change detection, spectral indices and model biomass based on linear regression. The result of the LULC showed that there was an increase in forest vegetation by 12.5% from 1999 to 2009 and a further increase by 2.3% in 2019. However, plantation cover had decreased by 3.5% from 1999–2009; while wetlands had also decreased by 9% within the same period. There was, however, an increase in plantation cover from 2009 to 2019 by 2.1% but a further decrease in wetlands of 4.3%. Further results revealed a positive correlation across the three decades between the widely used Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) with other spectral indices such as Enhance Vegetation Index (EVI) and Normalized Differential Moisture Index (NDMI) for biomass were: for 1999 EVI (R2 = 0.1826), NDMI (R2 = 0.0117), for 2009 EVI (R2 = 0.2192), NDMI (R2 = 0.3322), for 2019EVI (R2 = 0.1258), NDMI (R2 = 0.8148). A reduction in the total carbon stock from 14,221.94 megatons in 1999 to 10,342.44 megatons 2019 was observed. This study concluded that there has been a reduction in the amount of carbon which the Biscay Forest can sequester.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used the Revised Universal Soil Losses Equation (RUSLE) for a relatively accurate estimate, by integrating Arc-GIS tools and remote sensing using high spatial resolution (10 m) image from the Sentinel-2A satellite.
Abstract: Prolonged water erosion leads to severe soil degradation, with highly visible scars. Consequently, the quantitative and descriptive estimation by mapping of the phenomenon has become the main objective of a great deal of research. It is this perspective that this study takes, based on the Revised Universal Soil Losses Equation (RUSLE) for a relatively accurate estimate, by integrating Arc‑GIS tools and remote sensing using high spatial resolution (10 m) image from the Sentinel‑2A satellite. The model uses data on precipitation, soil, topography and vegetation cover management. The methodological approach taken implements this model in order to optimize its use by the various potential users in their planning and decision‑making studies. An application was carried out in the Oued Isser watershed (Tlemcen, Algeria). Soil loss maps were produced and the results indicate a high variation in soil losses in the study area and show that the highest values are concentrated on steep slopes, hence the great influence of the topographic parameter relative to other factors in the model.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The theoretical understanding among scholars about how institutional arrangements for sustainable local development partnerships in mineral resource-rich countries are created is explored in this article, where interviews and questionnaires, a mixed research method, were completed with officials and citizens from selected provinces.
Abstract: A primary goal of the article is to explore the theoretical understanding among scholars about how institutional arrangements for sustainable local development partnerships in mineral resource‑rich countries are created A success factor for implementing sustainable development goals (SDGs) is creating a prop‑ er institutional arrangementInterviews and questionnaires, a mixed research method, were completed with officials and citizens from selected provinces We reached to the following results: among others there is a weak understanding of partnership‑related local community development among stakeholders Therefore, long term strategic planning and management which involves all parties in the decision‑making process should be created In addition, building both horizontal and vertical institutional arrangements that provide for the participation of related stakeholders is an essential element for building successful and sustainable local development partnerships

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison of the detail of land use classification registered in the real estate cadastre in areas functionally related to the urban areas of 9 European countries: Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Spain, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Germany and Poland is presented.
Abstract: The real estate cadastre is the primary source of information on land use. It records information related to the division of land into types based on the actual way of land use or development. The distinguished types of land use depend on many geographical factors, as well as historical and economic conditions. The study presents a comparison of the detail of land use classification registered in the real estate cadastre in areas functionally related to the urban areas of 9 European countries: Austria, Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Spain, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Germany and Poland. The research concerned the determination of the degree to which the classification of land use in urbanized areas is detailed, whether the studied European countries are characterized by the same number of distinguished classes of objects at different levels of detail, and what percentage are the distinguished classes of land use objects in urbanized areas in relation to all of the distinguished classes of objects land use at different levels of detail of classification. The study used legal acts regulating land use issues which have been made available in national languages by government institutions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated agricultural land use and land cover dynamics in the Araban district of Turkey during the periods 1984-2019 by the use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) LandsatTM and Landsat‑TIRS / OLI satellite imageries.
Abstract: Agricultural land use and land cover dynamics were investigated in the Araban district of Turkey during the periods 1984–2019 by the use of Remote Sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) Landsat‑TM and Landsat‑TIRS / OLI satellite imageries were used to determine land use and land cover changes Using unsupervised classification method of ERDAS 83 software, three main agricultural activities were identified namely irrigated farming, dry farming, and horticultural / garden farming The analysis has revealed that during the last three decades dry farming has decreased significantly by 1469% (380214 ha) whereas horticultural/garden crops and irrigated farming lands have increased by 1132% (66719 ha) and 251% (292941 ha) respectively Araban has been under intensive agricultural use due to its fertile soil and preference for horticultural crops such as pistachio, grapes and olives that provide more profit over dry farming crops such as wheat and barley has changed land use Decrease in dry farming in a semi‑arid climate where Araban is located, has a potential ecological consequence, including a rapid drop of groundwater level, drying of wetlands and the disappearance of the biodiversity, thus, a necessary measures should be taken to implement an environmentally friendly, sustainable agriculture and settlement plan

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the idea of marking agricultural parcels in the control of direct payments to agriculture using remote sensing to monitor crops and mark them according to the concept of traffic lights.
Abstract: The aim of the paper is to discuss the idea of marking agricultural parcels in the control of direct payments to agriculture. The method of using remote sensing to monitor crops and mark them according to the idea of “traffic lights” is introduced. Classification into a given “traffic lights” color gives clear information about the status of the parcel. The image classification was done on Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 datasets by calculating the NDVI and SIGMA time series in the season from autumn 2016 to autumn 2017. Two approaches are presented: semi-automated and automated classifications. Semi-automated classification based on NDVI_index and SIGMA_index. Automated classification was performed on NDVI by Spectral Angle Mapper method and on SIGMA by Artificial Neural Network (Multilayer Perceptron, MLP method). The following overall accuracy was obtained for NDVI_SAM: 70.35%, while for SIGMA_CNN it was: 62.01%. User accuracy (UA) values were adopted for traffic lights analysis, in machine learning: positive predictive value (PPV). The UA/PPV for rapeseed were in NDVI_index method: 88.1% (6,986 plots), NDVI_SAM: 85.0% (199 plots), SIGMA_index: 61.3% (4,165 plots) and in SIGMA_CNN: 88.9% (2,035 plots). In order to present the idea of “traffic lights”, a website was prepared using data from the NDVI_index method, which is a trade-off between the number of plots and UA/PPV accuracy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Since July 31, 2020, follow‐ ing the amended Geodesic and Cartographic Law, the obligation to report the building setting out has been repealed, but the real estate owner will still be obliged to submit an appropriate application to the starost to dis‐ close the new land use in accordance with Article 22 of the Geodesics and Car‐ tographic Law.
Abstract: From the year 2014 to July 31, 2020, setting out a building was surveying work subject to the obligation to report to the locally competent district governor (starost) before it was commenced. After completion of the building setting out, the contractor of surveying works was obliged to notify the authorities of the completion of the surveying works and to submit the results of survey‐ ing works connected with the building setting out. Since July 31, 2020, follow‐ ing the amended Geodesic and Cartographic Law, the obligation to report the building setting out has been repealed. Despite that, the real estate owner will still be obliged to submit an appropriate application to the starost to dis‐ close the new land use in accordance with Article 22 of the Geodesic and Car‐ tographic Law. The author has analysed 31 documentation sets, being the results of building setting out procedures. The analysis verified the size of a land parcel on which the buildings were set out, what land use was presented before setting out and what land use was presented after the building setting out. In addition, the current state of development of the land parcel (as of July 2020) was ex‐ amined using map portals, and an orthophotomap was used to check whether the building was constructed, in order to verify whether the real estate cadastre was updated further.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated flood risk areas and created a flood risk map using integrated remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) in the Wasit governorate in eastern Iraq.
Abstract: Floods are a great concern for people and infrastructure, and this is an issue which has increased in several regions around the globe in recent years. This study aims to evaluate flood risk areas and create a flood risk map using integrated remote sensing data and a geographic information system (GIS) in the Wasit governorate – eastern Iraq. Specifically, GIS‑based multi‑criteria analysis (MCA) was used to map flood hazard areas using a four‑criteria layer which is as follows: flow accumulation, slope, rainfall, and elevation. These four layers are standardized and combined using the overlay approach in ArcGIS software and a final map was produced. The study area was divided into five zones based on the results map, namely: very low, low, medium, high, and very high, according to the flood risk area. The resulting map indicates that over 60% of the study area is likely to experience a high and very high level of propensity of flooding. This study could be useful for government planners and decision‑makers to predict potential flooding areas and enhance flood management plans.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented another proposal for the executive cycle to decrease ecological contamination in the waste management in Bangladesh, which is both financially and environmentally suitable by involving unemployed people in the management system, and showed that waste can be utilized as a resource and how this resource can be a capital good as well as how the local level problems can be solved by taking some strategies and making our environment suitable for future generations.
Abstract: Rapid urbanization combined with high economic growth, industrialization, and changes in socio-economic conditions increase the quantity of municipal solid waste. Cities located in South-Asia are facing serious issues due to waste, with countries like India, Bangladesh, and Pakistan top of the list of bad waste management. The increasing generation of solid waste and also the improper management of waste in Bangladesh leads to environmental degradation. Current waste management practice in Bangladesh is so weak that day by day it is harming the climate and creating a lot of unwanted situations. This research consists of an examination of the current administrative measures and presents another proposition for the executive cycle to decrease ecological contamination. The research study aims to decrease the amount of waste being dumped into municipal sanitary landfill sites & converting the waste into energy which is both financially and environmentally suitable by involving unemployed people in the management system. The results of this study will give an idea of how waste can be utilized as a resource and how this resource can be a capital good as well as how the local level problems can be solved by taking some strategies and making our environment suitable for future generations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the impact of highways of urban significance on surrounding areas and established the patterns of change in the value of land plots with various designated purpose and calculated the adjustment factors that can be used in the pecuniary valuation of the land plots.
Abstract: The paper examines the impact of highways of urban significance on surrounding areas. The authors substantiated the size of the road‑effect zone. In order to determine the quantitative extent of the impact of highways on surrounding areas, the scholars applied the data regarding the selling prices of land plots with various designated purpose, i.e. the estimated money value of land is the indicator of determining the road‑effect on surrounding areas. Since a great number of factors affects the value of these land plots, in order to determine the road‑effect for highways, the authors developed economic and statistical models for expert value of land plots with various designated purpose using the method of multiple regression analysis. After substituting different values of distances to a highway within the road‑effect zone in the model, the researchers established the patterns of change in the value of land plots with various designated purpose and calculated the adjustment factors that can be used in the pecuniary valuation of land plots. The value of such coefficients for residential construction land is 0.85–1.00; for commercial land it is 1.00–1.17; and for industrial land it is 1.00–1.01.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the possibility of applying the selected components of the theory of six value aggregation paths in designing walking pathways and found that the minimum value increase path may create a good basis for designing walking pathway.
Abstract: The study examines the possibility of applying the selected components of the theory of six value aggregation paths in designing walking pathways. Based on spatial data collected using a landscape assessment method on the aesthetic values of the landscape of the place under analysis, a model was developed of the network of links of the landscape aesthetic value using a minimum increase in this value. The authors designed scenarios for the optimal routes of walking pathways. The conducted study leads to the conclusion that the minimum value increase path may create a good basis for designing walking pathways. Not only is this manifested in the varied route of the pathway, but also in it being designed in such a way that the landscape’s aesthetic value increases beyond an assumed level of aesthetic value. In addition, the use of hexagonal basic fields enables the design of various route lengths and the optimization of time by adapting the model to a specific group of recipients.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the latest results of the new Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE FO) observations to an average month values of precipitation and evapotranspiration and tide gauge data in the nearby area.
Abstract: The Venezia Islands are a very special area from the hydrological point of view due to its water mass changes. Regular floods results in the need for the regular monitoring of water mass changes. For this purpose, a Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment mission (GRACE) can be used as a source of data. The aim of the paper is to compare the latest results of the new GRACE FO observations. The comparisons were carried out all over Venezia Island using the L3 level, RL06 release data obtained with spherical harmonics degree and order extension of up to 120, by the three most important computational centres: JPL, GFZ, CSR. Results are compared to an average month values of precipitation and evapotranspiration and tide gauge data in the nearby area. Based on the research, no dependence between TWS and evapotranspiration and evapotranspiration change were found.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Estimating the Inter ‐System Bias allows for more precise positioning results to be obtained for car ‐navigation or GIS purposes and the results show that in the case where the ISB was taken into account, the accuracy and precision in the positioning was much better than in the approach where theISB was not considered.
Abstract: The increasing number of satellites provides new opportunities. In the exper‐ iment presented in this paper, the Single Point Positioning technique is test‐ ed. Data from four different receivers were used in the tests. The GPS, Galileo and BeiDou System observations were collected over a three day long obser‐ vational session. The computational process was carried out using self ‐made software and point positions were obtained as the result. The goal of the test was to verify the impact of the Inter ‐System Bias (ISB) on the final results. For this purpose, two cases of processing data were compared: with estimating ISB and without taking into account this parameter. In the paper the formulas of the mathematical models used are presented and, in both of the considered cases, a combination of GPS, BDS and Galileo was used. The results show that in the case where the ISB was taken into account, the accuracy and precision in the positioning was much better than in the approach where the ISB was not considered. Estimating the ISB allows for more precise positioning results to be obtained for car ‐navigation or GIS purposes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the procedure for determining the market value of land with commercial buildings, which falls within the method of statistical analysis of the market, based on multiple regression analysis for a two-dimensional random variable, represented by the price and the predetermined attribute.
Abstract: The transaction price of a land property with commercial buildings depends on both its quantitative and qualitative attributes. Quantitative attributes include surface areas of plots of land and usable floor spaces of premises and buildings with various intended purposes, as well as values of rents. Qualitative attributes are represented by the global attributes of these properties.In the analysis of the land property market with commercial buildings, all pairs that relate a transaction price to individual attributes are considered. The market value prediction is based on multiple regression analysis for a two-dimensional random variable, represented by the price and the predetermined attribute. The final market value of the property being valued is calculated as the weighted average of the market values predicted for each attribute.This research paper presents the procedure for determining the market value of land with commercial buildings, which falls within the method of statistical analysis of the market. The derived formulas and substantively justified algorithms may be the basis for market analysis and estimation of the market value of such land. This procedure has been thoroughly verified using two practical numerical examples.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored the impact of shopping centres on society and local development of cities and regions in two Central-Eastern European countries, namely, Poznan (Poland) and Varna (Bulgaria).
Abstract: The article explores the issue of the function of shopping centres, in particular the analysis of the impact of their presence on society and the local development of cities and regions. Regarding the empirical aspect, the examples of Poznan (Poland) and Varna (Bulgaria) will be presented. As a result of similar socio‑economic conditions and joining the European Union at almost the same moment, all comparative studies reflecting preferences and market reactions seem both viable and interesting. In addition, the two cities chosen for the studies occupy a similar place in the hierarchy of the settlement network in their countries. They are large, well‑developed centres that attract the attention of investors from various segments of the real estate market. The research is part of the modelling of preferences of shopping centre customers areas, which in particular supports the investment decisions of developers operating in the analysed real estate market, and at the same time permits a diagnosis of social satisfaction. A derivative of the research is also the reconstruction of the effects of the functioning of large‑scale shopping malls in two Central‑Eastern European countries.

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TL;DR: In this article, a high resolution raster of the 19th century plan of the village of Lobzow near Krakow in Poland was used for the study of its scale and orientation in relation to directions of the world.
Abstract: This work concerns the assessment of the cartometricity of the 19th century plan of the village of Lobzow near Krakow in Poland, known as “Mapa Łob­zowa z przyleglościami”. The plan has not been researched in this respect so far. The aim of this study was to establish its scale and orientation in relation to directions of the world. A high resolution raster of the plan provided by the Historical Museum of the City of Krakow was used for the study. At first, an attempt was made to clarify the date of the plan’s origin. An analysis of infor­mation contained in archival documents shows that the plan of Lobzow was most probably created between 1824 and 1852, which corresponds with the period when the large­scale cadastral map was developed in Galicia. Therefore, selected sections of this map, from the area covered by the plan, were used for research. The scale value of the Lobzow plan was calculated using the lengths of sections between selected points on the plan and map. The calculated plan scale is close to the scale of the detailed map section detailed sheet of the ca­dastral map. It was established that the plan of Lobzow has the orientation relative to magnetic north as was common in the first half of the 19th century. The mutual dependencies between the orientation of the plan and the cadastral map in relation to the direction of true geographical north were illustrated. The final result of the work was to show the changes in the topography of Lobzow that have taken place over nearly 200 years.

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TL;DR: Using the Land Use and Coverage Frame Survey (LUCAS) database of Euro‐ pean soil surface layer properties, statistical and machine learning predictive models for several key soil characteristics were compared on the basis of processing their spectral responses in the visible and near ‐infrared parts.
Abstract: Using the Land Use and Coverage Frame Survey (LUCAS) database of European soil surface layer properties, statistical and machine learning predictive models for several key soil characteristics (clay content, pH in CaCl2, concentration of organic carbon, calcium carbonates and nitrogen and exchange cations capacity) were compared on the basis of processing their spectral responses in the visible (Vis) and near‑infrared (NIR) parts. Standard methods of relationship modeling were used: stepwise regression, partial least squares regression and linear regression with input data obtained from principal components analysis. Using the inputs extracted by statistical algorithms various machine learning algorithms were used in the modeling. The usefulness of the models was analyzed by comparison with the values of the determination coefficients, the root mean square error and the distribution of residual values. The mean square error of estimation in the cross‑validation procedure for the stack model using the multilayer perceptron and the distributed random forest were as follows: for clay content – ca. 4.5%; for pH – ca. 0.35; for SOC – ca. 7.5 g/kg (0.75% by weight); for CaCO3 content – ca. 19 g/kg; for N content – ca. 0.50 g/kg; and for CEC – ca. 3.5 cmol(+)/kg.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used five statistical tests for identifying and rejecting outliers: Q-Dixon test, Grubbs test, Hampel test and Rosner test.
Abstract: One of the main modes of monitoring the geotechnical conditions of earth dams is piezometric measurement, which measures water levels in an open piezometer or water pressure in a closed piezometer. During piezometric measurements, various types of factors can cause disturbances in these measurements that take the form of systematic, accidental, or obvious mistakes. Before measurements from open or closed piezometers are analyzed, outliers due to coarse errors should be detected and rejected. Such observations may significantly influence the result of the analysis and cause erroneous assessment and interpretation of the phenomenon studied. To do this, statistical tests must be applied so that the doubtful measurement can be accepted or rejected at the assumed significance level. This paper uses five statistical tests for identifying and rejecting outliers: the Q-Dixon test, the Grubbs test, as well as the Hampel test, the Iglewicz and Hoaglin test, and the Rosner test. The aim of this article is to try to identify the most suitable test for periodic piezometric measurements. The scope of the study includes the analysis of piezometric measurements for the Czaniec Dam for the multi-year period 2017–2020.