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Showing papers in "Hts Teologiese Studies-theological Studies in 2012"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the last couple of years, missional ecclesiology has emerged as one of the significant trends in mission studies and ecumenical discussion as discussed by the authors and missional theology as participating in the life of the Trinity and thus mission as "joining in with the Spirit".
Abstract: Missional ecclesiology emerged as one of the significant trends in mission studies and ecumenical discussion in the last couple of years. What were these trends in missional ecclesiology? What kind of missional theology formed and fuelled the renewed interest in missional ecclesiology? What impact flowed from the important ecumenical events in 2010 (Edinburgh 2010 World Mission Conference, World Communion of Reformed Churches and Lausanne III)? This article explained the term ‘missional church’ and explored missional theology as participating in the life of the Trinity and thus mission as ‘joining in with the Spirit’. It explained the relationship between ecclesiology and missiology. The trends in missional ecclesiology were tracked by focusing on an incarnational approach to the church; relationality in the community of believers; the role of the kingdom of God ; discernment as the first act in mission; imago Dei and creativity; the ecclesia and local community and finally mission and ethics .

36 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a conceptual map of the theological and pedagogical challenges for ministerial formation and highlights how the possibility of formation is being carried out in the distance learning environment is presented.
Abstract: Ministerial formation is a multifaceted activity involving critical thinking, the acquisition of knowledge, skills development, religious identity formation and the development of ministerial and spiritual maturity expected of church ministers. Education is not merely the accumulation of a prescribed set of academic credits but includes the holistic formation of all aspects of the individual. However, theological educators are concerned about the capacity to foster such values and skills in the distance and electronic environment. Some see distance education as ‘distancing’ the students in more significant ways than simply geographic distance. These issues are of fundamental importance for they reflect the deeper convictions of theologians that distance education may not be a suitable medium for ministerial formation. This article creates a conceptual map of the theological and pedagogical challenges for ministerial formation and highlights how the possibility of formation is being carried out in the distance-learning environment.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching maintains that different psychological type preferences are associated with distinctive readings of scripture as mentioned in this paper, and this theory was tested amongst two groups of training candidates (a total of 26 participants) who were located within working groups according to their psychological type preference, and invited to reflect on the Johannine feeding narrative (Jn 6:4−22).
Abstract: Drawing on Jungian psychological type theory, the SIFT method of biblical hermeneutics and liturgical preaching maintains that different psychological type preferences are associated with distinctive readings of scripture. In the present study this theory was tested amongst two groups of ministry training candidates (a total of 26 participants) who were located within working groups according to their psychological type preferences, and invited to reflect on the Johannine feeding narrative (Jn 6:4−22), and to document their discussion. Analysis of these data provided empirical support for the theory underpinning the SIFT method.

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argued that the sexual behaviour of teenagers mostly seems to demonstrate a misconception on sex and sexuality, and suggested how faith communities can become a more relevant and effective partner in fostering a theological understanding of sex, especially to the youth.
Abstract: This article provided an overview of youth culture and how the media shapes youth culture today. Its specific aim was to focus on the access to sexual content that the different forms of media provide and the possible effect that they have on youth culture today. The sexual development of teenagers is one of the most important areas of their journey into adulthood and can easily be influenced by media messages on sex and sexuality. As such, the sexual behaviour of teenagers mostly seems to demonstrate a misconception on sex and sexuality. The author argued that sex and sexuality can also be viewed as theological issues and concluded by offering a few suggestions on how faith communities can become a more relevant and effective partner in fostering a theological understanding of sex and sexuality, especially to the youth.

26 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The authors argued that empire is primarily of conceptual nature and a negotiated notion, a constantly constructed entity by both the powerful and the subjugated, to which the concomitant responses of subversion and attraction to empire attest.
Abstract: Considering the overt or sublime connections biblical scholars increasingly indicate between biblical texts and empires, this contribution engages the need for the theorisation of empire beyond material depiction. It is suggested that empire is primarily of conceptual nature and a negotiated notion, a constantly constructed entity by both the powerful and the subjugated, to which the concomitant responses of subversion and attraction to empire attest. The discussion is primarily related to the first-century CE context, arguing also that postcolonial analysis provides a useful approach to deal with (at least, some of) the complexities of such research.

25 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, it was concluded that Augustine was no historian in the usual sense of the word; secondly, his concept of historia sacra was the heuristic foundation for his idea of history; thirdly, the present is not to be described in the terms of history, which implies that he took great care when pointing out any instances of 'God's hand in history'; fourthly the end times have already started, with the advent of Jesus Christ; fifthly, because of the uniqueness of Christ's coming, it runs counter to any cyclical worldview; sixth
Abstract: This article dealt with the church father Augustine’s view on history and eschatology. After analysing the relevant material (especially his City of God and the correspondence with a certain Hesyschius) it was concluded that, firstly, Augustine was no historian in the usual sense of the word; secondly, his concept of historia sacra was the heuristic foundation for his idea of history; thirdly, the present is not to be described in the terms of historia sacra , which implies that he took great care when pointing out any instances of ‘God’s hand in history’; fourthly, the end times have already started, with the advent of Jesus Christ; fifthly, because of the uniqueness of Christ’s coming, it runs counter to any cyclical worldview; sixthly, identifying any exact moment of the end of times is humanly impossible and seventhly, there is no room for any ‘chiliastic’ expectation.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors adopted as its point of departure an appreciation of the new "hermeneutics of listening" that is advanced today by an interdisciplinary movement of scholars from the disciplines of practical theology, theological ethics and religion studies.
Abstract: As part of the theological task of developing a publicly oriented ministry that will do justice to the social plight of children in Africa, this article adopted as its point of departure an appreciation of the new ‘hermeneutics of listening’ that is advanced today by an interdisciplinary movement of scholars from the disciplines of practical theology, theological ethics and religion studies. Emphasising the fact that this new hermeneutics is by and large the result of this scholarly movement’s newly-found engagement with, and exposure to, the social science field of childhood studies, the article moved from a more general appreciation of the new hermeneutical line of thinking to a more pertinent evaluation of the unfolding of this line of thinking in the scholarly context of Africa. In a further development that narrows the African focus to South Africa, the results from a recent empirical investigation amongst members of the South African practical theological academy were discussed in particular to determine the extent of this group’s shift to the new line of thinking. This led the article to make a concluding statement, in the light of its overt practical theological interest, about the way in which the new ‘hermeneutics of listening’ to children could still be seen as an important ongoing challenge, not only for practical theological scholarship in South Africa but also within the larger context of Africa.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The article attempted to analyse critically the definition of trauma as it is used in the Western medical and psychiatry contexts in order to come up with an appropriate African definition, to demonstrate that the Western worldview is different from the African worldview.
Abstract: The article attempted to analyse critically the definition of trauma as it is used in the Western medical and psychiatry contexts in order to come up with an appropriate African definition. This was undertaken with the view to demonstrate that the Western worldview is different from the African worldview. Superimposing solutions or providing pre-packed answers to unique African problems will lead only to re-traumatisation, whereas cultural sensitivity and the right diagnosis will lead to the correct treatment. The driving force behind this article was therefore to aim to be relevant, effective and contextual in all African-based pastoral care.

15 citations


Journal Article
Gert Breed1
TL;DR: In this article, a revisitation of the essence and content of a deacon's service revisited in many congregations, there is great uncertainty about the precise duty of the deacon within the congregation.
Abstract: The essence and content of a deacon's service revisited In many congregations, there is great uncertainty about the precise duty of the deacon within the congregation. Nowhere in the Bible is the essence and content of a deacon's service clearly spelled out. The suitability of the Scriptural passages that are often referred to to determine the essence and content of a deacon's work is widely questioned. Through the ages and in various traditions, the deacon has been entrusted with a wide variety of duties. All of the above necessitates a revisitation of the essence and content of the deacon's service. This article aims to extract the applicable aspects of the latest research on the diakon word group and apply its meaning to the work of the deacon within the overall ministry of the congregation. In order to achieve this objective, the applicable findings within research, conducted over the last 20 years, on the diakon word group is provided. Then the traditional Biblical substantiation of the essence and content of the deacon's service is critically reviewed. In conclusion, recommendations are made concerning the meaning of the latest research on the diakon word group for the deacon's service within the overall ministry of the congregation.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explain the philosophical viewpoints of Michel Foucault concerning the power of knowledge and its consequences when individuals are subjectified into "docile bodies" and expose the subjectifying of the identities of the lost son, the father, the master, the steward, and the rich man.
Abstract: Resistance against power: The pilgrim’s journey in three Sondergut parables in Luke 15 and 16. The aim of this essay is to explain the philosophical viewpoints of Michel Foucault concerning the power of knowledge and its consequences when individuals are subjectified into ‘docile bodies’. According to this perspective, resistance against power commences when the little stories of individuals are told in opposition to the master narratives of ideologies of power. The essay refers to Steve Biko and Martin Luther King whose stories of resistance against racism as an ideology of power serve as examples. Their examples of resistance are hermeneutically and heuristically applied to the interpretation of the parables in Luke 15 and 16. These parables are peculiar to Luke’s theology. The essay exposes the subjectifying of the identities of the ‘lost son’ and ‘father’, the ‘master’ and ‘steward’, and the ‘rich man’ and the ‘poor man’, as these heteronormative categories occur in parabolic stories in Luke 15 and 16. The essay concludes with a vision for Christians today on how to recognise power relationships and how to respond in a non-violent way to the dominant ideologies promoting power.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Gossip was a necessary social game that enabled the flow of information as discussed by the authors, and gossip was a natural and spontaneous recurring form of social organisation, which can be used to curb anachronistic and ethnocentristic readings of texts produced by cultures different from that of modern interpreters analysing these texts.
Abstract: In modern Western culture, gossip is seen as a malicious activity that should be avoided. In ancient oral-cultures, gossip as a cultural form did not have this negative connotation. Gossip was a necessary social game that enabled the flow of information. This information was used in the gossip network of communities to clarify, maintain and enforce group values, facilitate group formation and boundary maintenance and assess the morality of individuals. Gossip was a natural and spontaneous recurring form of social organisation. This understanding of gossip is used to interpret the two invitations and three excuses in the parable of the Feast (Lk 14:16a–23). The conclusion reached is that gossip, when understood as a social game, can be a useful tool to curb anachronistic and ethnocentristic readings of texts produced by cultures different from that of modern interpreters analysing these texts.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the indispensability of habitat in our definition of human personhood is discussed, and a revaluation of a Christian anthropology which approaches the Bible with a green hermeneutics is proposed.
Abstract: The indispensability of habitat in our definition of human personhood: In search of an eco-theological understanding of human life. The endeavour of this article is to arrive at a theological responsible conception of life. Life cannot be described adequately only in terms of body and soul (and/or spirit), or even in terms of human personhood. The point is that it is constitutive for life to take the human being’s environment sociologically as well as ecologically into account. This article does not plead for a nature religion as advocated by the Deep Green Movement and all its variations of naturalism and supernaturalism, but asks for a revaluation of a Christian anthropology which approaches the Bible with a green hermeneutics. Perhaps the expression, ‘bio-cultural’ paradigm requests to be substituted with an eco-sociological niche of the human person. An eco-sociological (eco-theological) understanding of homo religiosus is therefore to assume human life as ontologically ‘distributed’.

Journal ArticleDOI
Gert Breed1
TL;DR: In this paper, a revisitation of the essence and content of a deacon's service revisited is presented, where the applicable aspects of the latest research on the diakon word group and apply its meaning to the work of the deacon within the overall ministry of the congregation.
Abstract: The essence and content of a deacon’s service revisited. In many congregations, there is great uncertainty about the precise duty of the deacon within the congregation. Nowhere in the Bible is the essence and content of a deacon’s service clearly spelled out. The suitability of the Scriptural passages that are often referred to to determine the essence and content of a deacon’s work is widely questioned. Through the ages and in various traditions, the deacon has been entrusted with a wide variety of duties. All of the above necessitates a revisitation of the essence and content of the deacon’s service. This article aims to extract the applicable aspects of the latest research on the diakon word group and apply its meaning to the work of the deacon within the overall ministry of the congregation. In order to achieve this objective, the applicable findings within research, conducted over the last 20 years, on the diakon word group is provided. Then the traditional Biblical substantiation of the essence and content of the deacon’s service is critically reviewed. In conclusion, recommendations are made concerning the meaning of the latest research on the diakon word group for the deacon’s service within the overall ministry of the congregation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the dynamic relationship between mission and ethics in contexts of conflict and change in the Corinthian correspondence was investigated, and the role Paul played as reconciling leader, examined The early Christian writers like Paul wanted to instruct and shape communities of faith, and also with the social and ethical boundaries between the community of faith and the world.
Abstract: In this article the dynamic relationship between mission and ethics in contexts of conflict and change in the Corinthian correspondence was investigated, and the role Paul played as reconciling leader, examined The early Christian writers like Paul wanted to instruct and shape communities of faith Paul was especially concerned with the maintenance and growth of his congregations and also with the social and ethical boundaries between the community of faith and the ‘world’ In the article it was illustrated that within the Corinthian congregational context there existed several conflict situations, and that much of it was a result of diversity within the congregation Diversity is a fact of life and reality of the church In Paul’s vision for unity and reconciliation, and in his attempt to address the factionalism in the Corinthian congregation, he would in all cases, ground his practical solution in a theological identity construction Paul focuses on corporate solidarity and unity and urges the congregation to find their fellow brothers and sisters in times of conflict by means of ethical reciprocity and other-regard, a matter in which he is also an example, typical of other philosophers of his time – but with a significant difference At the end it becomes clear that Paul’s ethical advice has a missional dimension, in the sense that the conflict management should take place in such a way that God is honoured and that both Jews, Greeks and fellow believers will see that the way this community handles conflict, is different to the way the ‘world’ would do it, and that in the process, even more might be saved

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked, and some causes of this lacuna are discussed and suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care are made.
Abstract: The role of communities in health care has gained prominence in the last few years. Churches as community structures have been identified as instrumental in health-care delivery. Whilst it is widely acknowledged that churches provide important health services, particularly in countries where there are poorly-developed health sectors, the role of churches in health care is poorly understood and often overlooked. This article discusses some causes of this lacuna and makes suggestions for repositioning churches for a meaningful contribution to health care. Firstly, the article provides a context by reviewing literature on the church and health care. Secondly, it clarifies the nature of interventions and the competencies of churches. Thirdly, it discusses the operational meaning of church and churches for assessing health-care contributions. Fourthly, it explores the health-care models that are discerned in church and health-care literature. Fifthly, it discusses the contribution of churches within a multidisciplinary health team. Sixthly, it proposes an appropriate motivation that should drive churches to be involved in health care and the ecclesiological design that underpins such health care interventions.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The problem addressed in this paper is that empirical and theoretical research appears to demonstrate that liturgy often aims at certain results, which puts the widely accepted notion in Liturgical Studies of the so-called uselessness of liturgical ritual under pressure.
Abstract: The problem addressed in this article is, that empirical and theoretical research appears to demonstrate that liturgy often aims at certain results. This, however, puts the widely accepted notion in Liturgical Studies of the so-called uselessness of liturgical ritual under pressure. Against this background in Liturgical Studies the aim of this article is to reclaim space in academic discourses on liturgy for learning in liturgical contexts. The latter is done by presenting several liturgical models, revisiting arguments regarding the (non) functionality of ritual or religion and also by reflecting on ritual-liturgical data that the authors personally collected as part of two research projects.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the dynamic relationship between mission and ethics in contexts of conflict and change in the Corinthian correspondence was investigated, and the role Paul played as reconciling leader, examined, and it was shown that the conflict management should take place in such a way that God is honoured and that both Jews, Greeks and fellow believers will see that the way this community handles conflict, is different to the way the 'world' would do it, and that in the process, even more might be saved.
Abstract: In this article the dynamic relationship between mission and ethics in contexts of conflict and change in the Corinthian correspondence was investigated, and the role Paul played as reconciling leader, examined. The early Christian writers like Paul wanted to instruct and shape communities of faith. Paul was especially concerned with the maintenance and growth of his congregations and also with the social and ethical boundaries between the community of faith and the 'world'. In the article it was illustrated that within the Corinthian congregational context there existed several conflict situations, and that much of it was a result of diversity within the congregation. Diversity is a fact of life and reality of the church. In Paul's vision for unity and reconciliation, and in his attempt to address the factionalism in the Corinthian congregation, he would in all cases, ground his practical solution in a theological identity construction. Paul focuses on corporate solidarity and unity and urges the congregation to find their fellow brothers and sisters in times of conflict by means of ethical reciprocity and other-regard, a matter in which he is also an example, typical of other philosophers of his time - but with a significant difference. At the end it becomes clear that Paul's ethical advice has a missional dimension, in the sense that the conflict management should take place in such a way that God is honoured and that both Jews, Greeks and fellow believers will see that the way this community handles conflict, is different to the way the 'world' would do it, and that in the process, even more might be saved.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, 1 Corinthians 9 was used as an example for the implicit ethics model, a model which allows for a more nuanced presentation of the grounds and justification for behaviour and action, and it became clear that the proclamation of the Gospel does not have to be "unethical"; rather, it could be located and understood within the realm of the Pauline reflection on conduct.
Abstract: The central question concerning how mission and ethics are related arises within the context of the understanding of ethics itself and in this way often leads back to the familiar ‘indicative and imperative’ model. This oversimplified approach, however, is ultimately inadequate for the Pauline ethic in general and for the particular problem concerning mission and ethics. In this article, 1 Corinthians 9 was drawn upon as an example for the ‘implicit ethics’ model, a model which allows for a more nuanced presentation of the grounds and justification for behaviour and action. Through this approach it became clear that the proclamation of the Gospel does not have to be ‘unethical’; rather, it could be located and understood within the realm of the Pauline reflection on conduct. This, in turn, justified speaking of an ‘ethic of missions (activity)’ in Paul.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The functionalist model of Christiane Nord (1997) was used as point of departure and complimented by that of Ernst-August Gutt (2000) for a scholarly discourse on source-oriented translations of the Bible as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Translating the Bible so that target audiences can easily understand the meaning of the text has dominated the theory and practice of Bible translation since the 1960s. Source oriented translations that are typically associated with word-for-word translations received little theoretical reflection. However, developments in Translation Studies have made it clear that the latter type of translations do not provide the type of equivalence more conservative churches really call for. The story of the Bible in Afrikaans relates to how the Bible Society of South Africa (BSSA) has taken seriously the needs of churches in South Africa for a source- oriented translation and teamed up with scholars to develop an academically justifiable model for a new type of church Bible. The functionalist model of Christiane Nord (1997) was used as point of departure and complimented by that of Ernst-August Gutt (2000). Pointing out the accomplishments and challenges of this pioneering project, this article paves the way for a scholarly discourse on source-oriented translations of the Bible.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a hermeneutical practical theology of lived spirituality, focusing on the praxis of everyday living, the possible role of spirituality in informing the fluid decision-making processes in a mobile virtual world was traced.
Abstract: In the context of the interconnected world of the information age, and demarcated by a virtual existence through the use of the Internet, decision-making has become even more dynamic. In an evolving era of virtuality, with special emphasis on the increasing role of mobile communication technology, it is indicated that decision-making has become fluid. As part of the phenomenon of fluid decision-making, not only is the evolutionary character of virtual connectivity acknowledged, but the ever-increasing and important role of mobile platforms is also emphasised. In a hermeneutical practical theology of lived spirituality, focusing on the praxis of everyday living, the possible role of spirituality in informing the fluid decision-making processes in a mobile virtual world was traced. A qualitatively inspired analysis, using data collected from various virtual forums, was proposed. In the description of these contours, special emphasis was placed on narrative-inspired biographical accents. The research made a contribution in terms of possible new articulations of the language of faith as embodied in fluid decision-making in a mobile virtual reality.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The functionalist model of Christiane Nord (1997) was used as point of departure and complimented by that of Ernst-August Gutt (2000) for a scholarly discourse on source-oriented translations of the Bible.
Abstract: Translating the Bible so that target audiences can easily understand the meaning of the text has dominated the theory and practice of Bible translation since the 1960s. Source oriented translations that are typically associated with word-for-word translations received little theoretical reflection. However, developments in Translation Studies have made it clear that the latter type of translations do not provide the type of equivalence more conservative churches really call for. The story of the Bible in Afrikaans relates to how the Bible Society of South Africa (BSSA) has taken seriously the needs of churches in South Africa for a source-oriented translation and teamed up with scholars to develop an academically justifiable model for a new type of church Bible. The functionalist model of Christiane Nord (1997) was used as point of departure and complimented by that of Ernst-August Gutt (2000). Pointing out the accomplishments and challenges of this pioneering project, this article paves the way for a scholarly discourse on source-oriented translations of the Bible.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors dealt with the relationship between education and youth worship in Protestant contexts in the Netherlands and discussed the questions: How are youth worship and "learning faith" related? And, what are the qualities of learning faith in youth worship?
Abstract: This article dealt with the relationship between education and youth worship in Protestant contexts in the Netherlands. Consequently, it dealt with the relation between Liturgical and Educational Studies. Our interest in the research project on youth worship in Protestant contexts centred on the question: How do young people, in a late-modern context, participate in youth worship? In our qualitative research, it appeared that ‘learning’ is a key word with regard to youth worship. This article discussed the questions: How are youth worship and ‘learning faith’ related? And, what are the qualities of learning faith in youth worship? Empirical results of the research in local youth worship services and national youth worship events were presented. These results concentrated on the dialogical dimension in youth worship gatherings and gave indications about the contents of what adolescents learn in youth worship gatherings. This ‘what’ referred, amongst other aspects, to the important content of ‘rules and freedom’. Respondents often valued and appropriated youth worship along the line of ‘(do not) have to’, with regard to a Christian life style, their relation with God, ethics, and doctrines. Moreover, themes in youth worship gatherings often focused on a specific Christian lifestyle, on its boundaries and its spaces. Some reflections with regard to the question ‘Why is learning faith a dominant element in youth worship?’ were given. The conclusions that the cognitive element is important in youth worship and that the explicit aspect of learning is a main approach in youth worship were discussed in relation to J. Astley’s (1984) theoretical notion that the language of worship is ‘performing non-cognitive’.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the role of John Chrysostom as a bishop-missionary to the Goths in Constantinople is examined, with special emphasis on the rhetorical and ethical dimensions of his involvement.
Abstract: This study examines the role of John Chrysostom as bishop-missionary to the Goths in Constantinople. After Theodosius declared Nicene orthodoxy to be the only valid and legal faith, a potent programme to establish orthodoxy in Constantinople had begun, with bishops like Gregory Nazianzen and Nectarius promoting the cause. During and shortly after Chrysostom’s arrival in Constantinople, most of the Arians were Goths, and Chrysostom became personally involved in their affairs. In the light of this, the study specifically looks at how Chrysostom constructs and negotiates barbarian identity, with special emphasis on the rhetorical and ethical dimensions of his involvement; with emphasis on the trajectories provided by Foucault and De Certeau for understanding rhetoric, ethics and identity. It is specially asked whether Chrysostom could escape the classical Graeco-Roman habitus of barbarism and the normativity of the free, male Roman body.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent and found that the cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers.
Abstract: This article revealed the degree of trauma experienced by male adolescents when their fathers are absent. The cost of this absence could not be balanced with the material benefits the children have enjoyed, for the benefits have been outweighed by the trauma that children experience in the absence of their fathers. The emotions and tears expressed during the research journey have revealed that material support cannot compensate for the love and presence children expect from their fathers. The deep hurt instilled in their hearts by the periods of absence angered them and led to traumatic experiences. The protracted period of living with only one primary caregiver has imprisoned them into the feminised environment, thereby robbing them of a male identity. Therefore, this article was devoted to creating a shepherding model of caring for boys whose fathers are absent.

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: A major neglect in the study of the New Testament and violence can be remedied by the acknowledgement of the impact of the Roman Empire and its ideology of violence on New Testament documents and their positions on violence as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Religions are notoriously implicated in violence. Christianity is often seen as a particularly good example of the close links between religion and violence. Even the foundational documents of Christianity, which is the focus of this discussion, are not exempted from the accusation of both being involved in and even encouraging violence, notwithstanding the claims made about both Christianity and the Bible as peace-promoting. The importance of considering the role of the Roman Empire in the violence of the New Testament is particularly evident when the ambivalence of these documents towards violence is recognised. A major neglect in the study of the New Testament and violence can, therefore, be remedied by the acknowledgement of the impact of the Roman Empire and its ideology of violence on the New Testament documents and their positions on violence. Keywords:Christianity; New Testament; Roman Empire

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argued that the sexual behaviour of teenagers mostly seems to demonstrate a misconception on sex and sexuality, and suggested how faith communities can become a more relevant and effective partner in fostering a theological understanding of sex, especially to the youth.
Abstract: This article provided an overview of youth culture and how the media shapes youth culture today. Its specific aim was to focus on the access to sexual content that the different forms of media provide and the possible effect that they have on youth culture today. The sexual development of teenagers is one of the most important areas of their journey into adulthood and can easily be influenced by media messages on sex and sexuality. As such, the sexual behaviour of teenagers mostly seems to demonstrate a misconception on sex and sexuality. The author argued that sex and sexuality can also be viewed as theological issues and concluded by offering a few suggestions on how faith communities can become a more relevant and effective partner in fostering a theological understanding of sex and sexuality, especially to the youth.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue that Paul's notion of "the righteousness of God" ( diakaiosunē tou theou ), mentioned for example in Romans 1:18−3:20, not only accentuates God's saving act (a vertical dimension) but also God's intervention on behalf of the poor and other outcasts through the apostolic mission (the horizontal dimension).
Abstract: In Romans 15:22−33 (the concluding section of Paul’s last written letter) ‘the apostle for the gentiles’ motivates his financial contribution ( diakonia ) to the poor ( ptōchous ) in Jerusalem in terms of his mission to the nations ( ta ethnē ). The aim of this article is to argue that Paul’s notion, ‘the righteousness of God’ ( diakaiosunē tou theou ), mentioned for example in Romans 1:18−3:20, not only accentuates God’s saving act (a vertical dimension) but also God’s intervention on behalf of the poor and other outcasts through the apostolic mission (the horizontal dimension). The article explains Paul’s use of the concept righteousness as a ‘virtue’ by focusing on both the Hellenistic moral philosophy and the occurrence of the term zedaqah in the Old Testament. For Paul, the revelation of God is the revelation of the righteousness of God (Rm 1:17) in, among others, the Law (e.g. Ex 22:21−24), the Prophets (e.g., Zch 7:9−10) and the Writings (e.g. Job 24:9). Those affected, are the poor without patrons, women without patriarchs, children without parentage and foreigners without a paterfamilias. The pilgrimage to the nations includes all four groups of marginalized people. Blending the concepts ‘the righteousness of God’, ‘begging for the poor’ and Paul’s apostolic mission helps us to understand why the end of Romans (15:22−33) and its beginning (1:18−2:20) come to full circle. The vertical dimension of God’s saving act merges with the horizontal dimension of God’s saving act.

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This article sought to respond to Wessel Stoker’s interpretation of transcendence, specifically his last type: transcendence as alterity. It explored the possibilities of this last type as it moves beyond categories, proper names, types and norms toward a fragile openness of differance , always from within the text. This transcendence of alterity paves a way for discussion on what is beyond being or beyond language, either horizontally or vertically, so as to move away from dogmatic assertiveness toward a more poetic humility. This poetic humility, because of its openness ( Offen-barkeit ) and its ‘undogmaticness’, offers a fragile creativeness to our cultural–social–environmental encounters and praxis. Such poetics is found in Heidegger’s work, as he interpreted humanity to dwell poetically in the house of being (language), if language speaks as the Gelaut der Stille . Yet Heidegger did not move far enough beyond names and proper names, as he named and identified the kind of poetry that would be ‘proper’ to respond to the Gelaut der Stille . Derrida deconstructed Heidegger’s interpretation and exposed Heidegger’s disastrous method of capitalising cultural-political names, moving beyond such capitalisation of ‘proper’ names toward differance and a messianic expectation without Messiah. In this artricle, both Heidegger and Derrida’s conceptions were brought into dialogue with the types of transcendence proposed by Stoker. This showed that Derrida’s thoughts deconstruct Heidegger’s proper poems and, in doing so, move towards openness and a continual response to differance not with grand German-Greek poetry, but with fragile, temporary and maybe even prophetic poetry that is wounded by the continuous expectation of the messianic still to come. As an (in)conclusion, the article explored the possibilities that such a hermeneutics of differance can offer religion and culture in a particular local and highly divided national context of post-apartheid South Africa as a microcosm of a global world, whilst being fully aware of the dangerous return of too many proper names and Begriffe within such an (in)conclusion.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors dealt with the relationship between education and youth worship in Protestant contexts in the Netherlands and discussed the questions: How are youth worship and "learning faith" related? And, what are the qualities of learning faith in youth worship?
Abstract: This article dealt with the relationship between education and youth worship in Protestant contexts in the Netherlands. Consequently, it dealt with the relation between Liturgical and Educational Studies. Our interest in the research project on youth worship in Protestant contexts centred on the question: How do young people, in a late-modern context, participate in youth worship? In our qualitative research, it appeared that 'learning' is a key word with regard to youth worship. This article discussed the questions: How are youth worship and 'learning faith' related? And, what are the qualities of learning faith in youth worship? Empirical results of the research in local youth worship services and national youth worship events were presented. These results concentrated on the dialogical dimension in youth worship gatherings and gave indications about the contents of what adolescents learn in youth worship gatherings. This 'what' referred, amongst other aspects, to the important content of 'rules and freedom'. Respondents often valued and appropriated youth worship along the line of '(do not) have to', with regard to a Christian life style, their relation with God, ethics, and doctrines. Moreover, themes in youth worship gatherings often focused on a specific Christian lifestyle, on its boundaries and its spaces. Some reflections with regard to the question 'Why is learning faith a dominant element in youth worship?' were given. The conclusions that the cognitive element is important in youth worship and that the explicit aspect of learning is a main approach in youth worship were discussed in relation to J. Astley's (1984) theoretical notion that the language of worship is 'performing non-cognitive'.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explained the valuation of Christian believers with regard to the Christian Bible a "holy Scripture" and the notion ofScriptural authority was connected with an understanding of both the origin and use of the Christian canon.
Abstract: This article explained the valuation of Christian believers with regard to the Christian Bible a ‘Holy Scripture’. In the article the notion ‘Scriptural authority’ was connected with an understanding of both the origin and use of the Christian canon. The article described the origin of the Bible in light of the supposition that the Bible functions as (1) book of theology, as well as (2) book of believers and as (3) book of the church. The article consisted of references to the role of the Old Testament and the New Testament canonical collections and the role of ecclesial synodal decisions. It also obtained a graphical overview of the history and dates of the New Testament writings as a canonical list. The article concluded with a reflection on the relevance for the use and authority of the Bible, seen from the perspective of the use and origin of the Bible as Christianity’s canon.