Showing papers in "Hydrocarbon engineering in 2005"
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors ask whether it is more likely that China's economy will grow to be as large as the US economy or the US will always stay larger than China's.
Abstract: Questionnaire Q1. Do you think that it is more likely that someday China's economy will grow to be as large as the US economy or that the US economy will always stay larger than China's? China's economy will grow as large as the US economy The US economy will always stay larger than China's Not sure/ Decline (%) (%) Q2. If China's economy were to grow to be as large as the US economy, do you think that would be mostly positive, mostly negative, or equally positive and negative?
TL;DR: A new LNG receiving facility in Sagunto, 50 km north of Valencia (Spain), with a capacity of 3 million tpy of LNG, to be supplied from Egypt through a project initially promoted by Union Fenosa.
Abstract: P lanta de Regasificacion de Sagunto, S.A (Saggas) is constructing a new LNG receiving facility in Sagunto, 50 km north of Valencia (Spain), with a capacity of 3 million tpy of LNG, to be supplied from Egypt through a project initially promoted by Union Fenosa. Saggas is owned by three major electric companies in Spain: Union Fenosa (50%), Iberdrola (30%) and Endesa (20%). Saggas will be in charge of the management of the plant from construction through to the final operational stage, including responsibility for the operation and maintenance of the facility once it is fully operational. In February 2003, Saggas awarded the EPC contract to a consortium of five European and Japanese companies: ACS, a general construction firm in Spain, and leader of the consortium; SENER, a Spanish engineering firm; DYWIDAG, a German civil engineering firm; TKK, a Japanese LNG tank construction firm; and Osaka Gas Engineering (OGE). SENER’s scope of responsibility in this project includes:
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a membrane based process called VaporSep to separate and recover ethylene from argon in EO and VAM plants, which is a polymeric membrane that selectively permeates hydrocarbons such as ethylene but not light gases such as argon.
Abstract: are produced by catalytically reacting oxygen and ethylene. Methane is added as a diluent to ensure that the reactor is operating outside of the explosive range. As only a fraction of the feed reacts during a single pass through the reactor, the unreacted gas is recycled back to it, and because both oxygen and ethylene are not 100% pure, process contaminants such as argon from the oxygen and ethane from the ethylene build up over time. These must be purged from the reactor to control their composition. However, when these impurities are purged, ethylene and methane are also lost. Given that ethylene is an expensive feedstock ranging between US$ 400 800/t, losses represent a substantial operating cost. For a 300 000 tpy ethylene oxide plant the ethylene loss in the argon purge represents close to US$ 1 million/y. For a similar size VAM plant, ethylene losses are even greater. These represent a significant opportunity for recovery and recycling of raw materials. In some cases, a portion of the methane may also be recovered and recycled in the process, providing further savings. Membrane Technology and Research Inc. (MTR), based in Menlo Park, California, USA, has developed a membrane based process called VaporSep to separate and recover ethylene from argon in EO and VAM plants. The enabling technology is a polymeric membrane that selectively permeates hydrocarbons such as ethylene but not light gases such as argon. More than 60 clients now use this technology in polyethylene, polypropylene and polyvinylchloride plants. This article describes how the process is applied in EO and VAM plants, as well as looking at case studies of ethylene recovery units (ERUs) that have been installed. VaporSep membranes In most gas separation membranes, the separation is accomplished primarily by using differences in diffusion rates due to differences in molecular size. In contrast, the VaporSep membrane separates due to differences in solubility; the membrane allows large hydrocarbon molecules to permeate much faster than smaller molecules such as nitrogen, hydrogen or argon. This counter intuitive performance is due to the higher solubility of large hydrocarbon molecules in the membrane polymer compared to the light gases. The membrane is a thin film composite that is 10 100 times more permeable to hydrocarbon compounds than to argon. It consists of three layers (Figure 1): a nonwoven fabric that serves as the membrane substrate; a robust, solvent resistant microporous support layer that provides mechanical support; and a nonporous, selective layer that performs the separation. The selective layer is cross linked to the microporous layer, thus preventing any delamination or separation of the two layers. Achieving ethylene efficiency
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present four major challenges that must be addressed in providing large hydrogen plants to the refining and oil sands upgrading industries: reliability valuation, utilities integration and effective execution strategies, as well as a stronger commitment to efficiency, environmental compliance and overall economics.
Abstract: arge, single train hydrogen plants, with a capacity in the range of 60 200 mmscfd are becoming increasingly prevalent. The economies of scale from supplying multiple customers, synergies with energy integration and proven reliability have all boosted their popularity. However, the characteristics of large capacity hydrogen plants present greater challenges than medium sized (< 60 mmscfd) plants and demand a different approach in their design and operation. Such challenges require stronger emphasis on design boundaries, reliability valuation, utilities integration and effective execution strategies, as well as a stronger commitment to efficiency, environmental compliance and overall economics. Moreover, these large facilities generally demand tighter execution schedules and rapid commissioning, while facing the familiar project budget pressures and site specific (such as cold climate) constraints. For Technip and Air Products there are four major challenges that must be addressed in providing large hydrogen plants to the refining and oil sands upgrading industries: