Journal•ISSN: 0956-540X

# Geophysical Journal International

Oxford University Press

About: Geophysical Journal International is an academic journal published by Oxford University Press. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Mantle (geology) & Wave propagation. It has an ISSN identifier of 0956-540X. Over the lifetime, 17051 publications have been published receiving 725093 citations. The journal is also known as: GJI.

Topics: Mantle (geology), Wave propagation, Lithosphere, Crust, Subduction

##### Papers published on a yearly basis

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TL;DR: In this paper, principal component analysis is used to find and estimate the directions of lines and planes of best least squares fit along the demagnetization path of a palaeomagnetic specimen.

Abstract: Summary
The classic, multivariate technique of principal component analysis can be used to find and estimate the directions of lines and planes of best least-squares fit along the demagnetization path of a palaeomagnetic specimen, thereby replacing vector subtraction, remagnetization circles and difference vector paths with one procedure. Eigenvalues from the analysis are the variance of the data along each principal axis, and provide a relative measure of collinearity or coplanarity which may be used to define a general palaeomagnetic precision index. Demagnetization planes found with principal component analysis may be used in place of difference vector paths for locating Hoffman—Day directions, avoiding unnecessary vector subtraction and intensity truncation steps. Two methods are discussed for jointly estimating an average remanence direction from demagnetization lines and planes.

4,993 citations

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TL;DR: A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used as discussed by the authors.

Abstract: A global plate motion model, named NUVEL-1, which describes current plate motions between 12 rigid plates is described, with special attention given to the method, data, and assumptions used Tectonic implications of the patterns that emerged from the results are discussed It is shown that wide plate boundary zones can form not only within the continental lithosphere but also within the oceanic lithosphere; eg, between the Indian and Australian plates and between the North American and South American plates Results of the model also suggest small but significant diffuse deformation of the oceanic lithosphere, which may be confined to small awkwardly shaped salients of major plates

3,409 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a linear dissipative mechanism whose Q is almost frequency independent over large frequency ranges has been investigated by introducing fractional derivatives in the stressstrain relation, and a rigorous proof of the formulae to be used in obtaining the analytic expression of Q is given.

Abstract: Summary Laboratory experiments and field observations indicate that the Q of many non-ferromagnetic inorganic solids is almost frequency independent in the range 10-2-107 cis, although no single substance has been investigated over the entire frequency spectrum. One of the purposes of this investigation is to find the analytic expression for a linear dissipative mechanism whose Q is almost frequency independent over large frequency ranges. This will be obtained by introducing fractional derivatives in the stressstrain relation. Since the aim of this research is also to contribute to elucidating the dissipating mechanism in the Earth free modes, we shall treat the dissipation in the free, purely torsional, modes of a shell. The dissipation in a plane wave will also be treated. The theory is checked with the new values determined for the Q of spheroidal free modes of the Earth in the range between 10 and 5 min integrated with the Q of Rayleigh waves in the range between 5 and 0.6 min. Another check of the theory is made with the experimental values of the Q of the longitudinal waves in an aluminium rod in the range between lo-’ and 10-3s. In both checks the theory represents the observed phenomena very satisfactorily. The time derivative which enters the stress-strain relation in both cases is of order 0.15. The present paper is a generalized version of another (Caputo 1966b) in which an elementary definition of some differential operators was used. In this paper we give also a rigorous proof of the formulae to be used in obtaining the analytic expression of Q; moreover, we present two checks of the theory with experimental data. The present paper is a generalized version of another (Caputo 1966b) in which an elementary definition of some differential operators was used. In this paper we give also a rigorous proof of the formulae to be used in obtaining the analytic expression of Q; moreover, we present two checks of the theory with experimental data. In a homogeneous isotropic elastic field the elastic properties of the substance are specified by a description of the strains and stresses in a limited portion of the field since the strains and stresses are linearly related by two parameters which describe the elastic properties of the field. If the elastic field is not homogeneous nor isotropic the properties of the field are specified in a similar manner by a larger number of parameters which also depend on the position.

3,372 citations

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TL;DR: The Iasp91 traveltime tables as mentioned in this paper are derived from a radially stratified velocity model which has been constructed so that the times for the major seismic phases are consistent with the reported times for events in the catalogue of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) for the period 1964-1987.

Abstract: SUMMARY
Over the last three years, a major international effort has been made by the Sub-Commission on Earthquake Algorithms of the International Association of Seismology and the Physics of the Earth's Interior (IASPEI) to generate new global traveltime tables for seismic phases to update the tables of Jeffreys & Bullen (1940). The new tables are specifically designed for convenient computational use, with high-accuracy interpolation in both depth and range. The new iasp91 traveltime tables are derived from a radially stratified velocity model which has been constructed so that the times for the major seismic phases are consistent with the reported times for events in the catalogue of the International Seismological Centre (ISC) for the period 1964–1987. The baseline for the P-wave traveltimes in the iasp91 model has been adjusted to provide only a small bias in origin time for well-constrained events at the main nuclear testing sites around the world.
For P-waves at teleseismic distances, the new tables are about 0.7s slower than the 1968 P-tables (Herrin 1968) and on average about 1.8–1.9 s faster than the Jeffreys & Bullen (1940) tables. For S-waves the teleseismic times lie between those of the JB tables and the results of Randall (1971).
Because the times for all phases are derived from the same velocity model, there is complete consistency between the traveltimes for different phases at different focal depths. The calculation scheme adopted for the new iasp91 tables is that proposed by Buland & Chapman (1983). Tables of delay time as a function of slowness are stored for each traveltime branch, and interpolated using a specially designed tau spline which takes care of square-root singularities in the derivative of the traveltime curve at certain critical slownesses. With this representation, once the source depth is specified, it is straightforward to find the traveltime explicitly for a given epicentral distance. The computational cost is no higher than a conventional look-up table, but there is increased accuracy in constructing the traveltimes for a source at arbitrary depth. A further advantage over standard tables is that exactly the same procedure can be used for each phase. For a given source depth, it is therefore possible to generate very rapidly a comprehensive list of traveltimes and associated derivatives for the main seismic phases which could be observed at a given epicentral distance.

3,177 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, a new empirical traveltime curves for the major seismic phases have been derived from the catalogues of the International Seismological Centre by relocating events by using P readings, depth phases and the iasp91 traveltimes, and then re-associating phase picks.

Abstract: SUMMARY
New empirical traveltime curves for the major seismic phases have been derived from the catalogues of the International Seismological Centre by relocating events by using P readings, depth phases and the iasp91 traveltimes, and then re-associating phase picks. A smoothed set of traveltime tables is extracted by a robust procedure which gives estimates of the variance of the traveltimes for each phase branch. This set of smoothed empirical times is then used to construct a range of radial velocity profiles, which are assessed against a number of different measures of the level of fit between the empirical times and the predictions of the models. These measures are constructed from weighted sums of L2 misfits for individual phases. The weights are chosen to provide a measure of the probable reliability of the picks for the different phases.
A preferred model, ak135, is proposed which gives a significantly better fit to a broad range of phases than is provided by the iasp91 and sp6 models. The differences in velocity between ak135 and these models are generally quite small except at the boundary of the inner core, where reduced velocity gradients are needed to achieve satisfactory performance for PKP differential time data.
The potential resolution of velocity structure has been assessed with the aid of a non-linear search procedure in which 5000 models have been generated in bounds about ak135. Msfit calculations are performed for each of the phases in the empirical traveltime sets, and the models are then sorted using different overall measures of misfit. The best 100 models for each criterion are displayed in a model density plot which indicates the consistency of the different models. The interaction of information from different phases can be analysed by comparing the different misfit measures. Structure in the mantle is well resolved except at the base, and ak135 provides a good representation of core velocities.

2,925 citations