scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "Holocaust and Genocide Studies in 2012"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors argue that the politics of compensation can distort historical narratives, and, more specifically, undermine opportunities for post-apartheid Namibia to come to terms with both distant and recent histories of dispossession.
Abstract: Legal remedies for historical injustices rely upon the politicization of memory, as current debates about the 1904–1907 genocide of the Herero in German Southwest Africa (contemporary Namibia) demonstrate. Here the author shows how claims for financial reparations obscure historical influences on the Herero community and the Namibian nation-state: German colonial rule and local actors complicit in it, the intervening period of South African rule; and the post-independence context. Bringing into a single conversation historical, ethnographic, media, and legal research, the author argues that the politics of compensation can distort historical narratives, and, more specifically, undermine opportunities for post-apartheid Namibia to come to terms with both distant and recent histories of dispossession.

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Using German military records, Soviet partisan diaries, and materials from Belorussian and Canadian legal cases, the authors revisited one of the most infamous, yet least understood war crimes committed on Soviet territory.
Abstract: The brutal March 1943 massacre in the Belorussian village of Khatyn, commemorated in a 1969 memorial, has come to symbolize the horrors of the German occupation. Given the continuing centrality of the massacre to Belarusian memory politics, the details of the event remain under:studied. For political reasons, Soviet authorities and Ukrainian diaspora nationalists alike had an interest in de-emphasizing the central role of collaborators in carrying out the massacre. Using German military records, Soviet partisan diaries, and materials from Belorussian and Canadian legal cases, the author of this article revisits one of the most infamous, yet least understood war crimes committed on Soviet territory.

20 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors of as mentioned in this paper argue that the colonial context contributed to the dramatic radicalization of Fascist rule after 1940 and distinguished the Libyan case from the Italian occupation regimes in Croatia and Greece, and that the events in Libya underline that, when discussing the persecution and killing of Jews during World War II, we must consider not only Europe but North Africa as well.
Abstract: During World War II, Italians committed numerous atrocities against civilians and allied POWs in Axis-occupied North Africa, and especially in Libya, one of Italy’s oldest colonies. Atrocities were ordered by the political and military leadership, but racist thinking and actions were widespread among junior officials, soldiers of the Italian Army, and even Italian colonists. The author argues that the colonial context contributed to the dramatic radicalization of Fascist rule after 1940 and distinguished the Libyan case from the Italian occupation regimes in Croatia and Greece. What the events in Libya underline is that, when discussing the persecution and killing of Jews during World War II, we must consider not only Europe but North Africa as well.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In addition to relieving the USSR of a potentially unreliable group and increasing the population of its future satellite state, another consideration in permitting large-scale emigration may have been Stalin's desire to gain sympathy in the West during negotiations over Poland's future borders, and thus to neutralize one basis for the hostility promoted by the London-based Polish government-in-exile.
Abstract: Under treaties of 1944 and 1945 the USSR permitted the departure of hundreds of thousands of Polish citizens, many of them Jews, who had found themselves on Soviet territory after the annexation of eastern Poland or who had fled there subsequently. In addition to relieving the USSR of a potentially unreliable group and increasing the population of its future satellite state, another consideration in permitting a large-scale emigration may have been Stalin's desire to gain sympathy in the West during negotiations over Poland's future borders, and thus to neutralize one basis for the hostility promoted by the London-based Polish government-in-exile. Stalin's related willingness for Poland's new Communist government to permit the emigration of Jews to Palestine likely manifested the dictator's interest in creating difficulties for the British Empire and gaining influence in a possible future Jewish state.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Raffael Scheck1
TL;DR: German authorities carried out extensive propaganda efforts among prisoners of war from that region and exploited Muslim resentment over the status of Jews in French North Africa as discussed by the authors, but the success of their propaganda efforts was limited, the Germans did manage to recruit some spies and collaborators and to drive a wedge between the Vichy authorities and North African soldiers.
Abstract: Because of the strategic value of French North Africa for the Axis war effort, German authorities carried out extensive propaganda efforts among prisoners of war from that region. Special propaganda camps were established in Germany and occupied France to win over a select group of prisoners who, it was hoped, could later influence other prisoners. German propaganda stressed the power of German arms, affinities between Nazism and Islam, and French discrimination against Muslims, and exploited Muslim resentment over the status of Jews in French North Africa. Although the success of their propaganda efforts among the masses of prisoners was limited, the Germans did manage to recruit some spies and collaborators and to drive a wedge between the Vichy authorities and North African soldiers.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the history of the Zhmerinka ghetto in Transnistria and the fate of Jewish Council member Dr. Adolph Herschmann, who served as head of the ghetto from early 1943 through the end of the Romanian occupation in spring 1944.
Abstract: This article examines the history of the Zhmerinka ghetto in Transnistria and the fate of Jewish Council member Dr. Adolph Herschmann, who served as head of the ghetto from early 1943 through the end of the Romanian occupation in spring 1944. The article is based on records of Herschmann's trial recently released by the State Security Archives of Ukraine (SBU), as well as on testimonies of survivor-witnesses and other primary sources. The author provides a history of the Zhmerinka ghetto and the activities of its Jewish council under Romanian occupation. He argues that the exceptionally high rate of survival in the Zhmerinka ghetto was the result of the skillful, though controversial efforts of Dr. Herschmann and his council.

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider how the legacy of Nazism informed understandings of and responses to apartheid, and explore how the Holocaust was appropriated for disparate political ends in the postwar world's quintessential racial state.
Abstract: Over the past six decades, South Africans have drawn on the symbol of Anne Frank in diverse ways in order to make sense of their own history and politics. The portrayal of Anne underwent several dramatic shifts during the apartheid period and after the transition to a non-racial political system, from a 1950s play foregrounding the young diarist's Jewishness to a 2009 exhibition promoting tolerance and democracy. Below, the author considers what such representations can tell us more broadly about how the legacy of Nazism informed understandings of and responses to apartheid, and explores how the Holocaust was appropriated for disparate political ends in the postwar world's quintessential racial state.

6 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review essay examines several features of Lanzmann's classic film, assessing the tensions between the director's choices in his film and his public statements outside the film.
Abstract: This review essay examines several features of Lanzmann's classic film, assessing the tensions between the director's choices in his film and his public statements outside the film. By employing a perspective taken from live theater and applying it to Lanzmann's treatment of the film's witnesses, and evaluating the structural and thematic influence of the historian Raul Hilberg, the author seeks to define the legacy of the film twenty-five years after its original release.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyze opposition to the Malmedy Trial, conducted at Dachau in 1946, citing documents made available under the 1998 Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act, in particular those of Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Munich Johannes Neuhausler and regional Protestant bishop Theophil Wurm.
Abstract: War crimes trials roused considerable resistance in Germany. Here the author analyzes opposition to the Malmedy Trial, conducted at Dachau in 1946, citing documents made available under the 1998 Nazi War Crimes Disclosure Act—in particular those of Roman Catholic auxiliary bishop of Munich Johannes Neuhausler and regional Protestant bishop Theophil Wurm of Wurttemberg. These clergymen helped reduce sentences and obtain clemency for perpetrators. Munich lawyer and activist Rudolf Aschenauer, a close associate of Neuhausler, coordinated a large network devoted to thwarting the convictions of the former Waffen-SS men. The author traces U.S. Army Counterintelligence Corps (CIC) monitoring of both Aschenauer and the bishops.

4 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Lisa Peschel1
TL;DR: The authors examined memoirs by three survivors of the Terezin (Theresienstadt) ghetto, and especially their testimony about the cultural life of the ghetto, in the context of postwar reintegration.
Abstract: This article examines memoirs by three survivors of the Terezin (Theresienstadt) ghetto, and especially their testimony about the cultural life of the ghetto, in the context of postwar reintegration. Czech Jewish survivors of the concentration camps returned to a society very different from the prewar Czechoslovakia they remembered. Many found themselves struggling to adapt to the rejection of German-language culture, the shift to the political Left, and postwar antisemitism. The authors of these memoirs were bilingual and thus represented both Czech- and German-language prewar cultures. In their memoirs, they described their intense love of the specifically Czech works performed in Terezin. In doing so, they attempted to establish common ground with their non-Jewish fellow Czechs and to overcome the suspicion engendered by their prewar association with German-language culture.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a central database of evacuated Soviet Jews' names, including social and demographic information on each evacuee, is proposed, with the purpose of genealogical research and compensation cases of the Claims Conference.
Abstract: Previously unknown data from central Russian archives show that Soviet, post-Soviet, and Western historians have substantially overestimated the number of Soviet citizens evacuated in 1941 and 1942. This research note advocates a central database of evacuated Soviet Jews' names, including social and demographic information on each. The author suggests as its basis name lists and card catalogues from central and regional archives in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and other republics of the former USSR, as well as from the Tracing and Information Center of the Russian Red Cross. The database would afford more precise information on the numbers of refugees from, and victims of, the Holocaust in the occupied Soviet territories, improve possibilities for the sociological and demographic study of both groups, and help ascertain heretofore unknown names of Soviet Jews martyred by the Nazis and their allies. The database would serve such pragmatic purposes as genealogical research and compensation cases of the Claims Conference.



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The number of people evacuated from western Soviet territories ahead of the German advance in 1941-1942 has yet to be definitively established as mentioned in this paper, and in order to estimate the numbers as accurately as possible, scholars must examine not only official records on evacuees, but also oral histories and memoirs.
Abstract: The number of people evacuated from western Soviet territories ahead of the German advance in 1941-1942 has yet to be definitively established. In particular, these figures could shed light on Soviet Jewish population losses during the war. The author of this article cautions that in order to estimate the numbers as accurately as possible, scholars must examine not only official records on evacuees, but also oral histories and memoirs. He uses the story of his own family as an example of the "unofficial" evacuation of Soviet citizens to the East.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article argued that the translators' omission of the dual-calendar perspective compromises translations' integrity and distorts crucial aspects of the diarist's evolving confrontation with his or her wartime ordeal.
Abstract: Holocaust diaries often use two calendars—Gregorian and Jewish—to date entries and events, choosing one or the other to convey a particular significance. Translators frequently have found it difficult to integrate this multicalendrical dating, however. On the basis of his examination of the seminal wartime diaries of Chaim Kaplan, Abraham Lewin, Moshe Flinker, and David Kahane, the author of this article argues that the translators' omission of the dual-calendar perspective compromises translations' integrity and distorts crucial aspects of the diarist's evolving confrontation with his or her wartime ordeal.