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Showing papers in "Hacienda Publica Espanola in 2012"


Posted Content
TL;DR: The challenges raised by increasing longevity are considered for the design of the social security system, pension policies, preventive health policies, the provision of long term care, as well as for long-run economic growth.
Abstract: One of the greatest success stories in our societies is that people are living longer, life expectancy at birth being now above 80 years. Whereas the lengthening of life opens huge opportunities for individuals if extra years are spent in prosperity and good health, it is however often regarded as a source of problems for policy-makers. The goal of this paper is to examine the key policy challenges raised by increasing longevity. For that purpose, we first pay attention to the representation of individual preferences, and to the normative foundations of the economy, and, then, we consider the challenges raised for the design of the social security system, pension policies, preventive health policies, the provision of long term care, as well as for long-run economic growth.

41 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: A nueva formula de calculo de la pension inicial actuando tanto sobre la base reguladora and fundamentalmente, sobre el porcentaje aplicado a dicha base o tasa de sustitucion, was presented in this paper.
Abstract: Este trabajo plantea una nueva formula de calculo de la pension inicial actuando tanto sobre la base reguladora como, fundamentalmente, sobre el porcentaje aplicado a dicha base o tasa de sustitucion. Dicha formula contiene dos partes diferenciadas, una que asegura el objetivo de equidad entre individuos, evitando distorsiones en el calculo de la pension; y, otra, que controla la sostenibilidad financiera, corrigiendo la tendencia al desequilibrio financiero del sistema de pensiones debida al aumento en la esperanza de vida. Para calibrar la nueva formula se utiliza la Muestra Continua de vidas Laborales de 2008.

15 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential role that taxation and public expenditure policies play in general in affecting income distribution was explored. And they found that higher shares of GDP on social welfare, education, health and housing public expenditures have a positive impact on income distribution.
Abstract: This paper focuses is on the potential role that taxation and public expenditure policies play in general in affecting income distribution. We find that progressive personal income taxes and corporate income taxes reduce income inequality. However, the effect of corporate income taxes seems to be eroded away in open or globalized economies. We also find that general consumption taxes, excise taxes and customs duties have a negative impact on income distribution. on the expenditure side, we find that higher shares of GDP on social welfare, education, health and housing public expenditures have a positive impact on income distribution.

14 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: The purpose of this article is to outline the determinants of early childhood care and education costs as well as a method for measuring them, and to set out available cost data provided by countries for their ECCE endeavors.
Abstract: The purpose of this article is to outline the determinants of early childhood care and education (ECCE) costs as well as a method for measuring them, and to set out available cost data provided by countries for their ECCE endeavors. The analysis is based upon comparison of available data for 17 countries. We first address why costs may differ significantly for ECCE from country to country. Second, we address why existing reporting of costs is highly inconsistent and typically incomplete, including an examination of disparities in reported ECCE expenditures across countries. Third, we outline an appropriate way, known as the “ingredients method,” for determining costs that can provide consistent measurement for comparative purposes

12 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: This paper reviewed recent contributions to the theory of optimal taxation, particularly those that are policy-relevant, including refinements of the Mirrlees optimal income tax model, optimal redistribution when workers make labour decisions along the extensive margin, generalizations of thekinson-Stiglitz and deaton Theorems on uniform commodity taxation, the implications of involuntary unemployement for redistribution and unemployment insurance, dynamic optimal taxation and the taxation of capital income, non-tax instruments for redistribution, and problems arising if preferences are heterogeneous.
Abstract: This paper reviews recent contributions to the theory of optimal taxation, particularly those that are policy-relevant. These include refinements of the Mirrlees optimal income tax model, optimal redistribution when workers make labour decisions along the extensive margin, generalizations of the atkinson-Stiglitz and deaton Theorems on uniform commodity taxation, the implications of involuntary unemployment for redistribution and unemployment insurance, dynamic optimal taxation and the taxation of capital income, non-tax instruments for redistribution, and problems arising if preferences are heterogeneous.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A diversidad de resul-tados se debe a las diferentes teorias, metodologias, and tecnicas estadisticas utilizadas in la investigación de un asunto que seria de gran interes iniciar en Espana.
Abstract: Las interrelaciones entre el gasto militar y el civil y sus consecuencias economicas y sociales duranteel siglo XX han sido objeto de numerosas investigaciones desde hace varias decadas. En las publica-das hasta mediados del decenio de 1970 se defiende que el gasto social y la economia sufragaron la de-fensa, mientras que en la mayoria de las editadas despues se sostiene que los canones no se fabricarona costa de la mantequilla o no se hallan pruebas consistentes de lo contrario. Esta diversidad de resul-tados se debe a las diferentes teorias, metodologias y tecnicas estadisticas utilizadas en la investigacionde un asunto que seria de gran interes iniciar en Espana.

6 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the importance of state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity in self-assessed health dynamics in Spain has been investigated for the first time, and state dependence was found to account for much of the probability of reporting a specific health status.
Abstract: This paper studies for the first time the importance of the contribution of state dependence to the explanation of self-assessed health dynamics in Spain. With this objective in mind, we estimate a series of econometric models including a new proposal for a Heckman selection model with an initial conditions equation run as an ordered probit. Evidence suggests that state dependence and unobserved heterogeneity account for much of the probability of reporting a specific health status while the significance of observed heterogeneity vanishes when controlling for both. However, state dependence looses importance once the error structure of the estimations is improved.

5 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, a modelo basado on the teoria de incentivos was developed to evaluate the asignación of the riesgos in the contratos of infrastructures and servicios publicos.
Abstract: En este trabajo se desarrolla un modelo basado en la teoria de los incentivos para analizar la asignacion optima de los riesgos en los contratos de infraestructuras y servicios publicos, en un entorno de informacion asimetrica entre principal (Administracion Publica) y agente (socio privado), y de aversion al riesgo de este ultimo. La principal conclusion del trabajo es que, en un contrato optimo, la transferencia del riesgo de demanda al socio privado sera mayor, frente al riesgo de disponibilidad, en la medida en que tengan mayor incidencia aquellas dimensiones de la calidad del servicio que puedan ser observadas por los usuarios pero no verificadas por la Administracion.

4 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors exploit all available short-term information on sub-national governments' spending from scattered sources, and find a subset of indicators usable for real-time policy analysis.
Abstract: The evolution of Regional and Local governments� spending in Spain is currently under close scrutiny by national and international investors and analysts, international organizations and rating agencies. Indeed, some 50% of general government spending and some 70% of public employment are managed by Regions and Municipalities, which consequently have to bear a great portion of the overall fiscal consolidation plan currently under way. Despite recent efforts of the Spanish government at increasing transparency, the significant shortages of the existing data render the task of monitoring regional and local governments� public spending in real-time a complicated endeavor. Within this framework, we exploit all available short-term information on sub-national governments� spending from scattered sources, and find a subset of indicators usable for real-time policy analysis. In particular: (i) we compile a dataset on quarterly and monthly regional government�s spending variables, by reviewing all available, scattered sources, and put together a database usable for economic and policy analysis; (ii) we exploit the compiled information, and other additional sources, by fitting time-series mixed-frequencies models to the data, and show the forecasting and monitoring capabilities of the selected shortterm fiscal indicators; (iii) we show that official annual budgetary targets do present a reasonable forecasting performance when used as indicators of regional and local spending targets in national accounts terms, in particular when used in combination with time series indicators.

4 citations


Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the role of taxation within a simple model of wealth accumulation transmission from generation to generation was examined and it was shown that bequest taxation may be central to the development of inequality in the long run.
Abstract: We examine the role of taxation within a simple model of wealth accumulation transmission from generation to generation. It turns out that the role of bequest taxation may be central to the development of inequality in the long run. Whether it does so depends on the the way that consumption behaviour by each generation is determined.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a two-period model with agent heterogeneity was used to analyze a pension reform toward a stronger link between contributions and benefits in a pension system with a Bismarckian and a Beveridgean component.
Abstract: In a two-period model with agent heterogeneity we analyze a pension reform toward a stronger link between contributions and benefits (as recently observed in several countries) in a pension system with a Bismarckian and a Beveridgean component We show that such a policy change may discourage human capital investment at the margin and thus reduce the average educational level in an economy The life expectancy differential between skilled and unskilled individuals drives this result Furthermore, we investigate the consequences on the intragenerational redistribution characteristics of the pension system �in the sense of the number of net-recipients relative to net-payers� as well as welfare effects

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the potential role that taxation and public expenditure policies play in general in affecting income distribution was explored and it was shown that higher shares of GDP on social welfare, education, health and housing public expenditures have a positive impact on income distribution.
Abstract: This paper focuses is on the potential role that taxation and public expenditure policies play in general in affecting income distribution. We find that progressive personal income taxes and corporate income taxes reduce income inequality. However, the effect of corporate income taxes seems to be eroded away in open or globalized economies. We also find that general consumption taxes, excise taxes and customs duties have a negative impact on income distribution. on the expenditure side, we find that higher shares of GDP on social welfare, education, health and housing public expenditures have a positive impact on income distribution.

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, natural selection might choose the optimizing protocol to be either autarchic or interdependent, depending on whether players can signal their type to other players, and the answer depends upon whether players are able to signal their types to others.
Abstract: in nash equilibrium, agents are autarchic in their optimization protocol, whereas in Kantian equilibrium, they optimize in an interdependent way. Typically, researchers into the evolution of homo economicus treat preferences as being determined by selective adaptation, but hold fixed the optimization protocol as autarchic. here, we ask whether natural selection might choose the optimizing protocol to be either autarchic or interdependent. That is, will Kantian players, for whom the stable concept is Kantian equilibrium drive nash players (for whom the stable concept is nash equilibrium) to extinction, or otherwise? The answer depends upon whether players can signal their type to others.

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compare the efects of different partidos on the tasa de crecimiento of the infraestructura publica regional.
Abstract: En este trabajo contrastamos estadisticamente los efectos que tienen sobre la tasa de crecimiento de la infraestructura publica regional las combinaciones de partidos gobernando simultaneamente en los Gobiernos central y regional. Utilizamos datos de panel para las Comunidades Autonomas espanolas en el periodo 1988-2004 y encontramos evidencia de que ciertas combinaciones de partidos tienen efectos significativos sobre la tasa de crecimiento de la infraestructura publica regional. Partiendo de los Motivos de Conveniencia Politica (Pork Barrel Politics) formulamos tres hipotesis relacionadas con la discriminacion entre regiones, la sintonia ideologica y la compra de apoyo politico. Nuestros resultados arrojan evidencia de discriminacion en contra de las regiones gobernadas por partidos de la oposicion independientemente de si el Gobierno espanol es dirigido por la izquierda o la derecha con o sin mayoria parlamentaria. Se evidencia sintonia ideologica cuando gobierna el partido de derecha a nivel estatal, ya que las regiones gobernadas por ellos resultan especialmente favorecidas. Mientras que no encontramos pruebas que apoyen la existencia de compra de apoyo politico cuando el partido que dirige al Gobierno central esta en minoria.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the superiority of nonlinear direct taxation over nonlinear indirect taxation is proved under the second order approach, even on in-tervals where the monotonicity constraint is binding, and the possibility that optimal allocations fail to be differentiable, or continuous, is also contem-plated unlike in the standard literature.
Abstract: The well-known Atkinson and Stiglitz (1976, section 5) theorem on the superiority of nonlinear directtaxation over nonlinear indirect taxation is proved to hold under the second order approach, even on in-tervals where the monotonicity constraint is binding. this confirms for the nonlinear case previous find-ings by Kaplow (2006) and Laroque (2005), who considered a joint combination of linear indirect taxesand, possibly suboptimal, nonlinear income taxation. the intuition behind is that, when indirect taxationis not restricted to linearity, its elimination is only justified if the income taxation scheme becomes opti-mally chosen, as happens in Atkinson and Stiglitz (1976).In addition, our analysis allows for a more general class of sub-utility functions than the one in the Atkin-son and Stiglitz theorem, which includes work done or income further to consumption goods and servic-es. Finally, the possibility that optimal allocations fail to be differentiable, or continuous, is also contem-plated unlike in the standard literature.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, aplicacion deformulas mixtas and/or the puesta en marcha gradual de las reformas como transicion hacia bases impo-nibles neutrales are investigated.
Abstract: En las ultimas decadas diversas lineas de reforma del Impuesto sobre sociedades, como ACE yCbIT, han sido propuestas para eliminar el tratamiento fiscal preferente a la financiacion mediantedeuda. Este trabajo estima los efectos que tendria en Espana la aplicacion de reformas de este tipo,mediante tecnicas de microsimulacion aplicadas sobre la base de datos contable sAbI. Los resulta-dos muestran las fortalezas y debilidades de cada una de las reformas, y sugieren la aplicacion deformulas mixtas y/o la puesta en marcha gradual de las reformas como transicion hacia bases impo-nibles neutrales.

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, the inferencia del marco economico subyacente bajo the mecanismo de ajuste del IVA in el sistema foral de financiacion, que se introdujo en la Ley 49/1985, de 27 de diciembre, was discussed.
Abstract: Esta nota aborda tres cuestiones. En primer lugar, la inferencia del marco economico subyacente bajo el mecanismo de ajuste del IVA en el sistema foral de financiacion, que se introdujo en la Ley 49/1985, de 27 de diciembre; en segundo lugar, un analisis de los problemas asociados a este ajuste; y en tercer lugar, la propuesta de un nuevo mecanismo de ajuste que resuelve los problemas del anterior

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that in the present situation, health expenditure should not be as important as the social protection system as a whole, and instead, the focus should be on the individual and not on the entire population.
Abstract: With the economic crisis, the fight against unemployment in most countries 1 is coetaneous to the need to restrain public expenditure in closing budget deficits. As a consequence, spending cuts have started to affect a large number of decisions that directly or indirectly may be expected to have an impact on health. These effects are likely to be unevenly distributed among different groups within the population. Therefore, not just health levels but also its distribution may be at risk with the financial consequences of the crisis. The main message of this paper is to show first social concern on the nature of the trade-offs in redefining expenditure priorities. On the prescriptive side of our work we argue that in the present situation we should not focus so much on health expenditure as we should do on the social protection system as a whole. In addition, to fight against poverty (and not so much focusing on income inequality in itself) should be the most important consideration for health policy design. Thus, more selective, tailored made combination of integrated policies should be addressed. Fragile groups need to be prioritized at this stage in battling for poverty alleviation (poverty induces health losses) and for a sound job creation economy (workfare strategies require health at the same time that they produce health). Universal old-style welfare policies commonly lack focus, are not financially sustainable, and overall, they have lower redistributive impacts. Otherwise, random, not well understood, effects in welfare may result from these policies due to side effects from economic crisis, unemployment and changes in life style. Results may also depend on the type of groups benefiting from sustained social spending in practice. A welfare function is required in order to compare “losers” and “winners”. This is a part of the second welfare theorem where non superior Pareto agreements are achievable, and lack of consensus may easily emerge, in designing health strategies since politics may not build the necessary consensus for policies.

Posted Content
TL;DR: In this article, diferent caracterizaciones del impuesto lineal a partir de sus propiedades redistributivas, fijado el nivel de recaudacion.
Abstract: En este articulo se presentan diferentes caracterizaciones del impuesto lineal a partir de sus propiedades redistributivas, fijado el nivel de recaudacion. Estas propiedades se refieren a la variacion que produce el impuesto, al pasar de la distribucion de la renta inicial a la de la renta disponible, sobre diferentes magnitudes: (1) la distancia vertical, en cada percentil, entre la curva de Lorenz (relativa o absoluta) y la linea de equidistribucion; (2) la distancia relativa (o diferencia) entre la renta de cada contribuyente y la renta media de la distribucion; (3) la participacion de cada contribuyente en la renta total; (4) el valor de los elementos de una determinada clase de medidas de desigualdad. En todas estas magnitudes se produce una contraccion uniforme al aplicar una funcion impositiva si, y solo si, dicha funcion es lineal.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a two-period signalling game between a revenue-increasing government and a monopolistic firm in an asymmetric information context is examined, where the government behaves when it taxes the firm's production.
Abstract: This paper examines, for a two-period signalling game played by a revenue-raising government and a monopolistic firm in an asymmetric information context, how the government behaves when it taxes the firm�s production. Information regarding the firm�s efficiency (or its potential to pay taxes) is private; therefore, only the firm knows its �type�. To prevent opportunism and lead the firm to disclose information through its period-1 output, the period-1 per-unit tax needs to be lower than it would if information were perfect (and tax revenue is consequently lower). As a result, expected taxes increase with time. This behaviour generally (but not always) reduces social welfare. In contrast, when the government prefers the firm�s information is not disclosed by the period-1 signal, the expected per-unit tax in such period is the same as it would be if information were perfect. Moreover, if the firm reveals no information, then welfare is generally (but not always) greater than it would be if information were perfect. The government would generally prefer information not to be revealed, because disclose would greatly reduce its period-1 tax income. From a social standpoint, information non-disclosure increases welfare, except when both the probability of the firm being efficient and its efficiency level relative to that of the inefficient firm are sufficiently high.