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JournalISSN: 0016-8033


About: Geophysics is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Seismic migration & Reflection (physics). It has an ISSN identifier of 0016-8033. Over the lifetime, 15746 publication(s) have been published receiving 580639 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Most bulk elastic media are weakly anisotropic. -The equations governing weak anisotropy are much simpler than those governing strong anisotropy, and they are much easier to grasp intuitively. These equations indicate that a certain anisotropic parameter (denoted 6) controls most anisotropic phenomena of importance in exploration geophysics. some of which are nonnegligible even when the anisotropy is weak. The critical parameter 6 is an awkward combination of elastic parameters, a combination which is totally independent of horizontal velocity and which may be either positive or negative in natural contexts.

3,507 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The nonlinear inverse problem for seismic reflection data is solved in the acoustic approximation. The method is based on the generalized least‐squares criterion, and it can handle errors in the data set and a priori information on the model. Multiply reflected energy is naturally taken into account, as well as refracted energy or surface waves. The inverse problem can be solved using an iterative algorithm which gives, at each iteration, updated values of bulk modulus, density, and time source function. Each step of the iterative algorithm essentially consists of a forward propagation of the actual sources in the current model and a forward propagation (backward in time) of the data residuals. The correlation at each point of the space of the two fields thus obtained yields the corrections of the bulk modulus and density models. This shows, in particular, that the general solution of the inverse problem can be attained by methods strongly related to the methods of migration of unstacked data, and commerc...

2,757 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jean Virieux1, Stéphane Operto2Institutions (2)
TL;DR: This review attempts to illuminate the state of the art of FWI by building accurate starting models with automatic procedures and/or recording low frequencies, and improving computational efficiency by data-compression techniquestomake3DelasticFWIfeasible.
Abstract: Full-waveform inversion FWI is a challenging data-fitting procedure based on full-wavefield modeling to extract quantitative information from seismograms. High-resolution imaging at half the propagated wavelength is expected. Recent advances in high-performance computing and multifold/multicomponent wide-aperture and wide-azimuth acquisitions make 3D acoustic FWI feasible today. Key ingredients of FWI are an efficient forward-modeling engine and a local differential approach, in which the gradient and the Hessian operators are efficiently estimated. Local optimization does not, however, prevent convergence of the misfit function toward local minima because of the limited accuracy of the starting model, the lack of low frequencies, the presence of noise, and the approximate modeling of the wave-physics complexity. Different hierarchical multiscale strategiesaredesignedtomitigatethenonlinearityandill-posedness of FWI by incorporating progressively shorter wavelengths in the parameter space. Synthetic and real-data case studies address reconstructing various parameters, from VP and VS velocities to density, anisotropy, and attenuation. This review attempts to illuminate the state of the art of FWI. Crucial jumps, however, remain necessary to make it as popular as migration techniques. The challenges can be categorized as 1 building accurate starting models with automatic procedures and/or recording low frequencies, 2 defining new minimization criteria to mitigate the sensitivity of FWI to amplitude errors and increasing the robustness of FWI when multiple parameter classes are estimated, and 3 improving computational efficiency by data-compression techniquestomake3DelasticFWIfeasible.

2,460 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: I present a finite-difference method for modeling P-SV wave propagation in heterogeneous media This is an extension of the method I previously proposed for modeling SH-wave propagation by using velocity and stress in a discrete grid The two components of the velocity cannot be defined at the same node for a complete staggered grid: the stability condition and the P-wave phase velocity dispersion curve do not depend on the Poisson's ratio, while the S-wave phase velocity dispersion curve behavior is rather insensitive to the Poisson's ratio Therefore, the same code used for elastic media can be used for liquid media, where S-wave velocity goes to zero, and no special treatment is needed for a liquid-solid interface Typical physical phenomena arising with P-SV modeling, such as surface waves, are in agreement with analytical results The weathered-layer and corner-edge models show in seismograms the same converted phases obtained by previous authors This method gives stable results for step discontinuities, as shown for a liquid layer above an elastic half-space The head wave preserves the correct amplitude Finally, the corner-edge model illustrates a more complex geometry for the liquid-solid interface As the Poisson's ratio v increases from 025 to 05, the shear converted phases are removed from seismograms and from the time section of the wave field

2,365 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The inversion of electromagnetic sounding data does not yield a unique solution, but inevitably a single model to interpret the observations is sought. We recommend that this model be as simple, or smooth, as possible, in order to reduce the temptation to overinterpret the data and to eliminate arbitrary discontinuities in simple layered models.To obtain smooth models, the nonlinear forward problem is linearized about a starting model in the usual way, but it is then solved explicitly for the desired model rather than for a model correction. By parameterizing the model in terms of its first or second derivative with depth, the minimum norm solution yields the smoothest possible model.Rather than fitting the experimental data as well as possible (which maximizes the roughness of the model), the smoothest model which fits the data to within an expected tolerance is sought. A practical scheme is developed which optimizes the step size at each iteration and retains the computational efficiency of layered models, resulting in a stable and rapidly convergent algorithm. The inversion of both magnetotelluric and Schlumberger sounding field data, and a joint magnetotelluric-resistivity inversion, demonstrate the method and show it to have practical application.

2,211 citations

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