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Showing papers in "Geomatics and Environmental Engineering in 2022"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the problem of natural agricultural land afforestation with insufficient forest cover of the area is highlighted and the authors identify the main approaches to the issue of agricultural-land afforestation and propose land consolidation aimed at the rationalisation of agricultural and forest land management.
Abstract: The article highlights the problem of natural agricultural-land afforestation with insufficient forest cover of the area. The article purports to substantiate land consolidation aimed at the rationalisation of agricultural and forest land management in such conditions. The authors identify the main approaches to the issue of natural agricultural land afforestation. The afforested areas of agricultural land are suggested for redesignation as a forest resource as a result of a swap and reallotment of land plots. As an example, consolidation of available land, in the conditions of natural afforestation, has been accomplished based on a number of land masses in Chernihiv Oblast’, Ukraine. Resulting from the project implementation, better configuration and improved layout of agricultural land plots have been achieved, while the length and placement of country lanes have been optimized. The reforested agricultural areas within the specific land mass have been redesignated as a forest resource. The advantages and disadvantages of natural afforestation in land consolidation are identified in contrast to alternative approaches.The research findings can be used by territorial communities in the upgrade of land management practices, laying out and redesign of landscape parks and other nature conservation areas that include areas of business activity.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper introduces the essential DL concepts relevant to GIS, the majority of which have been published in recent years, and explores remote sensing applications and technologies in areas such as mapping, hydrological modelling, disaster management, and transportation route planning.
Abstract: The interaction of Deep Learning (DL) methods with Geographical Information System (GIS) provides the opportunity to obtain new insights into environmental processes through the spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions as well as data integration. The two technologies may be connected to form a dynamic system that is incredibly well adapted to the evaluation of environmental conditions through the interrelationships of texture, size, pattern, and process. This perspective has acquired popularity in multiple disciplines. GIS is significantly dependant on processors, particularly for 3D calculations, map rendering, and route calculation whereas DL can process huge amounts of data. DL has received a lot of attention recently as a technology with a plethora of promising results. Furthermore, the growing use of DL methods in a variety of disciplines, including GIS, is evident. This study tries to provide a brief overview of the use of DL methods in GIS. This paper introduces the essential DL concepts relevant to GIS, the majority of which have been published in recent years. This research explores remote sensing applications and technologies in areas such as mapping, hydrological modelling, disaster management, and transportation route planning. Finally, conclusions on contemporary framework methodologies and suggestions for further studies are provided.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a classification model was proposed to integrate spectral, height and textural features for building detection in Ashwa'iyyat, which is intended to improve the precision with which buildings are classified using scikit learn Python libraries and QGIS.
Abstract: Building detection in Ashwa’iyyat is a fundamental yet challenging problem, mainly because it requires the correct recovery of building footprints from images with high-object density and scene complexity.A classification model was proposed to integrate spectral, height and textural features. It was developed for the automatic detection of the rectangular, irregular structure and quite small size buildings or buildings which are close to each other but not adjoined. It is intended to improve the precision with which buildings are classified using scikit learn Python libraries and QGIS. WorldView-2 and Spot-5 imagery were combined using three image fusion techniques. The Grey-Level Co-occurrence Matrix was applied to determine which attributes are important in detecting and extracting buildings. The Normalized Digital Surface Model was also generated with 0.5-m resolution.The results demonstrated that when textural features of colour images were introduced as classifier input, the overall accuracy was improved in most cases. The results show that the proposed model was more accurate and efficient than the state-of-the-art methods and can be used effectively to extract the boundaries of small size buildings. The use of a classifier ensample is recommended for the extraction of buildings.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the ground-water potentials in a semi-arid region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan were analyzed using integrated Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) methods.
Abstract: Groundwater is a precious source of fresh water and a major component of the entire water supply. Both water quality and quantity could be satisfied by evaluating the groundwater potential sites (GWPS). This paper analyzes the ground-water potentials in a semi-arid region of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. It describes a standard methodology to identify and map GWPS using integrated Geographical Information System (GIS) and remote sensing (RS) methods. Eight parameters including elevation, slope, drainage density, lineaments density, soil, geology, land use/land cover and rainfall were integrated to explore areas with groundwater holding capability. GWPS were delineated through subjective weights assigned after coupling various thematic layers using Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchical Process (AHP). The modelled GWPS were cross-checked with tube wells data. The result indicates that the central part of the study area has good potential for groundwater reserves/exploitation, where the factors i.e. moderate to high drainage density, sedimentary sequence of alluvial plain, low elevation etc. discern the central portion of the study area as a suitable site for groundwater. This study suggests that the applied method proves to be very significant and reliable tool for timely assessment of quality assured evaluation of groundwater resources. This study could be a systematic guide for future investigations for water related explorations, especially in semi-arid environments.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the strengths and weaknesses of BIM and GIS integration as well as the opportunities and threats in the future are analyzed by performing a SWOT analysis based on the existing literature.
Abstract: The integration of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and GIS (Geographic Information System) technologies allows for added value in many fields; starting from the construction industry to administrative operations. However, the issue of integration is currently quite challenging. This is due to the lack of consistency (inter alia, a lack of standards) in the integration of both technologies. It is the result of the different primary use of BIM and GIS. The use of BIM and GIS integration has great potential, especially in the construction industry. Therefore, it was decided to analyze the strengths and weaknesses of integration as well as the opportunities and threats in the future by performing a SWOT analysis. The analysis was performed cross-sectionally based mainly on the existing literature. Finally, six strengths, five weaknesses, five opportunities, and four threats were identified and described.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors developed a susceptibility map to ground movements using a multi-criteria spatial assessment approach, and in order to reduce subjectivity, they have used a method for analyzing such complex decisions, which is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) implemented in the geographic information system (GIS).
Abstract: Landslides are one of the natural hazards that many countries around the world are facing. In Morocco, the Rif regions are the most affected by these phenomena. Each year they cause enormous damage to the road network and infrastructure, especially in our study region, the province of Larache.The study region is subject to several opening up and road construction projects, which is why it is necessary to predict and identify the most vulnerable areas beforehand, in order to propose measures and techniques which are adequate for protection and reinforcement.The main goal of this study is to develop a susceptibility map to ground movements using a multi-criteria spatial assessment approach, and in order to reduce subjectivity, we have used a method for analyzing such complex decisions, which is the analytic hierarchy process (AHP) implemented in the geographic information system (GIS). Seven factors have been considered as conditioning factors in the occurrence of landslides, which are: lithology, fracturing density, slope, aspect, land use, density of the hydrographic network, and altitude. To verify the results obtained, we performed a correlation analysis of ground movements, already inventoried and verified in the field, with the susceptibility classes that were calculated. This analysis is accompanied by a statistical study.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors proposed a methodology for the mapping of vegetation by integrating several vegetation indices along with original spectral bands, which achieved an increase of 3.87% and 4.32% after inclusion of selected vegetation indices by Random Forest and AdaBoost respectively.
Abstract: Vegetation mapping is an active research area in the domain of remote sensing. This study proposes a methodology for the mapping of vegetation by integrating several vegetation indices along with original spectral bands. The Land Use Land Cover classification was performed by two powerful Machine Learning techniques, namely Random Forest and AdaBoost. The Random Forest algorithm works on the concept of building multiple decision trees for the final prediction. The other Machine Learning technique selected for the classification is AdaBoost (adaptive boosting), converts a set of weak learners into strong learners. Here, multispectral satellite data of Dehradun, India, was utilised. The results demonstrate an increase of 3.87% and 4.32% after inclusion of selected vegetation indices by Random Forest and AdaBoost respectively. An Overall Accuracy (OA) of 91.23% (kappa value of 0.89) and 88.59% (kappa value of 0.86) was obtained by means of the Random Forest and AdaBoost classifiers respectively. Although Random Forest achieved greater OA as compared to AdaBoost, interestingly AdaBoost provided better class-specific accuracy for the Shrubland class compared to Random Forest. Furthermore, this study also evaluated the importance of each individual feature used in the classification. Results demonstrated that the NDRE, GNDVI, and RTVIcore vegetation indices, and spectral bands (NIR, and Red-Edge), obtained higher importance scores.

3 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors mapped the hot spots of soil erosion areas to predict the soil erosion/siltation in the Ghiss basin/dam (northeastern Morocco).
Abstract: Soil erosion is a major factor leading to dams’ siltation and reducing their storage capacity. This study mapped the hot spots of soil erosion areas to predict the soil erosion/siltation in the Ghiss basin/dam (northeastern Morocco). In this context, various data has been prepared in the geographical information system for the estimation of soil erosion by integrating the universal soil loss equation (USLE). The result of this study revealed that soil loss rate ranges between0 and 19 t∙ha−1∙yr−1. Therefore, the hot spots in the soil erosion area are to be found upstream, potentially leading to dam siltation over time. To avoid Ghiss dam siltation, we suggest terrace farming and reforestation in the soil erosion area hot spots.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In 2018, in the extreme south of Algeria, the In-Guezzam City suffered a devastating flood that caused significant damage and loss of human and material resources as discussed by the authors .
Abstract: Natural risks, particularly flood risk, are a topical subject in Algeria and throughout the world, particularly given the last major catastrophic floods in Sudan (2020) and North Africa. With the development of the climate change phenomenon in the world, risk management is becoming increasingly necessary for all the actors concerned (decision-makers, technicians, and the population) to identify protection issues. In 2018, in the extreme south of Algeria, In-Guezzam City suffered a devastating flood that caused significant damage and loss of human and material resources. More than 100 homes collapsed, and approximately 345 families were displaced. Currently, there is no research work to assess the hydrological situation and the risk of flooding in this region. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to shed light on the risk of flash floods in the extreme south of Algeria with more specific attention to the August 2018 floods as well as the climate trends over the past 30 years using Mann–Kendall test and Sen’s Slope Estimator. The chosen approach involves a hydrological study and hydrodynamic modeling using HEC-RAS software. This latter allows for simulating floods using statistical methods and creating several regional flood hazard maps.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors developed a procedure for designing and optimizing photovoltaic installations using geomatics methods and specific tools of GIS and CAD systems, which can be applied to other buildings and, consequently, the results obtained can be used to improve the content of the solar data urban geoportal.
Abstract: The design and installation of solar panels on the roofs of urban buildings often require consideration of the specific spatial conditions that affect their efficiency. The primary purpose of this work is to develop a procedure for designing and optimizing photovoltaic installations using geomatics methods and specific tools of GIS and CAD systems. The roof of the historic building A2, which is a part of the Poznań University of Technology campus, was selected as the tested object. Solar radiation modelling and determination of suitability zones were performed using SEBE (Solar Energy on Building Envelopes) in QGIS. Possible options for the placement of photovoltaic modules on the roof were simulated with CAD technique in the web-based HelioScope software. The results of the simulation show that the current roof area can generate electrical power of 99.9 MWh/year. The proposed methodology is universal for photovoltaic installations on built-up roofs and can be applied to other buildings and, consequently, the results obtained can be used to improve the content of the solar data urban geoportal.

2 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors present both positive and critical approaches to the idea of sustainable development of space and briefly discuss its definition, using the method of literature analysis with elements of inductive reasoning.
Abstract: The article discusses the evolution of the concept of sustainable development and briefly discusses its definition. The study, based on Polish and foreign literature sources, uses the method of literature analysis with elements of inductive reasoning. This is a review article, whose aim is to present both positive and critical approaches to the idea of the sustainable development of space.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors propose an architecture of databases and describe their flow in the Agriculture Management Information System (AMIS) and develop the idea of extended farmers' participation in the production of agricultural activity data.
Abstract: In the face of current global threats, including the COVID-19 Pandemic, new technological solutions are needed. Globalization, progressing urbanization, the decreasing availability of cultivable land for food production, water contamination, flood risk and climate change, can all be viewed as potential threats to food safety. According to forecasts and trends, the future of both agricultural policy and agricultural innovation will be based on big data, data analytics and machine learning. Therefore, it is and will continue to be important to develop information systems dedicated to agricultural innovation and the management of food security challenges. The main aim of the study is a classification of data for a uniform AMIS from data from IREIS, GC and AIIS based on survey and expert interview data obtained. We propose to expand the range of data produced by small farmers while keeping in mind the protection of farmers and their rights and the possible benefits of the data provided. The literature recognizes the value of such data but it has not yet been legally regulated, protected, managed and, above all, properly used for agricultural and food security policy purposes. Therefore, we develop the idea of extended farmers’ participation in the production of agricultural activity data. The research used a survey questionnaire and expert interviews. A viable AIIS needs current data that farmers already produce as well as additional data needs which we identify in our research. We propose an architecture of databases and describe their flow in the Agriculture Management Information System (AMIS).

Journal ArticleDOI
Sarah Goeth1
TL;DR: In this article , the authors performed a sector analysis of the geoid model errors in order to correct them for the application of the GNSS leveling method within the research area, and the root mean square values of the corrected model heights are 1.8 cm, 1.9 cm, 2.5 cm, and 2.0 cm, respectively.
Abstract: The purpose of this work is to perform the comparison of heights of global geoid models EGM08, EIGEN-6C4, GECO, and XGM2019e based on sector analysis that are obtained relative to the ellipsoid WGS84 and GRS80 in order to implement the method of GNSS leveling in local areas. The heights of the global geoid models determined from the ellipsoid WGS84 should be reduced by −41 cm (“zero-degree term”) in order to scale them to the calculated geoid by GNSS leveling. Heights determined from the ellipsoid GRS80 should be increased by +52 cm. Spatial analysis of the heights of geoid models in the relative system for the northern territory shows that the standard deviation of the heights of geoid models is 13.6 cm, and for the southern territory it is 36.5 cm. The elevation errors of the geoid models in the relative system were estimated to be standard deviations of 2.9 cm within the northern area and 2.3 cm within the southern one. The root mean square values of initial errors of the models EGM08, EIGEN-6C4, GECO, and XGM2019e are 8.6 cm, 4.6 cm, 4.4 cm, and 3.8 cm, respectively, and standard deviation values are 2.0 cm, 2.2 cm, 3.2 cm, and 2.4 cm. The paper also performs a sector analysis of the geoid model errors in order to correct them for the application of the GNSS leveling method within the research area. The standard deviations of the residual error of the corrected model heights are 1.8 cm, 1.9 cm, 2.5 cm, and 2.0 cm for EGM08, EIGEN-6C4, GECO, and XGM2019e. The root mean square values of these residual errors for the geoid models are 1.9 cm, 2.0 cm, 2.5 cm, and 2.0 cm, respectively.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the advantages of satellite-based EO in the measurement of SDG indicators, as well as challenges emerging countries face in the use of these technological tools are discussed.
Abstract: One of the great challenges of achieving the shared vision of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development is having high-quality, timely, comparable, and accessible data that allows to measure and report progress on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG). Hence, in many countries, geospatial information (including Earth observation) and algorithms implemented in cloud computing platforms have become important tools to monitor indicators of the SDG thanks to their broad accessibility and global coverage. However, emerging countries still face barriers to the implementation of technologies to manage the large amounts of EO data. This article aims to show the advantages of satellite-based EO in the measurement of SDG indicators, as well as challenges emerging countries face in the use of these technological tools. It addresses why the open-source tool Open Data Cube (ODC) should be seen as a response to the said challenges. Finally, there is a description regarding the experience of Mexico with the use and application of this tool for the measurement of SDG indicators, from the development and implementation of the Mexican Geospatial Data Cube (MGDC) to the results obtained from its application in the support for the measurement of SDG indicators 6.6.1 Change in the extent of water-related ecosystems over time and 15.1.1 Forest area as a proportion of total land area.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , Geospatial and multi-criteria decision-making techniques are applied to process and analyse datasets for determining suitable areas for multiple utility-scale solar photovoltaic farms in the city of Akure, Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria.
Abstract: Geospatial and multi-criteria decision-making techniques are applied to process and analyse datasets for determining suitable areas for multiple utilityscale solar photovoltaic farms in the city of Akure, Ondo State, southwestern Nigeria. Data processed include local electric power distribution system data, Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission elevation data, Landsat 8 and solar global horizontal irradiance. Multi-criteria decision-making techniques adopted are the analytical hierarchy process, reclassification, and overlay. These techniques were carried out considering criteria for siting solar photovoltaic farms. Criteria considered in this study are climate, topography, economic, environmental impact operational and technical while sub-criteria are solar global horizontal irradiance, slope, proximity and land cover. The outcome of the study shows that the study area covering a total extent of ~33,200 ha, 15%, 8%, 13% and 64% are highly suitable, suitable, moderately suitable, and unsuitable respectively for siting utility-scale solar photovoltaic farms within the study area. The study reveals the potential of multiple utility-scale solar photovoltaic farms in the study area. However, the proportions of areas suitable for solar photovoltaic farms are quite lower compared to findings from similar studies conducted in northwestern Nigeria. The study recommends solar photovoltaic sources as an alternative energy source in and around the study area.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors assess the possibility of using maps of vegetation and soil indices, such as NDVI, SAVI, IRECI, CIred-edge, PSRI and HMSSI, calculated on the basis of images from the Sentinel-2 satellite, to qualitatively determine the increased amount of heavy metals in the soil in the areas of small agricultural plots around the Barania Góra nature reserve in Poland.
Abstract: The understanding of the spatial and temporal dynamics of farmland processes is essential to ensure the proper crop monitoring and early decision making needed to support efficient resource management in agriculture. By creating appropriate crop management strategies, one can increase harvest efficiency while reducing costs, waste, chemical spraying, and inhibiting the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on crop stress. Only reliable spatial information makes it possible to comprehend the influence of various factors on the environment. The main objective of the research presented in the paper was to assess the possibility of using maps of vegetation and soil indices, such as NDVI, SAVI, IRECI, CIred-edge, PSRI and HMSSI, calculated on the basis of images from the Sentinel-2 satellite, to qualitatively determine the increased amount of heavy metals in the soil in the areas of small agricultural plots around the Barania Góra nature reserve in Poland.The conducted pilot project shows that the spectral indices: NDVI, SAVI, IRECI, CIred-edge, PSRI, and HMSSI, calculated on the basis of images from Sentinel-2, have the potential to assess the content of nickel zinc, chromium and cobalt in the soil on agricultural plots. However, the confirmation of the obtained results requires continuation of the research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , an extension of the 27-intersection model (27-IM) called 36-IM was implemented to represent 3D topological adjacencies of two objects in 3D space.
Abstract: Topological properties of objects should be maintained and preserved to concisely represent objects. However, the implementation of 2D topological rules requires the decomposition of 3D objects into lower dimensions to determine topological relationships. This results in 2D topological relationships although the connected objects are in 3D. Hence, accurate representation of 3D connectivity in 3D models is limited. 3D topological rules can be implemented to include topological connectivity in 3D space. This paper implemented an extension of the 27-Intersection Model (27-IM) called the 36-Intersection Model (36-IM) to represent 3D topological adjacencies of two objects in 3D space. This resulted in a 12 × 3 intersection matrix or 36-IM that represented the intersections in terms of dimension and number of separations. Six cases were tested, consisting of “meets”, “disjoint” “intersects at a line”, “intersects at a point”, “contains”, and “overlaps”. The resulting 36-IM matrices provided an accurate representation of how the objects in 3D space were related and their dimension of intersections. The formalisms of the 36-IM matrices were also interoperable which allowed the interpretation of 36-IM using the 9IM and DE-9IM to determine general topological relationships. By examining the intersection of interiors, boundaries and exteriors of 3D objects without object decomposition, 3D topological relationships can be determined as well as the dimension and manner of intersection.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , a study was conducted to evaluate the economic and environmental efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPPs), where the inputs and outputs required for evaluating the performance of the power plants were determined according to expert opinions.
Abstract: Performance management is one of the most significant strategies in promoting the efficiency of organizations and is highly sensitive. It is important to check the efficiency of combined cycle power plants because of their major contribution to power generation and air pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the economic and environmental efficiency of Combined Cycle Power Plants (CCPPs). The inputs and outputs required to evaluate the performance of the power plants were determined according to expert opinions. Then, the 7-year statistics and information of the Qom, Neishabour, Shahid Rajaee, Yazd and Kerman power plants were collected as the desired CCPPs in Iran. The Window Data Envelopment Analysis (WDEA) method was used for evaluating the efficiency of the power plants. The 3-year window length showed that most of the power plants were efficient. Only the Rajaee, Neishabour and Yazd power plants were ineffective in some years. The mean efficiency of the power plants in the 4-year window length showed that the plants were efficient from 2008 to 2010.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors used the Structure from Motion (SfM) photogrammetric method to estimate what parts of Wołek Castle have survived from the 15th century to the present day.
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a study to assess the feasibility of using the Structure from Motion photogrammetric method to estimate what parts of Wołek Castle have survived from the 15th century to the present day. The photogrammetric measurements were made with a Nikon D5200 camera, and 249 mock-up images were obtained. Planimetry and altitude coordinates of the castle ruins were obtained using RTN GNSS measurements and the polar method. The measurements were made in the 2000 coordinate system in zone 6, the heights were obtained in the Kronstadt system. Two spatial models were made. The first one in the field scale was made using the ground control points measured in the terrain. The second one was made using ground control points measured on the model in the local system. The control measures were analyzed, the model compared with the actual orthophotomap, and it was estimated what part of the castle was preserved in reality.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , an object-oriented approach to modeling elements of spatial development with the preservation of the so-called occupational hygiene is presented, using best practices that are collected and used in the Polish reality.
Abstract: Landscape information modeling (LIM) is a new trend in spatial projects made using BIM technology. Elements of land development are, not only in the opinion of the authors, just as essential as the element of a building object. In turn, GIS data can be used to model larger areas based on combined data from GIS and BIM models. The lack of the strict integration of BIM and GIS (ISO/TR 23262:2021 covers GIS/BIM interoperability, ISO 19166 is in preparation) prevents the modeling of land development objects, both existing and planned, in many cases. The modeling process using the current and known BIM tools and processes were presented to efficiently develop a model of a building object with its surroundings. Modeling took place using best practices that are collected and used in the Polish reality. The work presents an object-oriented approach to modeling elements of spatial development with the preservation of the so-called occupational hygiene. By applying the above principles, it is possible to develop a “good” LIM model that fits the current trends and developments in BIM.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the level of contamination at Tangier municipal waste disposal was analyzed and the physicochemical parameters (humidity, pH, organic matter, etc.) were determined on these samples as well as the contents of five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, iron, chrome and zinc).
Abstract: Leachate from public landfill in the city of Tangier, which is neither collected nor treated, could constitute a probable source of pollution of the groundwater table and of those of the Mlalah and Khandak Bou Hajjar wadis in the east, and the Mghogha and Ghir Boudra wadis to the south.This work aims to analyze the level of contamination at Tangier’s municipal waste disposal. The leachate samples were collected and analyzed during the period from 2016 to 2019 and the physicochemical parameters (humidity, pH, organic matter, etc.) were determined on these samples as well as the contents of five heavy metals (lead, cadmium, iron, chrome and zinc). Analysis of the well water shows the presence of polluting elements in the leachate water and a high concentration of metals (especially iron) that exceeds standards. This makes the effluent extremely toxic and thus presents a permanent threat to the health of the local population and the surrounding environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors analyzed the boundaries of plots occupied by the watercourse in two provinces (Świętokrzyskie, Śląskie) where the land register survey was modernised after the entry into force of the new Water Law Act.
Abstract: The new Water Law Act, which entered into force on 1 January 2018, has introduced numerous changes regarding the management of land covered by water. One of the most important changes concerns the procedure for determining the course of the shoreline. According to the previous act, the shoreline was determined ex officio during the modernisation of the land register survey. After the change in the legal regulations, it is no longer obligatory. The natural change in the course of the shoreline results in a change in the extent of ownership rights and the need to define the legal status of the land adjacent to the water, as flowing waters and the land beneath in Poland belong exclusively to the State Treasury. The problem of the undetermined legal status of private land occupied by water is significant because the land covered with flowing water is not subject to civil turnover. Without performing a demarcation procedure between the land occupied by a watercourse and the adjacent land, the owner cannot sell the property. The lack of the obligation to determine the course of the shoreline during the modernisation of the land register survey results in the aggravation of the problem of the undetermined legal status of land under water. This work analyses the boundaries of plots occupied by the watercourse in two provinces (Świętokrzyskie, Śląskie) where the land register survey was modernised after the entry into force of the new Water Law Act. The aim was to determine the scale of the problem of the land use Wp (flowing water ) occurring on private land.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a survey was conducted of territorial communities (hromadas) in Ukraine to identify the public costs, benefits and obstacles from the adoption and retention of shelterbelts.
Abstract: The role of shelterbelts within an agricultural landscape is changing significantly. In the past, shelterbelts have been encouraged and established to reduce soil erosion and increase crop yields. Land reform (land privatisation) and advances in production technology led to increases in agricultural holding size. This requires a revision of policy concerning shelterbelt management in rural communities, especially since there is no recent research on community perceptions regarding the adoption and retention of shelterbelts. The specific objective of this research was to identify the public costs, benefits and obstacles from the adoption and retention of shelterbelts. In the summer of 2019, a survey was conducted of territorial communities (hromadas) in Ukraine. It was observed that many of the benefits of shelterbelts were classified as noneconomic. Therefore, these benefits are more difficult for the leaders of hromadas to recognise within their management decisions. The costs to hromadas were identified and strongly affected management decisions but the actual monetary costs were not identified. Shelterbelts have the potential to mitigate climate change yet most hromadas do not recognise the social and environmental benefits of shelterbelts within their management decisions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article , the authors deal with the research on the quantitative classification of land use in seven European countries, taking into account how detailed is the classification in agricultural and forest areas.
Abstract: The article deals with the research on the quantitative classification of land use, which directly affects the amount of land use data collected in the real estate cadastre.For the purpose of this article, the cadastral systems of seven European countries – Austria, Bulgaria, Estonia, Spain, Lithuania, Germany and Poland – have been examined, taking into account how detailed is the classification in agricultural and forest areas. The research covered the provisions of legal acts applicable in the researched seven European countries and made available in national languages by the government bodies.The article asks the following three questions:1) whether the researched countries adopted the same approach to isolatingclasses of items related to agricultural and forest areas;2) whether the researched countries feature the same number of classes ofitems recorded at various levels of detail;3) what is the percentage of the distinguished item classes of land uses in theagricultural and forest areas in relation to all of the distinguished item classes at all the levels of detail.The conducted research can be used as a material supporting works consisting of the modernization of the functioning of land registration in the real estate cadastre in Poland.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the environmental impact of an open-pit mine on water, vegetation, and non-vegetation areas by exploring the single and combined use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data were collected from the European Space Agency Copernicus program.
Abstract: The availability of Sentinel satellites for providing open data with optical and SAR imagery leads to better opportunities related to Earth surface mapping and monitoring. Recently, optical fusion with radar data has shown improvement in classification quality and the accuracy of information acquired. In this setting, the main objective of this research is to monitor the environmental impact of an open-pit mine on water, vegetation, and non-vegetation areas by exploring the single and combined use of Sentinel-1 and Sentinel-2 data. The data utilized in this paper were collected from the European Space Agency Copernicus program. After selecting the Selenica region, we explored the products in the Sentinel Application Platform. According to our data, Sentinel-2 misses the small water ponds but successfully identifies the river and open-pit areas. It mistakenly identifies urban structures and cloud areas as non-vegetated and does not identify non-vegetated areas which correspond to mining operation areas. Sentinel-1 identifies very small water ponds and delivers additional information in the cloudy areas, but misses a part of the river. Alongside the strong contribution in identifying the vegetation, it also roughly identifies the non-vegetation areas of mining operations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , the performance of pixel-based and object-based classification algorithms for land use land cover (LULC) classification is compared and compared by comparing the classification results.
Abstract: Land use land cover (LULC) classification is a valuable asset for resource managers; in many fields of study, it has become essential to monitor LULC at different scales. As a result, the primary goal of this work is to compare and contrast the performance of pixel-based and object-based categorization algorithms. The supervised maximum likelihood classifier (MLC) technique was employed in pixel-based classification, while multi-resolution segmentation and the standard nearest neighbor (SNN) algorithm were employed in object-based classification. For the urban and suburban parts of Kolhapur, the Resourcesat-2 LISS-IV image was used, and the entire research region was classified into five LULC groups. The performance of the two approaches was examined by comparing the classification results. For accuracy evaluation, the ground truth data was used, and confusion matrixes were generated. The overall accuracy of the object-based methodology was 84.66%, which was significantly greater than the overall accuracy of the pixel-based categorization methodology, which was 72.66%. The findings of this study show that object-based classification is more appropriate for high-resolution Resourcesat-2 satellite data than MLC of pixel-based classification.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper , a one-group post-test design is used to evaluate the knowledge in disaster mitigation materials as an implementation in environmental education in the community, and the results were analyzed by means of simple regression, logistics regression, and correlation.
Abstract: Flash flood disasters often hit many areas in Indonesia and can generate various losses. These conditions are exacerbated by people’s low knowledge and interest in their environment. Therefore, if people’s environmental education increases, especially their flood disaster mitigation knowledge, they can be prepared and better protect themselves from such disasters. People’s environmental education must start from determining the reason of the flood disaster in their environment to discovering how to avoid the disaster. This research design is a one-group post-test design. The collected data in this research is a written test result about knowledge in flash flood disaster mitigation materials as an implementation in environmental education in the community. The research data results were analyzed by means of simple regression, logistics regression, and correlation. Based on this research, environmental education with disaster mitigation materials has a high understanding level. In the disaster step, the highest understanding is before it happens. The correlation between educational strata and gender on environmental education and disaster mitigation materials is low. Finally, the role of women in disaster mitigation needs to improve because they have a higher understanding than males of disaster mitigation materials.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors proposed an enhancement approach to improve the accuracy of global Digital Elevation Models (GDEMs) in Egypt, using 980 well distributed GPS/levelling points, that cover the entire country.
Abstract: This paper proposes an enhancement approach to improve the accuracy of global Digital Elevation Models (GDEMs) in Egypt. The proposed approach is an empirical one that depends on subtracting the heights error from the original DEM. The research includes the evaluation and enhancement of SRTM-1 (SRTM v4.1), ASTER GDEM v2, and AW3D30 v2 GDEMs, in Egypt, using 980 well distributed GPS/levelling points, that cover the entire country. The GPS/levelling points are divided into 500 control and 390 check points. The results show that the root mean square error (RMSE) in the SRTM, ASTER and AW3D30 are 3.99 m, 8.81 m, and 2.98 m respectively.For enhancing purposes, two different approaches are used: a linear regression analysis approach, and the proposed empirical surface subtraction approach. The results of the linear regression analysis approach show that the accuracies are improved by 3%, 16%, and 3% for SRTM, ASTER and AW3D30 respectively. However, the accuracies are improved by 5%, 23%, and 16% for SRTM, ASTER and AW3D30 respectively when the proposed approach is followed. After using the proposed approach, the obtained accuracy of the enhanced DEM reached 2.5 m.

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TL;DR: In this article , the authors present the definition and interpretation of this category, its evolution and the difficult path towards its acceptance in Polish conditions, and identify the reasons for this category being frequently misunderstood in the professional environment.
Abstract: The purpose of the study is the following: (1) indicate the economic sources of the definition of value, including the market value of real estate, (2) present the definition and interpretation of this category, (3) its evolution and the difficult path towards its acceptance in Polish conditions, and (4) identify the reasons for this category being frequently misunderstood in the professional environment. A research hypothesis was put forward that the market value is of a contract nature, its definition and interpretation may change. The study employed a critical analysis of the source literature and legal documents as its methods.

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TL;DR: In this paper , the authors examined whether master plans and land development monitoring in the Polish system are effective instruments in shaping sustainable spatial development, and quantitatively confirmed that the provision of master plans in Polish systems are not effective tools in regulating land development.
Abstract: Sustainable development on a local scale requires well-functioning instruments in the spatial planning system. Any weakness in the planning system may result in forms of spatial development that are socially, environmentally or economically disadvantageous. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether master plans and land development monitoring in the Polish system are effective instruments in shaping sustainable spatial development. The factor analyzed was the share of a biologically active area and four villages located near a regional city were analyzed. Data from master plans, cadaster and orthophoto maps were used in this study. Verification of land use made it possible to evaluate whether the properties meet the provisions of spatial planning documents. In each of the analyzed villages, properties that do not meet the provisions of master plans were identified. In one of the villages, more than half of the properties had a smaller share of biologically active areas than permitted by the local law. The research also analyzed alternative scenarios of the potential impact of the application of permanent vegetation on sealed surfaces. These results showed that using green roofs, for example, can significantly reduce the problem of local laws being broken. The results quantitatively confirm that the provision of master plans in the Polish system are not effective tools in regulating land development.