# Showing papers in "IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive in 2014"

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TL;DR: This work extracts and analyzes the core of the Bitcoin protocol, which is term the Bitcoin backbone, and proves two of its fundamental properties which are called common prefix and chain quality in the static setting where the number of players remains fixed.

Abstract: Bitcoin is the first and most popular decentralized cryptocurrency to date. In this work, we extract and analyze the core of the Bitcoin protocol, which we term the Bitcoin backbone, and prove two of its fundamental properties which we call common prefix and chain quality in the static setting where the number of players remains fixed. Our proofs hinge on appropriate and novel assumptions on the “hashing power” of the adversary relative to network synchronicity; we show our results to be tight under high synchronization. Next, we propose and analyze applications that can be built “on top” of the backbone protocol, specifically focusing on Byzantine agreement (BA) and on the notion of a public transaction ledger. Regarding BA, we observe that Nakamoto’s suggestion falls short of solving it, and present a simple alternative which works assuming that the adversary’s hashing power is bounded by 1/3. The public transaction ledger captures the essence of Bitcoin’s operation as a cryptocurrency, in the sense that it guarantees the liveness and persistence of committed transactions. Based on this notion we describe and analyze the Bitcoin system as well as a more elaborate BA protocol, proving them secure assuming high network synchronicity and that the adversary’s hashing power is strictly less than 1/2, while the adversarial bound needed for security decreases as the network desynchronizes.

746 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Pinkas et al. showed how to simultaneously garble AND and XOR gates using zero ciphertexts, resulting in smaller garbled circuits than any prior scheme.

Abstract: The well-known classical constructions of garbled circuits use four ciphertexts per gate, although various methods have been proposed to reduce this cost. The best previously known methods for optimizing AND gates (two ciphertexts; Pinkas et al., ASIACRYPT 2009) and XOR gates (zero ciphertexts; Kolesnikov and Schneider, ICALP 2008) were incompatible, so most implementations used the best known method compatible with free-XOR gates (three ciphertexts; Kolesnikov and Schneider, ICALP 2008). In this work we show how to simultaneously garble AND gates using two ciphertexts and XOR gates using zero ciphertexts, resulting in smaller garbled circuits than any prior scheme. The main idea behind our construction is to break an AND gate into two half-gates — AND gates for which one party knows one input. Each half-gate can be garbled with a single ciphertext, so our construction uses two ciphertexts for each AND gate while being compatible with free-XOR gates. The price for the reduction in size is that the evaluator must perform two cryptographic operations per AND gate, rather than one as in previous schemes. We experimentally demonstrate that our garbling scheme leads to an overall decrease in time (up to 25%), bandwidth (up to 33%), and energy use (up to 20%) over several benchmark applications. We show that our construction is optimal for a large class of garbling schemes encompassing all known practical garbling techniques.

260 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, Wang et al. proposed a decentralized anonymous payment scheme (DAP) scheme, which enables users to directly pay each other privately: the corresponding transaction hides the payment's origin, destination, and transferred amount.

Abstract: Bit coin is the first digital currency to see widespread adoption. While payments are conducted between pseudonyms, Bit coin cannot offer strong privacy guarantees: payment transactions are recorded in a public decentralized ledger, from which much information can be deduced. Zero coin (Miers et al., IEEE S&P 2013) tackles some of these privacy issues by unlinking transactions from the payment's origin. Yet, it still reveals payments' destinations and amounts, and is limited in functionality. In this paper, we construct a full-fledged ledger-based digital currency with strong privacy guarantees. Our results leverage recent advances in zero-knowledge Succinct Non-interactive Arguments of Knowledge (zk-SNARKs). First, we formulate and construct decentralized anonymous payment schemes (DAP schemes). A DAP scheme enables users to directly pay each other privately: the corresponding transaction hides the payment's origin, destination, and transferred amount. We provide formal definitions and proofs of the construction's security. Second, we build Zero cash, a practical instantiation of our DAP scheme construction. In Zero cash, transactions are less than 1 kB and take under 6 ms to verify - orders of magnitude more efficient than the less-anonymous Zero coin and competitive with plain Bit coin.

248 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors give an overview on existing PSI protocols that are secure against semi-honest adversaries and suggest a new PSI protocol whose runtime is superior to that of existing protocols.

Abstract: Private set intersection (PSI) allows two parties to compute the intersection of their sets without revealing any information about items that are not in the intersection. It is one of the best studied applications of secure computation and many PSI protocols have been proposed. However, the variety of existing PSI protocols makes it difficult to identify the solution that performs best in a respective scenario, especially since they were not all implemented and compared in the same setting. In this work, we give an overview on existing PSI protocols that are secure against semi-honest adversaries. We take advantage of the most recent efficiency improvements in OT extension to propose significant optimizations to previous PSI protocols and to suggest a new PSI protocol whose runtime is superior to that of existing protocols. We compare the performance of the protocols both theoretically and experimentally, by implementing all protocols on the same platform, and give recommendations on which protocol to use in a particular setting.

227 citations

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TL;DR: A high-security post-quantum stateless hash-based signature scheme that signs hundreds of messages per second on a modern 4-core 3.5GHz Intel CPU, allowing it to be a drop-in replacement for current signature schemes.

Abstract: This paper introduces a high-security post-quantum stateless hash-based signature scheme that signs hundreds of messages per second on a modern 4-core 3.5GHz Intel CPU. Signatures are 41~KB, public keys are 1~KB, and private keys are 1~KB. The signature scheme is designed to provide long-term $2^{128}$ security even against attackers equipped with quantum computers. Unlike most hash-based designs, this signature scheme is stateless, allowing it to be a drop-in replacement for current signature schemes. Keywords: post-quantum cryptography, one-time signatures, few-time signatures, hypertrees, vectorized implementation

214 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new dynamic searchable symmetric encryption (DSE) scheme is presented, which is simpler and more efficient than existing schemes while revealing less information to the server than prior schemes, achieving fully adaptive security against honest but curious servers.

Abstract: Dynamic Searchable Symmetric Encryption allows a client to store a dynamic collection of encrypted documents with a server, and later quickly carry out keyword searches on these encrypted documents, while revealing minimal information to the server. In this paper we present a new dynamic SSE scheme that is simpler and more efficient than existing schemes while revealing less information to the server than prior schemes, achieving fully adaptive security against honest-but-curious servers. We implemented a prototype of our scheme and demonstrated its efficiency on datasets from prior work. Apart from its concrete efficiency, our scheme is also simpler: in particular, it does not require the server to support any operation other than upload and download of data. Thus the server in our scheme can be based solely on a cloud storage service, rather than a cloud computation service as well, as in prior work. In building our dynamic SSE scheme, we introduce a new primitive called Blind Storage, which allows a client to store a set of files on a remote server in such a way that the server does not learn how many files are stored, or the lengths of the individual files; as each file is retrieved, the server learns about its existence (and can notice the same file being downloaded subsequently), but the file’s name and contents are not revealed. This is a primitive with several applications other than SSE, and is of independent interest.

214 citations

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TL;DR: The results of this study show that there is a great security risk to OpenSSL AES implementation running on VMware cloud services when the deduplication is not disabled.

Abstract: In cloud computing, efficiencies are reaped by resource sharing such as co-location of computation and deduplication of data. This work exploits resource sharing in virtualization software to build a powerful cache-based attack on AES. We demonstrate the vulnerability by mounting Cross-VM Flush+Reload cache attacks in VMware VMs to recover the keys of an AES implementation of OpenSSL 1.0.1 running inside the victim VM. Furthermore, the attack works in a realistic setting where different VMs are located on separate cores. The modified flush+reload attack we present, takes only in the order of seconds to minutes to succeed in a cross-VM setting. Therefore long term co-location, as required by other fine grain attacks in the literature, are not needed. The results of this study show that there is a great security risk to OpenSSL AES implementation running on VMware cloud services when the deduplication is not disabled.

207 citations

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TL;DR: The proposed new tree-based ORAM scheme, Circuit ORAM, achieves (almost) optimal circuit size both in theory and in practice for realistic choices of block sizes and is an ideal candidate for secure multi-party computation applications.

Abstract: We propose a new tree-based ORAM scheme called Circuit ORAM. Circuit ORAM makes both theoretical and practical contributions. From a theoretical perspective, Circuit ORAM shows that the well-known Goldreich-Ostrovsky logarithmic ORAM lower bound is tight under certain parameter ranges, for several performance metrics. Therefore, we are the first to give an answer to a theoretical challenge that remained open for the past twenty-seven years. Second, Circuit ORAM earns its name because it achieves (almost) optimal circuit size both in theory and in practice for realistic choices of block sizes. We demonstrate compelling practical perfor- mance and show that Circuit ORAM is an ideal candidate for secure multi-party computation applications.

199 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors propose a new protocol for a cryptocurrency, that builds upon the Bitcoin protocol by combining its Proof of Work component with a Proof of Stake type of system.

Abstract: We propose a new protocol for a cryptocurrency, that builds upon the Bitcoin protocol by combining its Proof of Work component with a Proof of Stake type of system. Our Proof of Activity protocol oers good security against possibly practical attacks on Bitcoin, and has a relatively low penalty in terms of network communication and storage space.

184 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: Gentry's bootstrapping technique is still the only known method of obtaining fully homomorphic encryption where the system’s parameters do not depend on the complexity of the evaluated functions.

Abstract: Gentry’s bootstrapping technique is still the only known method of obtaining fully homomorphic encryption where the system’s parameters do not depend on the complexity of the evaluated functions. Bootstrapping involves a recryption procedure where the scheme’s decryption algorithm is evaluated homomorphically. So far, there have been precious few implementations of recryption, and fewer still that can handle “packed ciphertexts” that encrypt vectors of elements. In the current work, we report on an implementation of recryption of fully-packed ciphertexts using the HElib library for somewhat-homomorphic encryption. This implementation required extending the recryption algorithms from the literature, as well as many aspects of the HElib library. Our implementation supports bootstrapping of packed ciphertexts over many extension fields/rings. One example that we tested involves ciphertexts that encrypt vectors of 1024 elements from GF(2). In that setting, the recryption procedure takes under 5.5 minutes (at security-level ≈ 76) on a single core, and allows a depth-9 computation before the next recryption is needed.

163 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the first implementable encryption system supporting greater-than comparisons on encrypted data that provides the "best-possible" semantic security is presented. But it requires the full power of obfuscation machinery and is currently not implementable.

Abstract: Deciding “greater-than” relations among data items just given their encryptions is at the heart of search algorithms on encrypted data, most notably, non-interactive binary search on encrypted data. Order-preserving encryption provides one solution, but provably provides only limited security guarantees. Two-input functional encryption is another approach, but requires the full power of obfuscation machinery and is currently not implementable. We construct the first implementable encryption system supporting greater-than comparisons on encrypted data that provides the “best-possible” semantic security. In our scheme there is a public algorithm that given two ciphertexts as input, reveals the order of the corresponding plaintexts and nothing else. Our constructions are inspired by obfuscation techniques, but do not use obfuscation. For example, to compare two 16-bit encrypted values (e.g., salaries or age) we only need a 9-way multilinear map. More generally, comparing k-bit values requires only a (k/2 + 1)-way multilinear map. The required degree of multilinearity can be further reduced, but at the cost of increasing ciphertext size. Beyond comparisons, our results give an implementable secret-key multi-input functional encryption scheme for functionalities that can be expressed as (generalized) branching programs of polynomial length and width. Comparisons are a special case of this class, where for k-bit inputs the branching program is of length k + 1 and width 4.

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TL;DR: This work presents the first lattice-based IBE scheme with practical parameters and obtains digital signature schemes which are shorter than the previously most-compact ones of Ducas, Durmus, Lepoint, and Lyubashevsky from Crypto 2013.

Abstract: Efficient implementations of lattice-based cryptographic schemes have been limited to only the most basic primitives like encryption and digital signatures. The main reason for this limitation is that at the core of many advanced lattice primitives is a trapdoor sampling algorithm (Gentry, Peikert, Vaikuntanathan, STOC 2008) that produced outputs that were too long for practical applications. In this work, we show that using a particular distribution over NTRU lattices can make GPV-based schemes suitable for practice. More concretely, we present the first lattice-based IBE scheme with practical parameters – key and ciphertext sizes are between two and four kilobytes, and all encryption and decryption operations take approximately one millisecond on a moderately-powered laptop. As a by-product, we also obtain digital signature schemes which are shorter than the previously most-compact ones of Ducas, Durmus, Lepoint, and Lyubashevsky from Crypto 2013.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the FLUSH+RELOAD side-channel attack based on cache hits/misses is applied to extract a small amount of data from OpenSSL ECDSA signature requests.

Abstract: We apply the FLUSH+RELOAD side-channel attack based on cache hits/misses to extract a small amount of data from OpenSSL ECDSA signature requests. We then apply a "standard" lattice technique to extract the private key, but unlike previous attacks we are able to make use of the side-channel information from almost all of the observed executions. This means we obtain private key recovery by observing a relatively small number of executions, and by expending a relatively small amount of post-processing via lattice reduction. We demonstrate our analysis via experiments using the curve secp256k1 used in the Bitcoin protocol. In particular we show that with as little as 200 signatures we are able to achieve a reasonable level of success in recovering the secret key for a 256-bit curve. This is significantly better than prior methods of applying lattice reduction techniques to similar side channel information.

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TL;DR: A theoretical and practical comparison of two Ring-LWE-based, scale-invariant, leveled homomorphic encryption schemes – Fan and Vercauteren’s adaptation of BGV and the YASHE scheme proposed by Bos, Lauter, Loftus and Naehrig.

Abstract: We conduct a theoretical and practical comparison of two Ring-LWE-based, scale-invariant, leveled homomorphic encryption schemes – Fan and Vercauteren’s adaptation of BGV and the YASHE scheme proposed by Bos, Lauter, Loftus and Naehrig. In particular, we explain how to choose parameters to ensure correctness and security against lattice attacks. Our parameter selection improves the approach of van de Pol and Smart to choose parameters for schemes based on the Ring-LWE problem by using the BKZ-2.0 simulation algorithm. We implemented both encryption schemes in C++, using the arithmetic library FLINT, and compared them in practice to assess their respective strengths and weaknesses. In particular, we performed a homomorphic evaluation of the lightweight block cipher SIMON. Combining block ciphers with homomorphic encryption allows to solve the gargantuan ciphertext expansion in cloud applications.

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TL;DR: This paper leverages the consistency guarantees provided by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Namecoin to build a PKI that ensures identity retention, which has no central authority and thus requires the use of secure distributed dictionary data structures to provide efficient support for key lookup.

Abstract: Public key infrastructures (PKIs) enable users to look up and verify one another’s public keys based on identities. Current approaches to PKIs are vulnerable because they do not offer sufficiently strong guarantees of identity retention; that is, they do not effectively prevent one user from registering a public key under another’s already-registered identity. In this paper, we leverage the consistency guarantees provided by cryptocurrencies such as Bitcoin and Namecoin to build a PKI that ensures identity retention. Our system, called Certcoin, has no central authority and thus requires the use of secure distributed dictionary data structures to provide efficient support for key lookup.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors illustrate a vulnerability introduced by elliptic curve cryptographic protocols when implemented using a function of the OpenSSL cryptographic library, and demonstrate that the majority of the bits of a scalar k when kG is computed using the openSSL implementation of the Montgomery ladder can be recovered.

Abstract: We illustrate a vulnerability introduced to elliptic curve cryptographic protocols when implemented using a function of the OpenSSL cryptographic library. For the given implementation using an elliptic curve E over a binary field with a point G ∈ E, our attack recovers the majority of the bits of a scalar k when kG is computed using the OpenSSL implementation of the Montgomery ladder. For the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) the scalar k is intended to remain secret. Our attack recovers the scalar k and thus the secret key of the signer and would therefore allow unlimited forgeries. This is possible from snooping on only one signing process and requires computation of less than one second on a quad core desktop when the scalar k (and secret key) is around 571 bits.

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TL;DR: This work designs novel, asymptotically more efficient data structures and algorithms for programs whose data access patterns exhibit some degree of predictability and applies these techniques to a broad range of commonly used data structures, including maps, sets, priority-queues, stacks, deques; and algorithms.

Abstract: We design novel, asymptotically more efficient data structures and algorithms for programs whose data access patterns exhibit some degree of predictability. To this end, we propose two novel techniques, a pointer-based technique and a locality-based technique. We show that these two techniques are powerful building blocks in making data structures and algorithms oblivious. Specifically, we apply these techniques to a broad range of commonly used data structures, including maps, sets, priority-queues, stacks, deques; and algorithms, including a memory allocator algorithm, max-flow on graphs with low doubling dimension, and shortest-path distance queries on weighted planar graphs. Our oblivious counterparts of the above outperform the best known ORAM scheme both asymptotically and in practice.

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TL;DR: In this paper, Waters et al. introduced a new primitive called pair encoding scheme for predicates and showed that it implies fully secure functional encryption (for the same predicates) via a generic construction.

Abstract: Dual system encryption techniques introduced by Waters in Crypto’09 are powerful approaches for constructing fully secure functional encryption (FE) for many predicates. However, there are still some FE for certain predicates to which dual system encryption techniques seem inapplicable, and hence their fully-secure realization remains an important problem. A notable example is FE for regular languages, introduced by Waters in Crypto’12. We propose a generic framework that abstracts the concept of dual system encryption techniques. We introduce a new primitive called pair encoding scheme for predicates and show that it implies fully secure functional encryption (for the same predicates) via a generic construction. Using the framework, we obtain the first fully secure schemes for functional encryption primitives of which only selectively secure schemes were known so far. Our three main instantiations include FE for regular languages, unbounded attribute-based encryption (ABE) for large universes, and ABE with constant-size ciphertexts. Our main ingredient for overcoming the barrier of inapplicability for the dual system techniques to certain predicates is a computational security notion of the pair encoding scheme which we call doubly selective security. This is in contrast with most of the previous dual system based schemes, where information-theoretic security are implicitly utilized. The doubly selective security notion resembles that of selective security and its complementary notion, co-selective security, and hence its name. Our framework can be regarded as a method for boosting doubly selectively security (of encoding) to full security (of functional encryption). Besides generality of our framework, we remark that improved security is also obtained, as our security proof enjoys tighter reduction than previous schemes, notably the reduction cost does not depend on the number of all queries, but only that of pre-challenged queries.

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TL;DR: In this paper, a fully secure functional encryption scheme without using indistinguishability obfuscation was proposed, which relies only on the polynomial hardness of simple assumptions on multilinear maps.

Abstract: Previously known functional encryption (FE) schemes for general circuits relied on indistinguishability obfuscation, which in turn either relies on an exponential number of assumptions (basically, one per circuit), or a polynomial set of assumptions, but with an exponential loss in the security reduction. Additionally these schemes are proved in the weaker selective security model, where the adversary is forced to specify its target before seeing the public parameters. For these constructions, full security can be obtained but at the cost of an exponential loss in the security reduction. In this work, we overcome the above limitations and realize a fully secure functional encryption scheme without using indistinguishability obfuscation. Specifically the security of our scheme relies only on the polynomial hardness of simple assumptions on multilinear maps. As a separate technical contribution of independent interest, we show how to add to existing graded encoding schemes a new extension function, that can be though of as dynamically introducing new encoding levels.

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TL;DR: AEZ as mentioned in this paper is a robust authenticated-encryption scheme from the AES round function, which can achieve a peak speed of about 0.7 cpb on the Haswell standard.

Abstract: With a scheme for robust authenticated-encryption a user can select an arbitrary value \(\lambda \!\ge 0\) and then encrypt a plaintext of any length into a ciphertext that’s \(\lambda \) characters longer. The scheme must provide all the privacy and authenticity possible for the requested \(\lambda \). We formalize and investigate this idea, and construct a well-optimized solution, AEZ, from the AES round function. Our scheme encrypts strings at almost the same rate as OCB-AES or CTR-AES (on Haswell, AEZ has a peak speed of about 0.7 cpb). To accomplish this we employ an approach we call prove-then-prune: prove security and then instantiate with a scaled-down primitive (e.g., reducing rounds for blockcipher calls).

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TL;DR: A new library of building blocks is constructed, which enables constructing a wide range of privacy-preserving classifiers and it is demonstrated how this library can be used to construct other classifiers than the three mentioned above, such as a multiplexer and a face detection classifier.

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TL;DR: The construction operates directly on straight-line programs (arithmetic circuits), rather than converting them to matrix branching programs as in other known approaches, and proves virtual black-box security for the construction in a generic model of multilinear maps of hidden composite order.

Abstract: We propose a new way to obfuscate programs, using composite-order multilinear maps. Our construction operates directly on straight-line programs (arithmetic circuits), rather than converting them to matrix branching programs as in other known approaches. This yields considerable efficiency improvements. For an NC circuit of size s and depth d, with n inputs, we require only O(ds + n) multilinear map operations to evaluate the obfuscated circuit—as compared with other known approaches, for which the number of operations is exponential in d. We prove virtual black-box (VBB) security for our construction in a generic model of multilinear maps of hidden composite order, extending previous models for the prime-order setting. Our scheme works either with “noisy” multilinear maps, which can only evaluate expressions of degree λ for pre-specified constant c; or with “clean” multilinear maps, which can evaluate arbitrary expressions. The “noisy” variant can be instantiated at present with the Coron-Lepoint-Tibouchi scheme, while the existence of “clean” maps is still unknown. With known “noisy” maps, our new obfuscator applies only to NC circuits, requiring the additional assumption of FHE in order to bootstrap to P/poly (as in other obfuscation constructions). From “clean” multilinear maps, on the other hand (whose existence is still open), we present the first approach that would achieve obfuscation for P/poly directly, without FHE. We also introduce the concept of succinct obfuscation, in which the obfuscation overhead size depends only on the length of the input and of the secret part of the circuit. Using our new techniques, along with the assumption that factoring is hard on average, we show that “clean” multilinear maps imply succinct obfuscation for P/poly. For the first time, the only remaining obstacle to implementable obfuscation in practice is the noise growth in known, “noisy” multilinear maps. Our results demonstrate that the question of “clean” multilinear maps is not a technicality, but a central open problem. ∗Stanford University, jzim@cs.stanford.edu.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a cloud-based revocable identity-based proxy re-encryption (CR-IB-PRE) scheme that supports user revocation but also delegation of decryption rights.

Abstract: Identity-based encryption (IBE) eliminates the necessity of having a costly certificate verification process. However, revocation remains as a daunting task in terms of ciphertext update and key update phases. In this paper, we provide an affirmative solution to solve the efficiency problem incurred by revocation. We propose the first cloud-based revocable identity-based proxy re-encryption (CR-IB-PRE) scheme that supports user revocation but also delegation of decryption rights. No matter a user is revoked or not, at the end of a given time period the cloud acting as a proxy will re-encrypt all ciphertexts of the user under the current time period to the next time period. If the user is revoked in the forthcoming time period, he cannot decrypt the ciphertexts by using the expired private key anymore. Comparing to some naive solutions which require a private key generator (PKG) to interact with non-revoked users in each time period, the new scheme provides definite advantages in terms of communication and computation efficiency.

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TL;DR: Buffet as mentioned in this paper is a built system that provides inexpensive RAM and dynamic control flow for verifiable computations, allowing the programmer to express programs in an expansive subset of C (disallowing only goto and function pointers).

Abstract: Recent work on proof-based verifiable computation has resulted in built systems that employ tools from complexity theory and cryptography to address a basic problem in systems security: allowing a local computer to outsource the execution of a program while providing the local computer with a guarantee of integrity and the remote computer with a guarantee of privacy. However, support for programs that use RAM and control flow has been problematic. State of the art systems either restrict the use of these constructs (e.g., requiring static loop bounds), incur sizeable overhead on every step, or pay tremendous costs when the constructs are invoked. This paper describes Buffet, a built system that solves these problems by providing inexpensive “a la carte” RAM and dynamic control flow. Buffet composes an elegant prior approach to RAM with a novel adaptation of techniques from the compilers literature. Buffet allows the programmer to express programs in an expansive subset of C (disallowing only “goto” and function pointers), can handle essentially any example in the verifiable computation literature, and achieves the best performance in the area by multiple orders of magnitude.

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TL;DR: In this article, a heuristic compact ORAM design optimized for secure computation protocols is presented, which is almost 10x smaller in circuit size and also faster than all other designs tested for realistic settings (i.e., memory sizes between 4MB and 2GB).

Abstract: Oblivious RAMs (ORAMs) have traditionally been measured by their bandwidth overhead and client storage. We observe that when using ORAMs to build secure computation protocols for RAM programs, the size of the ORAM circuits is more relevant to the performance. We therefore embark on a study of the circuit-complexity of several recently proposed ORAM constructions. Our careful implementation and experiments show that asymptotic analysis is not indicative of the true performance of ORAM in secure computation protocols with practical data sizes. We then present scoram, a heuristic compact ORAM design optimized for secure computation protocols. Our new design is almost 10x smaller in circuit size and also faster than all other designs we have tested for realistic settings (i.e., memory sizes between 4MB and 2GB, constrained by 2−80 failure probability). scoram makes it feasible to perform secure computations on gigabyte-sized data sets.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors demonstrate physical side-channel attacks on a popular software implementation of RSA and ElGamal, running on laptop computers, based on the observation that the ground electric potential, in many computers, fluctuates in a computationdependent way.

Abstract: We demonstrate physical side-channel attacks on a popular software implementation of RSA and ElGamal, running on laptop computers. Our attacks use novel side channels, based on the observation that the “ground” electric potential, in many computers, fluctuates in a computation-dependent way. An attacker can measure this signal by touching exposed metal on the computer’s chassis with a plain wire, or even with a bare hand. The signal can also be measured on the ground shield at the remote end of Ethernet, USB and display cables. Through suitable cryptanalysis and signal processing, we have extracted 4096-bit RSA keys and 3072-bit ElGamal keys from laptops, via each of these channels, as well as via power analysis and electromagnetic probing. Despite the GHz-scale clock rate of the laptops and numerous noise sources, the full attacks require a few seconds of measurements using Medium Frequency (MF) signals (around 2 MHz), or one hour using Low Frequency (LF) signals (up to 40 kHz).

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TL;DR: Techniques for an efficient Cumulative Distribution Table CDT based Gaussian sampler on reconfigurable hardware involving Peikert's convolution lemma and the Kullback-Leibler divergence and a first Bliss architecture for Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGAs that integrates fast FFT/NTT-based polynomial multiplication, sparse multiplication, and a Keccak hash function are presented.

Abstract: The recent Bimodal Lattice Signature Scheme (BLISS) showed that lattice-based constructions have evolved to practical alternatives to RSA or ECC. It offers small signatures of 5600 bits for a 128-bit level of security, and proved to be very fast in software. However, due to the complex sampling of Gaussian noise with high precision, it is not clear whether this scheme can be mapped efficiently to embedded devices. Even though the authors of BLISS also proposed a new sampling algorithm using Bernoulli variables this approach is more complex than previous methods using large precomputed tables. The clear disadvantage of using large tables for high performance is that they cannot be used on constrained computing environments, such as FPGAs, with limited memory. In this work we thus present techniques for an efficient Cumulative Distribution Table (CDT) based Gaussian sampler on reconfigurable hardware involving Peikert’s convolution lemma and the Kullback-Leibler divergence. Based on our enhanced sampler design, we provide a scalable implementation of BLISS signing and verification on a Xilinx Spartan-6 FPGA supporting either 128-bit, 160-bit, or 192-bit security. For high speed we integrate fast FFT/NTT-based polynomial multiplication, parallel sparse multiplication, Huffman compression of signatures, and Keccak as hash function. Additionally, we compare the CDT with the Bernoulli approach and show that for the particular BLISS-I parameter set the improved CDT approach is faster with lower area consumption. Our BLISS-I core uses 2,291 slices, 5.5 BRAMs, and 5 DSPs and performs a signing operation in 114.1 μs on average. Verification is even faster with a latency of 61.2 μs and 17,101 supported verification operations per second.

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TL;DR: This work strengthens the attack of Cheon, Han, Lee, Ryu, and Stehle, and gives a functionality-preserving transformation that ensures that no sequence of map operations will produce valid encodings whose product is zero, and proves security of the transformation in a generic model of composite-order multilinear maps.

Abstract: In recent work Cheon, Han, Lee, Ryu, and Stehle presented an attack on the multilinear map of Coron, Lepoint, and Tibouchi (CLT). They show that given many low-level encodings of zero, the CLT multilinear map can be completely broken, recovering the secret factorization of the CLT modulus. The attack is a generalization of the “zeroizing” attack of Garg, Gentry, and Halevi. We first strengthen the attack of Cheon, Han, Lee, Ryu, and Stehle by showing that CLT can be broken even without low-level encodings of zero. This strengthening is sufficient to show that the subgroup elimination assumption does not hold for the CLT multilinear map. We then present a generic defense against this type of “zeroizing” attack. For an arbitrary asymmetric composite-order multilinear map (including CLT), we give a functionality-preserving transformation that ensures that no sequence of map operations will produce valid encodings (below the zero-testing level) whose product is zero. We prove security of our transformation in a generic model of composite-order multilinear maps. Our new transformation rules out “zeroizing” leaving no currently known attacks on the decision linear assumption, subgroup elimination assumption, and other related problems for the CLT multilinear map. Of course, in time, it is possible that different attacks on CLT will emerge. Update: Since the publication of this work, Coron, Lepoint, and Tibouchi [CLT14] have further strengthened the original attacks of Cheon et al. With the stregthened attack, the mitigations we describe in this work no longer suffice to secure the original CLT multilinear map. However, we have preserved the original exposition of our zero-immunizing transformation (Section 3), since this transformation is of independent interest. Notably, our transformation still rules out low-level zero encodings (Theorem 3.14), and thus provides robustness in the setting of deterministic encodings.

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TL;DR: Sigma-protocol as discussed by the authors is a zero-knowledge proof for a list of commitments having at least one commitment that opens to 0. The proof system is efficient, in particular in terms of communication requiring only the transmission of a logarithmic number of commitments.

Abstract: We construct a 3-move public coin special honest verifier zero-knowledge proof, a so-called Sigma-protocol, for a list of commitments having at least one commitment that opens to 0. It is not required for the prover to know openings of the other commitments. The proof system is efficient, in particular in terms of communication requiring only the transmission of a logarithmic number of commitments. We use our proof system to instantiate both ring signatures and zerocoin, a novel mechanism for bitcoin privacy. We use our Sigma-protocol as a (linkable) ad-hoc group identification scheme where the users have public keys that are commitments and demonstrate knowledge of an opening for one of the commitments to unlinkably identify themselves (once) as belonging to the group. Applying the Fiat-Shamir transform on the group identification scheme gives rise to ring signatures, applying it to the linkable group identification scheme gives rise to zerocoin. Our ring signatures are very small compared to other ring signature schemes and we only assume the users’ secret keys to be the discrete logarithms of single group elements so the setup is quite realistic. Similarly, compared with the original zerocoin protocol we rely on a weak cryptographic assumption and do not require a trusted setup. A third application of our Sigma protocol is an efficient proof of membership of a secret committed value u belonging to a public list L = {λ1, . . . , λN}.

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TL;DR: In this article, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with a linearithmic complexity of O(n logn) is exploited in the design of a high-speed polynomial multiplier.

Abstract: Polynomial multiplication is the basic and most computationally intensive operation in ring-Learning With Errors (ring-LWE) encryption and “Somewhat” Homomorphic Encryption (SHE) cryptosystems. In this paper, the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with a linearithmic complexity of O(n logn), is exploited in the design of a high-speed polynomial multiplier. A constant geometry FFT datapath is used in the computation to simplify the control of the architecture. The contribution of this work is three-fold. First, parameter sets which support both an efficient modular reduction design and the security requirements for ring-LWE encryption and SHE are provided. Second, a versatile pipelined architecture accompanied with an improved dataflow are proposed to obtain a high-speed polynomial multiplier. Third, the proposed architecture supports polynomial multiplications for different lengths n and moduli p. The experimental results on a Spartan-6 FPGA show that the proposed design results in a speedup of 3.5 times on average when compared with the state of the art. It performs a polynomial multiplication in the ring-LWE scheme (n = 256, p = 1049089) and the SHE scheme (n = 1024, p = 536903681) in only 6.3μs and 33.1μs, respectively.