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JournalISSN: 0018-1560

Higher Education 

Springer Science+Business Media
About: Higher Education is an academic journal published by Springer Science+Business Media. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Higher education & Comparative education. It has an ISSN identifier of 0018-1560. Over the lifetime, 3339 publications have been published receiving 168925 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Constructive alignment as discussed by the authors is a marriage of the two thrusts, constructivism being used as a framework to guide decision-making at all stages in instructional design: in deriving curriculum objectives in terms of performances that represent a suitably high cognitive level, in deciding teaching/learning activities judged to elicit those performances, and to assess and summatively report student performance.
Abstract: Two lines of thinking are becoming increasingly important in higher educational practice. The first derives from constructivist learning theory, and the second from the instructional design literature. Constructivism comprises a family of theories but all have in common the centrality of the learner's activities in creating meaning. These and related ideas have important implications for teaching and assessment. Instructional designers for their part have emphasised alignment between the objectives of a course or unit and the targets for assessing student performance. “Constructive alignment” represents a marriage of the two thrusts, constructivism being used as a framework to guide decision-making at all stages in instructional design: in deriving curriculum objectives in terms of performances that represent a suitably high cognitive level, in deciding teaching/learning activities judged to elicit those performances, and to assess and summatively report student performance. The “performances of understanding” nominated in the objectives are thus used to systematically align the teaching methods and the assessment. The process is illustrated with reference to a professional development unit in educational psychology for teachers, but the model may be generalized to most units or programs in higher education.

2,786 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: For example, the authors found that in the classes where teachers describe their approach to teaching as having a focus on what they do and on transmitting knowledge, students are more likely to report that they adopt a surface approach to the learning of that subject, but less strongly, in classes where students report adopting significantly deeper approaches to learning, teaching staff report adopting approaches to teaching that are more oriented towards students and to changing the students conceptions.
Abstract: This paper reports on an empirical study which shows that qualitatively different approaches to teaching are associated with qualitatively different approaches to learning More specifically, the results indicate that in the classes where teachers describe their approach to teaching as having a focus on what they do and on transmitting knowledge, students are more likely to report that they adopt a surface approach to the learning of that subject Con- versely, but less strongly, in the classes where students report adopting significantly deeper approaches to learning, teaching staff report adopting approaches to teaching that are more oriented towards students and to changing the students conceptions The study made use of a teaching approach inventory derived from interviews with academic staff, and a modified approach to learning questionnaire These conclusions are derived from a factor and cluster analysis of 48 classes (involving 46 science teachers and 3956 science students) in Australian universities The results complete a chain of relations from teacher thinking to the outcomes of student learning Previous studies have shown relations between teachers' conceptions of teaching and learning and their approaches to teaching Numerous studies have shown corre- lations between students' deeper approaches to learning and higher quality learning outcomes The results reported here link these two sets of studies They also highlight the importance, in attempts to improve the quality of student learning, of discouraging teacher-focused transmis- sion teaching and encouraging higher quality, conceptual change/student-focused approaches to teaching

1,425 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors build on earlier work by Meyer and Land (2003) which introduced the generative notion of threshold concepts within (and across) disciplines, in the sense of transforming the internal view of subject matter or part thereof.
Abstract: The present study builds on earlier work by Meyer and Land (2003) which introduced the generative notion of threshold concepts within (and across) disciplines, in the sense of transforming the internal view of subject matter or part thereof. In this earlier work such concepts were further linked to forms of knowledge that are ‘troublesome’, after the work of Perkins (1999). It was argued that these twinned sets of ideas may define critical moments of irreversible conceptual transformation in the educational experiences of learners, and their teachers. The present study aims (a) to examine the extent to which such phenomena can be located within personal understandings of discipline-specific epistemological discourses, (b) to develop more extensively notions of liminality within learning that were raised in the first paper, and (c) to propose a conceptual framework within which teachers may advance their own reflective practice.

1,260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a review of peer tutoring in colleges and universities is presented, focusing on the effectiveness of different types and formats of PAs in terms of quality, outcomes and cost-effectiveness.
Abstract: Quality, outcomes and cost-effectiveness of methods of teaching and learning in colleges and universities are being scrutinised more closely. The increasing use of peer tutoring in this context necessitates a clear definition and typology, which are outlined. The theoretical advantages of peer tutoring are discussed and the research on peer tutoring in schools briefly considered. The substantial existing research on the effectiveness of the many different types and formats of peer tutoring within colleges and universities is then reviewed. Much is already known about the effectiveness of some types of peer tutoring and this merits wider dissemination to practitioners. Directions for future research are indicated.

1,073 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The importance of formative assessment in student learning is generally acknowl- edged, but it is not well understood across higher education as mentioned in this paper, which needs to take account of disciplinary epistemology, theories of intellectual and moral develop- ment, students' stages of intellectual development, and the psychology of giving and receiving feedback.
Abstract: The importance of formative assessment in student learning is generally acknowl- edged, but it is not well understood across higher education. The identification of some key features of formative assessment opens the way for a discussion of theory. It is argued that there is a need for further theoretical development in respect of formative assessment, which needs to take account of disciplinary epistemology, theories of intellectual and moral develop- ment, students' stages of intellectual development, and the psychology of giving and receiving feedback. A sketch is offered of the direction that this development might take. It is noted that formative assessment may be either constructive or inhibitory towards learning. Suggestions are made regarding research into formative assessment, and how research might contribute to the development of pedagogic practice. Knowledge of results Learning depends on knowledge of results, at a time when, and at a place where, the knowledge can be used for correction. (Bruner 1970, p. 120) Bruner's dictum contains an important truth, but it is not the whole story. 'Correction' implies the existence of a right answer, and suggests a homeo- static or single loop (Argyris and Schon 1974) view of education that contrasts with the title of a collection of his writings: Beyond the informa- tion given (Bruner 1974). The quotation is from a chapter whose emphasis is on school education (although there are allusions to a broader range of educational contexts), in which considerable weight is placed on getting things right. Whilst 'getting things right' is of obvious importance in higher education as well (examples from medicine, science and engineering come quickly to mind where 'not getting it right' had direct and seriously damaging consequences), there is a significant dimension to higher education that can, following Barnett (1997), be labelled as 'emancipatory' and which implies

1,073 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
20236
20226
2021223
2020150
2019133
2018127