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Showing papers in "German History in 2013"


Journal ArticleDOI

21 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine what "gender" meant and how it shaped and constituted experience for men and women caught up in witchcraft trials in early modern Germany, and they argue that, in order for 'gender' to be a productive question in witchcraft research, trials of women and men need to be explored side by side.
Abstract: This article examines what ‘gender’ meant and how it shaped and constituted experience for men and women caught up in witchcraft trials in early modern Germany. It argues that, in order for ‘gender’ to be a productive question in witchcraft research, trials of men and women need to be explored side by side. Moreover, it shows that close readings of trial narratives can move beyond the gendered binaries that have dominated the study of early modern witch-hunting. It argues instead that there were variegated and at times conflicting identifications in establishing someone as a ‘good’ as opposed to ‘evil’ man or woman. Approached in this way, understandings of not only ‘gender’ but also what constituted witchcraft and the ‘witch’ appear far more contested and unstable than has previously been suggested.

14 citations



Journal ArticleDOI

10 citations








Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that during precisely the centuries when the empire seemed to be losing its grip on Germany, a sense of German identity is increasingly manifest in a wide range of sources, and paradoxically, this notion of German-ness is very closely connected with the idea of empire.
Abstract: In this monumental and densely-packed book on Germany identity in the later Middle Ages – the only monograph of on the subject in any language, the author informs us – Len Scales gives us a new view of Germany and the empire that is sure to be of great importance for medieval historians’ perceptions of the empire, of Germany, and of the forces behind the shaping of identity. Scales shows convincingly that during precisely the centuries when the empire seemed to be losing its grip on Germany, a sense of German identity is increasingly manifest in a wide range of sources, and, paradoxically, this notion of German-ness is very closely connected with the idea of empire. Germans were well aware of the weakness of the emperor’s political control over the empire’s constituent parts; they were also very conscious that the empire was ‘German’, which fact in itself seems to have contributed to a growth in a sense of German identity.