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JournalISSN: 1057-7157

IEEE\/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems 

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
About: IEEE\/ASME Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems is an academic journal published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Surface micromachining & Resonator. It has an ISSN identifier of 1057-7157. Over the lifetime, 3567 publications have been published receiving 169237 citations. The journal is also known as: Microelectromechanical systems.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the best known elasticity data for silicon, both in depth and in a summary form, so that it may be readily accessible to MEMS designers.
Abstract: The Young's modulus (E) of a material is a key parameter for mechanical engineering design. Silicon, the most common single material used in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS), is an anisotropic crystalline material whose material properties depend on orientation relative to the crystal lattice. This fact means that the correct value of E for analyzing two different designs in silicon may differ by up to 45%. However, perhaps, because of the perceived complexity of the subject, many researchers oversimplify silicon elastic behavior and use inaccurate values for design and analysis. This paper presents the best known elasticity data for silicon, both in depth and in a summary form, so that it may be readily accessible to MEMS designers.

1,741 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report the completion of four fundamental fluidic operations considered essential to build digital microfluidic circuits, which can be used for lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis system (/spl mu/TAS): 1) creating, 2) transporting, 3) cutting, and 4) merging liquid droplets, all by electrowetting.
Abstract: Reports the completion of four fundamental fluidic operations considered essential to build digital microfluidic circuits, which can be used for lab-on-a-chip or micro total analysis system (/spl mu/TAS): 1) creating, 2) transporting, 3) cutting, and 4) merging liquid droplets, all by electrowetting, i.e., controlling the wetting property of the surface through electric potential. The surface used in this report is, more specifically, an electrode covered with dielectrics, hence, called electrowetting-on-dielectric (EWOD). All the fluidic movement is confined between two plates, which we call parallel-plate channel, rather than through closed channels or on open surfaces. While transporting and merging droplets are easily verified, we discover that there exists a design criterion for a given set of materials beyond which the droplet simply cannot be cut by EWOD mechanism. The condition for successful cutting is theoretically analyzed by examining the channel gap, the droplet size and the degree of contact angle change by electrowetting on dielectric (EWOD). A series of experiments is run and verifies the criterion.

1,522 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the etch rates of 53 materials that are used or potentially can be used or in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems and integrated circuits were prepared.
Abstract: Samples of 53 materials that are used or potentially can be used or in the fabrication of microelectromechanical systems and integrated circuits were prepared: single-crystal silicon with two doping levels, polycrystalline silicon with two doping levels, polycrystalline germanium, polycrystalline SiGe, graphite, fused quartz, Pyrex 7740, nine other preparations of silicon dioxide, four preparations of silicon nitride, sapphire, two preparations of aluminum oxide, aluminum, Al/2%Si, titanium, vanadium, niobium, two preparations of tantalum, two preparations of chromium, Cr on Au, molybdenum, tungsten, nickel, palladium, platinum, copper, silver, gold, 10 Ti/90 W, 80 Ni/20 Cr, TiN, four types of photoresist, resist pen, Parylene-C, and spin-on polyimide. Selected samples were etched in 35 different etches: isotropic silicon etchant, potassium hydroxide, 10:1 HF, 5:1 BHF, Pad Etch 4, hot phosphoric acid, Aluminum Etchant Type A, titanium wet etchant, CR-7 chromium etchant, CR-14 chromium etchant, molybdenum etchant, warm hydrogen peroxide, Copper Etchant Type CE-200, Copper Etchant APS 100, dilute aqua regia, AU-5 gold etchant, Nichrome Etchant TFN, hot sulfuric+phosphoric acids, Piranha, Microstrip 2001, acetone, methanol, isopropanol, xenon difluoride, HF+H/sub 2/O vapor, oxygen plasma, two deep reactive ion etch recipes with two different types of wafer clamping, SF/sub 6/ plasma, SF/sub 6/+O/sub 2/ plasma, CF/sub 4/ plasma, CF/sub 4/+O/sub 2/ plasma, and argon ion milling. The etch rates of 620 combinations of these were measured. The etch rates of thermal oxide in different dilutions of HF and BHF are also reported. Sample preparation and information about the etches is given.

1,256 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A three-dimensional serpentine microchannel design with a "C shaped" repeating unit is presented in this paper as a means of implementing chaotic advection to passively enhance fluid mixing.
Abstract: A three-dimensional serpentine microchannel design with a "C shaped" repeating unit is presented in this paper as a means of implementing chaotic advection to passively enhance fluid mixing. The device is fabricated in a silicon wafer using a double-sided KOH wet-etching technique to realize a three-dimensional channel geometry. Experiments using phenolphthalein and sodium hydroxide solutions demonstrate the ability of flow in this channel to mix faster and more uniformly than either pure molecular diffusion or flow in a "square-wave" channel for Reynolds numbers from 6 to 70. The mixing capability of the channel increases with increasing Reynolds number. At least 98% of the maximum intensity of reacted phenolphthalein is observed in the channel after five mixing segments for Reynolds numbers greater than 25. At a Reynolds number of 70, the serpentine channel produces 16 times more reacted phenolphthalein than a straight channel and 1.6 times more than the square-wave channel. Mixing rates in the serpentine channel at the higher Reynolds numbers are consistent with the occurrence of chaotic advection. Visualization of the interface formed in the channel between streams of water and ethyl alcohol indicates that the mixing is due to both diffusion and fluid stirring.

1,218 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a fabrication technique for building 3D micro-channels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer is described, which allows for the stacking of many thin (less than 100-/spl mu/m) patterned PDMS layers to realize complex 3D channel paths.
Abstract: This paper describes a fabrication technique for building three-dimensional (3-D) micro-channels in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer. The process allows for the stacking of many thin (less than 100-/spl mu/m thick) patterned PDMS layers to realize complex 3-D channel paths. The master for each layer is formed on a silicon wafer using an epoxy-based photoresist (SU 8). PDMS is cast against the master producing molded layers containing channels and openings. To realize thin layers with openings, a sandwich molding configuration was developed that allows precise control of the PDMS thickness. The master wafer is clamped within a sandwich that includes flat aluminum plates, a flexible polyester film layer, a rigid Pyrex wafer, and a rubber sheet. A parametric study is performed on PDMS surface activation in a reactive-ion-etching system and the subsequent methanol treatment for bonding and aligning very thin individual components to a substrate. Low RF power and short treatment times are better than high RF power and long treatment times, respectively, for instant bonding. Layer-to-layer alignment of less then 15 /spl mu/m is achieved with manual alignment techniques that utilize surface tension driven self-alignment methods. A coring procedure is used to realize off-chip fluidic connections via the bottom PDMS layer, allowing the top layer to remain smooth and flat for complete optical access.

1,200 citations

Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
202386
2022120
202194
2020201
2019122
2018132