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Showing papers in "Housing Studies in 2010"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study has enhanced conventional indicators to capture more fully the different dimensions of affordability for new market entrants and has policy implications concerning the nature, extent and duration of housing subsidies for different income groups.
Abstract: The scale and pace of change in Shanghai combine to provide a fascinating case study of affordability in a dynamic transitional market. This study has enhanced conventional indicators to capture more fully the different dimensions of affordability for new market entrants. Three dimensions of affordability are simulated (namely access, the burden of housing costs and housing-induced poverty) and two dynamic indicators are developed to simulate the experience of successive cohorts of market entrants. The ‘point-of-entry’ trend simulates changing affordability as each successive cohort of entrants first enters the housing market, while the ‘cohort’ trend identifies the evolution of affordability within each cohort after entry has been attained. While on average the ‘point of entry’ trend indicates a decline in affordability for each cohort of market entrants, the ‘cohort’ trend improves considerably within a short period of time, although there are differences between income groups. The findings have policy ...

158 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings show that the biggest winners in China's transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation.
Abstract: Housing reform in China has proceeded on two tracks: privatization of public housing and development of a new private housing sector. During this period of transition, rents have remained relatively low in the remaining public housing, and purchase prices offered to occupants of public housing have been well below market prices. Although these rents and prices are partly based on known formulas, there is considerable variability in how much people pay for similar apartments. This study uses 2000 Census data to estimate the housing subsidy received by the remaining renters in the public sector and purchasers of public housing, based on private sector prices for housing of comparable quality and size. The paper also analyzes variation in the estimated discount from market prices that these people receive. The findings show that the biggest winners in China's transition from socialist housing allocation are those who were favored in the previous system, based on such factors as residence status, education and occupation.

156 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper pointed out that persistent black minority segregation in particular is a failure with regard to social and economic integration, and equality of opportunity in housing and the workplace, and argued that the black ghetto in American cities symbolises the accumulation of the miseries of modern Western societies.
Abstract: Much of the academic and policy literature on residential segregation has emphasised the negative effects of the enduring concentration of households from particular ethnic or socio-economic groups. Often drawing directly on the US experience of ‘ghettoisation’, many contributors have pointed to persistent black minority segregation in particular as a benchmark of failure with regard to social and economic integration, and equality of opportunity in housing and the workplace (for example, Fortuijn et al., 1998; Johnston et al., 2002; Peach, 1996; van der Laan Bouma-Doff, 2007; Walks & Bourne, 2006). As Fortuijn et al. (1998, p. 367) have contended ‘the black ghetto in American cities symbolises the accumulation of the miseries of modern Western societies’.

155 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the association between the level of fertility and the organization of homeownership in Western countries and compared four homeownership regimes, based on the share of owner-occupied housing and access to mortgages.
Abstract: This paper investigates the association between the level of fertility and the organization of homeownership in Western countries. It distinguishes four homeownership regimes, based on the share of owner-occupied housing and access to mortgages. It is argued that one homeownership regime is particularly associated with problematic housing-market entry and, therefore, unfriendly to family formation: the ‘difficult’ regime, which combines a high share of owner-occupation and low access to mortgages. It is found that countries with this particular homeownership regime have the lowest levels of fertility.

149 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wang et al. as discussed by the authors reported the findings of a recent research project carried out in Shenzhen City and highlighted the positive contributions made by urban villages and private landlords in housing the large number of migrants in cities.
Abstract: China has experienced a huge wave of rural to urban migration over the last 25 years; however, Chinese cities do not have the large-scale slum settlements found in other developing countries. Has China found a new way to solve the housing problems of migrants and the urban poor? This paper addresses this question and reports the findings of a recent research project carried out in Shenzhen City. In general, Chinese migrants are poor in comparison with official urban residents. The majority of them live in shared rooms or small apartments in the so-called urban villages. Housing poverty, especially overcrowding, is a serious problem. This paper also highlights the positive contributions made by urban villages and private landlords in housing the large number of migrants in cities.

136 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors analyzed the background for this interest, presents some basic features of socio-economic and ethnic residential segregation, and discusses some fundamental contextual properties regarding the Swedish welfare state, its institutional set-up and changes in housing and other policies that have affected the conditions for segregation processes.
Abstract: The issue of residential segregation has been on the Swedish political agenda since the early 1970s. This paper analyses the background for this interest, presents some basic features of socio-economic and ethnic residential segregation, and discusses some fundamental contextual properties regarding the Swedish welfare state, its institutional set-up and changes in housing and other policies that have affected the conditions for segregation processes. Three more specific anti-segregation policies are also identified and analysed: housing and social mix policy (first initiated in the 1970s); the refugee dispersal policy (initiated in the 1980s); and the area-based urban policy (initiated in the 1990s). Of these three, the last two have a clear ethnic focus while mix policies primarily aim for socio-economic and demographic mix. The analysis shows that none of the policies have managed to affect levels of segregation more than marginally, the reasons being ineffective implementation (the mix policy), failur...

133 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors conceptualized the marked downturn in UK house prices in the 2007-2009 period in relation to longer-term processes of national economic restructuring centred on a new model of homeownership.
Abstract: This paper conceptualises the marked downturn in UK house prices in the 2007–2009 period in relation to longer-term processes of national economic restructuring centred on a new model of homeownership. The structure of UK house prices has been impacted markedly by the Labour Government's efforts to ingrain a particular notion of financial literacy amid the move towards an increasingly asset-based system of welfare. New model welfare recipients and new model homeowners have thereby been co-constituted in a manner consistent with a new UK growth regime of ‘house price Keynesianism’. However, the investor subjects who drive such growth are necessarily rendered uncertain compared with the idealised image of government policy because of their reliance on the credit-creating decisions of private financial institutions. The recent steep decline in UK house prices is explained here as an epiphenomenon of the disruptive effect on the idealised image caused by the dependence of investor subjects on pricing dynamics...

105 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a large-scale household survey in 11 urban villages in six Chinese cities was conducted to understand the social groups and the housing differentiation among them in Chinese urban villages from an institutional perspective.
Abstract: Possessing different land rights and distinct landscapes, and separated from the rest of the city by invisible institutional boundaries, China's urban villages are unusual enclaves for landless farmers, rural migrants and other urban hukou (citizenship rights) holders in a period of rapid urbanization. Although urban villages are well known for their disorder and unruliness, they provide temporary livelihood for indigenous villagers and inexpensive shelter for migrants and other urban residents. Urban villages are typically perceived as homogeneous low-income neighbourhoods characterized by low quality and high density housing. In fact, housing differentiation has emerged in urban villages among residents who possess different quantities and types of capital, rights/entitlements, skills and other assets. This paper aims to understand the social groups and the housing differentiation among them in the Chinese urban villages from an institutional perspective. It is based on a large-scale household survey in 11 urban villages in six Chinese cities. Empirical data show evidence of significant housing differentiation within these enclaves: indigenous villagers have become a petty rentier class; rural migrants pay the highest rents while enduring the lowest housing conditions; and housing conditions for urban hukou holders lie between those of the other two groups. Regression analysis suggests that urban villages share similar dynamics of housing differentiation as wider urban spaces, i.e. the combination of strong institutional constraints and emerging market influences leads to housing differentiation and inequality. Residents in urban villages are also highly mobile. The inflows and outflows of population form an important part of the urban socio-spatial restructuring process.

104 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study of the most distinctive type of housing in the state socialist cities, high-rise prefabricated panel housing estates, in the light of the reform of housing privatisation is presented.
Abstract: Cities in the formerly centrally planned countries in the Soviet Union and Central Eastern Europe have transformed rapidly since the political and economic restructuring started in the late 1980s. To date, the main focus of research has been on new urban phenomena, particularly inner-city change and suburbanisation. However, these changes affect only a minority of the population, because most people still live in pre-transition housing stock. This study clarifies population changes in the most distinctive type of housing in the state socialist cities, high-rise prefabricated panel housing estates, in the light of the reform of housing privatisation. Many researchers have assumed that panel housing estates would quickly downgrade in the course of transition towards a market economy. However, the main results of the study show that these areas have maintained a relatively good image and social mix to the present day and that there are no straightforward signs of their socio-economic downgrading or becoming ...

104 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present new evidence of a strong increase in the number of middle-class families in the city of Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and link these patterns and trends with gentrification literature.
Abstract: Based on data for Amsterdam, the Netherlands, this paper presents new evidence of a strong increase in the number of middle-class families in the city. By presenting the spatial patterns and trends of middle-class families in selected Amsterdam neighbourhoods, the paper shows that central neighbourhoods in particular attract middle-class families. In addition, new-build areas, both central and peripheral, offer a residential environment for middle-class families as a compromise between inner city and suburb. This paper links these patterns and trends with gentrification literature. Middle-class family neighbourhoods are classified in a typology that perceives neighbourhoods as fields that are accessed by means of capital, and operate as a stage for the accumulation of various forms of capital, which are associated with various habituses of the middle class.

103 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the effect of union dissolution on the occurrence of moves, changes of dwelling type, and the probability of moving out of owner-occupation using 1991-2004 data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS).
Abstract: Using 1991–2004 data from the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) this paper analyses the effect of union dissolution on the occurrence of moves, changes of dwelling type, and the probability of moving out of owner-occupation. The main contributions of this paper are that it takes into account the rise in the occurrence of cohabitation, by analysing the dissolution of cohabiting and marital unions separately, and that it studies the effect of re-partnering on housing careers. Using logistic regression models clear evidence was found that the dissolutions of marriage and cohabitation result in different housing career outcomes. In particular, those who divorce experience a larger drop in housing quality than do those who split up from cohabitation. Starting a new relationship leads to more upward moves in the housing career compared to remaining divorced or split up.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the strengths and weaknesses of this model, assessing, in the process, the potential for achieving the policy goals set out by those advoc... and assesses the potential to achieve these goals.
Abstract: Housing policy in the United States now serves an agenda defined by concerns over economic and racial segregation in older central city neighborhoods. HOPE VI, the main US initiative in this area, is aimed at the large-scale demolition of public housing projects and their replacement by smaller-scale, mixed-income developments. The logic model behind the effort to redevelop public housing and disperse subsidized housing residents anticipates benefits at both the individual and community level. Individuals are expected to progress in a range of economic, social and physical ways when freed of the negative area effects associated with high levels of income and racial segregation. Communities are expected to become more livable when rid of dysfunctional and outmoded public housing estates and their discouraging influence on private investment patterns. This paper examines the strengths and weaknesses of this model, assessing, in the process, the potential for achieving the policy goals set out by those advoc...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored some distinguishing characteristics of housing provision in Australia which explain the paradox of the relative stability of the Australian housing system simultaneous with deepening housing affordability problems, and proposed a broad-ranging, reflexive study which drew on an institutional framework to explore some distinguishing characteristic of housing providing in Australia.
Abstract: The global financial crisis was both precipitated by and had major effects on the performance of housing markets around the world. Australia was one of the few Western countries where the housing market was barely affected. There was a slight hiccup and then borrowing, construction and house price inflation continued on its pre-crisis course. For a country that on the surface is very similar to the USA and which had one of the worst affected housing markets, what could explain the difference? This paper is a broad-ranging, reflexive study which draws on an institutional framework to explore some distinguishing characteristics of housing provision in Australia which explain the paradox of the relative stability of the Australian housing system simultaneous with deepening housing affordability problems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a collection of papers in which a number of connections between housing and family issues are highlighted are highlighted, including the influence of the family of origin on housing characteristics and housing situations; the links between household events and housing events at the micro level of households; and homeownership as a context for parenthood at the macro level of countries.
Abstract: This paper introduces the Housing Studies special issue ‘Housing and Family’. The issue consists of a collection of papers in which a number of connections between housing and family issues are highlighted. Three themes are addressed: the influence of the family of origin on housing characteristics and housing situations; the links between household events and housing events at the micro level of households; and homeownership as a context for parenthood at the macro level of countries. It is concluded that family is as much a context for understanding housing needs and residential outcomes as housing is a context for understanding family events.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate the influence of gender on homeownership and to what extent it differs between men and women in couples and between single men and single women, and find that the earning potential of the male partner, indicated by the level of education, is much more important to housing tenure than the female partner.
Abstract: Homeownership is influenced by resources, household context and characteristics of the family of origin. Using the Netherlands Kinship Panel Study, this paper investigates this influence and to what extent it differs between men and women in couples and between single men and women. The results for couples show that the earning potential of the male partner, indicated by the level of education, is much more important to housing tenure than the earning potential of the female partner, whereas the impact of the current income is similar for both sexes. Single women are less likely to be homeowners than single men. Moreover, the earning potential has a greater effect on homeownership for single men than for single women. Some evidence is also found for a greater effect of the father's socio-economic status on women's than on men's homeownership.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors assess the discrepancies between the rhetorical level of policy aims and the pragmatic level of public policy outputs, raising methodological issues on the relevance of the communal scale for the measure of segregation and social mix.
Abstract: In France, a Housing Act, called Solidarite et Renouvellement Urbain (Solidarity and Urban Renewal), came into force in 2000. Its main aim is to challenge segregation in housing and to strengthen solidarity among citizens. It promotes a tenure mix through legal requirements: in urban areas, every commune should reach a minimum of 20 per cent social housing in its housing stock before 2020. This paper attempts to explain why policy makers believe in the virtues of a tenure mix. The second aim is to assess the discrepancies between the rhetorical level of policy aims and the pragmatic level of policy outputs, raising methodological issues on the relevance of the communal scale for the measure of segregation and social mix. The conclusion raises paradoxical issues: social class segmentation resists social mixing more strongly than ethnic segmentation; the French social mix policy strengthens ghettos and hinders the right to decent housing for the very poor.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study of Ghanaian migrants in Sydney showed that by keeping at two or more jobs and saving about 33 percent of their incomes, they are able to build houses worth US$100 000 in Ghana within 3-6 years as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A combination of rapid population growth and low incomes results in housing shortages in Ghana. Migration to Europe, America and Scandinavia has provided a way for some Ghanaians to escape this housing problem, as they take advantage of salaries there in order to save and build houses much quicker back home. This study of Ghanaian migrants in Sydney shows that by keeping at two or more jobs and saving about 33 per cent of their incomes, they are able to build houses worth US$100 000 in Ghana within 3–6 years. How these Ghanaians acquire land, how they build and their experiences after completing their houses provide clues on how to improve housing policy in Ghana.

Journal ArticleDOI
Sara Ström1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explore to what extent housing (type, tenure and number of rooms) is a constraint for first births in Sweden 1972-2005 and conclude that it is not a major constraint.
Abstract: The aim of this study is to explore to what extent housing (type, tenure and number of rooms) is a constraint for first births in Sweden 1972-2005. The Swedish Housing and Life Course Cohort Study ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a variation of the repeat sales methodology has been used to measure the impact of flooding on the price of transacted residential property for 13 locations in the UK, and the results reveal the impacts of flood events to be highly variable and temporary and no effect of flood designation.
Abstract: The increase in frequency and severity of flood events in the UK has highlighted the question of the impact of flooding on the value of property. Previous studies in the UK and internationally have measured a wide variety of impacts from no impact to discounts of more than 40 per cent of property price. Transactional measurements have not previously been attempted in the UK property market due to lack of available data. In order to improve the available evidence base, a variation of the repeat sales methodology has been used to measure the impact of flooding on the price of transacted residential property for 13 locations in the UK. The results reveal the impact of flood events to be highly variable and temporary and no effect of flood designation. The policy implications of these findings with regard to the perceptions and behaviours of property stakeholders are explored.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide evidence to support both explanations of why ethnic minorities move to and from multi-ethnic neighborhoods, and they show that for many immigrants living in enclaves has been a temporary situation and that this situation ends when the family has become more integrated in the new society and then moves to another part of the city.
Abstract: In most European countries ethnic minorities have had a tendency to settle in certain parts of cities—and often in social housing—together with other immigrants in so-called multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. An explanation for this could be low income combined with lack of knowledge of the housing market and discrimination, which limits the housing possibilities for ethnic minorities. Another explanation could be that for different reasons immigrants choose to settle in so-called ethnic enclaves where they can find an ethnic social network, which can support them in their new country. In traditional research literature about immigration it has been shown that for many immigrants living in enclaves has been a temporary situation. The ‘spatial assimilation theory’ says that this situation ends when the family has become more integrated in the new society and then moves to another part of the city. This paper provides evidence to support both explanations of why ethnic minorities move to and from multi-ethnic nei...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examined home financing in China, using data from household surveys conducted in Guangzhou and Shanghai, and found that the majority of homebuyers continue to rely heavily on personal savings and parental contributions to finance home purchase.
Abstract: This paper examines home financing in China, using data from household surveys conducted in Guangzhou and Shanghai. The nationwide Housing Provident Fund is still of minor importance. The majority of homebuyers continue to rely heavily on personal savings and parental contributions to finance home purchase. Mortgages are gaining importance, with slightly less than one-third of the purchases employing this means. Demographic attributes have relatively minor effects on mortgage loan utilisation. Socio-economic status is of somewhat greater significance; however, it exhibits contrasting effects in Guangzhou and Shanghai, which may be attributed to the difference in local housing market conditions. Migrants are discriminated by their hukou status. The findings show hukou status affects access to mortgage primarily through its impacts on the job market.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an econometric analysis is conducted to explore the determinants of long-run housing prices and how the structural change in mortgage lending around 2000 has impacted the housing price dynamics in Seoul and several other major cities.
Abstract: The Korean housing sector offers an interesting case study. It has had a highly regulated market faced with a large demand pressure over an extended period of economic development, has solved the problem of absolute housing shortages within a reasonably short time period, and has maintained an explicit policy goal of achieving housing price stability. This paper documents the evolution of housing policy in Korea, identifying the structural changes that have taken place in the housing market and government intervention in it since the late 1980s. It also traces the trends in housing prices and affordability during the past two decades. An econometric analysis is then conducted to explore the determinants of long-run housing prices and how the structural change in mortgage lending around 2000 has impacted the housing price dynamics in Seoul and several other major cities. Finally, a set of policy implications is drawn from the analysis of housing prices and policy experiences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed the development of various components of household expenditure which contributed to these higher ratios and suggested that a longer-term or structural widening of the income gap between renting and owning may indeed be taking place.
Abstract: Housing became more expensive in the Netherlands between 2002 and 2006, a trend which has been demonstrated using various measures of affordability. The expenditure-to-income ratios calculated for households confirm that the average cost of housing rose for tenants and homeowners, as well as for most income groups generally. This contribution analyses the development of various components of household expenditure which contributed to these higher ratios. One of the most important considerations here is the fact that average household disposable incomes either fell (tenants) or remained stable (homeowners) during the four-year period under review. This leads to the question of whether these increasing income differences between renting and owning can be attributed to the business cycle alone, or whether they are part of a longer-term trend that will eventually result in a rental sector that provides housing for those on lower incomes. The findings suggest that a longer-term or structural widening of the income gap between renting and owning may indeed be taking place.

Journal ArticleDOI
Mark Andrew1
TL;DR: This paper conducted micro-simulation analyses to assess how this change could affect young adult homeownership transitions and found that increased student debt levels and the new repayment profile and their interaction with lender-imposed borrowing restrictions delay a first-time homeownership transition.
Abstract: The 1990s saw a considerable fall in young adult homeownership rates in Britain. There is a concern that the future might hold further falls as a result of reforms to financing higher education. Using estimates from a housing tenure choice model, this paper conducts micro-simulation analyses to assess how this change could affect young adult homeownership transitions. The simulations reveal that increased student debt levels and the new repayment profile and their interaction with lender-imposed borrowing restrictions delay a first-time homeownership transition. The extent of the delay primarily depends upon the expected earnings profile, but lender criteria and general rises/falls in real house prices are also important. The analysis suggests that there will be much greater variation in the timing of house purchase between different groups of future graduates, brought about by increased graduate earnings heterogeneity, homeownership affordability schemes targeted toward specific types of households, and ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an analysis of the dispersal pattern of displaced households in the Dutch cities of The Hague, Utrecht and Leiden was carried out to investigate the effect of urban restructuring on segregation.
Abstract: Area-based urban restructuring policy can be considered an important measure in combating residential segregation. The demolition of the social-rented sector is a crucial element of area-based restructuring policy in the Netherlands. As a consequence, many residents, most of whom have a low income, are forced to move to another dwelling. By means of an analysis of the dispersal pattern of displaced households in the Dutch cities of The Hague, Utrecht and Leiden, this paper gives insight into the effect of urban restructuring on segregation. The main conclusion is that displaced households do not concentrate in a small number of neighbourhoods, but follow a dispersed pattern. However, displacees seem to have a tendency to move to neighbourhoods with a high percentage of non-Western minorities and a large proportion of social-rented dwellings. This tendency indicates that concentrations might become apparent in neighbourhoods that match these characteristics.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the influence of housing assets on an individual's willingness-to-sell (WTS) their dwelling for care purposes, and the willingness to take out a reverse mortgage contract loan in the event of old-age dependency was examined.
Abstract: Population ageing brings new challenges to long-term household economic decisions. In the event of old-age dependency, housing assets become a key self-insurance device. However, little empirical evidence has been reported regarding an individual's expectations of having to use their housing wealth for such a purpose. This paper draws upon two complementary data sources to empirically examine: (1) the influence of housing assets on an individual's willingness-to-sell (WTS) their dwelling for care purposes, and (2) the willingness to take out a reverse mortgage contract loan in the event of old-age dependency. The paper's findings suggest that homeowners' WTS in old age is unaffected by their income or housing assets and is, rather, determined by socio-environmental housing characteristics and the individual's health and personal needs. Conversely, the study finds that the uptake of home reversion loans is largely dependent on income or education, but not on a household's housing assets.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors take an historical perspective, tracing shifting emphases of political discourses and policy approaches to minority ethnic residential segregation and inclusion, and setting these alongside broader understandings of governmental social control.
Abstract: Persistent segregation in deprived inner areas of British cities can be seen as both a symptom and a cause of ethnic inequalities, and as an indicator of the failure of minority ethnic groups to integrate into wider society. This paper takes an historical perspective, tracing shifting emphases of political discourses and policy approaches to minority ethnic residential segregation and inclusion, and setting these alongside broader understandings of governmental social control. The paper reflects on episodes of post-1945 intervention into settlement patterns and housing circumstances, and highlights key problematic experiences associated with certain kinds of ‘top-down’ interventions going beyond ethnicity. It is concluded that neither demolitions nor dispersal are very likely to generate social integration, unless they reflect and reinforce positive adaptation strategies that minority ethnic households already tend to pursue. The keys to constructive social development lie primarily outside the realms of ...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined the impact of interventions in housing management and highlighted the role of culture and social control in the adoption of intensive management strategies within mixed communities, illustrated in the development of allocation policies, initiatives designed to tackle anti-social behaviour and proposals to develop sustainable communities.
Abstract: This article examines housing policies aimed at establishing mixed income communities. Based on stakeholder interviews and case study analysis in England and Scotland, the article pays particular attention to the impact of interventions in housing management. The first part of the article considers the policy context for mixed communities and considers the conceptual basis underlying contemporary housing management through discourses of culture and social control. The second part considers how this agenda has resulted in the adoption of intensive management strategies within mixed communities; illustrated in the development of allocation policies, initiatives designed to tackle anti-social behaviour and proposals to develop sustainable communities. The main argument is given that the concept of mixed communities is based on the premise of social housing failure, citizenship has been defined largely in response to private sector interests. This approach to management has been a contributory factor in the construction of social housing as a form of second-class citizenship.

Journal ArticleDOI
Yosuke Hirayama1
TL;DR: In this article, a more insecure economy combined with the reorientation of housing and social policies has led to divergence in people's housing pathways, and the conservative nature of public policy has largely been maintained, advantaging middle-class family households in accessing homeownership.
Abstract: The housing system in post-war Japan has consistently driven the growth of the owner-occupied housing sector, where many people have followed a conventional life-course in terms of ascending the housing ladder towards homeownership. Since the 1990s, however, a more insecure economy combined with the reorientation of housing and social policies has led to divergence in people's housing pathways. The conservative nature of public policy has largely been maintained, advantaging middle-class family households in accessing homeownership. However, in response to economic stagnation and within the context of pervasive neo-liberalism, the government has moved sharply towards accentuating the role of the market in providing housing and mortgages. Neo-liberal policies have become more pronounced while conservative institutions have firmly been ingrained in Japan's post-war society. Conventional middle-class families, protected by conservative policies in moving up the housing ladder, have maintained their relativel...

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper found that there is no evidence of gentrification in older neighbourhoods, however, inflows of capital rather than middle-class residents have altered the physical development of the city to an extent that the housing choices of all income groups have been affected.
Abstract: This paper places the Housing Market Renewal programme in Liverpool in its historical context, highlighting a mismatch between the supply and demand for housing which has existed for four decades. This disequilibrium produced an environment where successive waves of neighbourhood abandonment occurred from the late 1970s despite significant public policy interventions. The implementation of the Housing Market Renewal programme has stimulated a debate about the extent to which the public sector interventions are leading to the gentrification of poor neighbourhoods. The paper finds that there is no evidence of gentrification in older neighbourhoods, however, inflows of capital rather than middle-class residents have altered the physical development of the city to an extent that the housing choices of all income groups have been affected. The paper concludes that critical gentrification research should take account of historical development and wider housing market change to remain relevant to the debate abou...