Showing papers in "IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials in 2016"
TL;DR: This survey makes an exhaustive review of wireless evolution toward 5G networks, including the new architectural changes associated with the radio access network (RAN) design, including air interfaces, smart antennas, cloud and heterogeneous RAN, and underlying novel mm-wave physical layer technologies.
Abstract: The vision of next generation 5G wireless communications lies in providing very high data rates (typically of Gbps order), extremely low latency, manifold increase in base station capacity, and significant improvement in users’ perceived quality of service (QoS), compared to current 4G LTE networks. Ever increasing proliferation of smart devices, introduction of new emerging multimedia applications, together with an exponential rise in wireless data (multimedia) demand and usage is already creating a significant burden on existing cellular networks. 5G wireless systems, with improved data rates, capacity, latency, and QoS are expected to be the panacea of most of the current cellular networks’ problems. In this survey, we make an exhaustive review of wireless evolution toward 5G networks. We first discuss the new architectural changes associated with the radio access network (RAN) design, including air interfaces, smart antennas, cloud and heterogeneous RAN. Subsequently, we make an in-depth survey of underlying novel mm-wave physical layer technologies, encompassing new channel model estimation, directional antenna design, beamforming algorithms, and massive MIMO technologies. Next, the details of MAC layer protocols and multiplexing schemes needed to efficiently support this new physical layer are discussed. We also look into the killer applications, considered as the major driving force behind 5G. In order to understand the improved user experience, we provide highlights of new QoS, QoE, and SON features associated with the 5G evolution. For alleviating the increased network energy consumption and operating expenditure, we make a detail review on energy awareness and cost efficiency. As understanding the current status of 5G implementation is important for its eventual commercialization, we also discuss relevant field trials, drive tests, and simulation experiments. Finally, we point out major existing research issues and identify possible future research directions.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors survey the state-of-the-art in NFV and identify promising research directions in this area, and also overview key NFV projects, standardization efforts, early implementations, use cases, and commercial products.
Abstract: Network function virtualization (NFV) has drawn significant attention from both industry and academia as an important shift in telecommunication service provisioning. By decoupling network functions (NFs) from the physical devices on which they run, NFV has the potential to lead to significant reductions in operating expenses (OPEX) and capital expenses (CAPEX) and facilitate the deployment of new services with increased agility and faster time-to-value. The NFV paradigm is still in its infancy and there is a large spectrum of opportunities for the research community to develop new architectures, systems and applications, and to evaluate alternatives and trade-offs in developing technologies for its successful deployment. In this paper, after discussing NFV and its relationship with complementary fields of software defined networking (SDN) and cloud computing, we survey the state-of-the-art in NFV, and identify promising research directions in this area. We also overview key NFV projects, standardization efforts, early implementations, use cases, and commercial products.
TL;DR: The complexity of ML/DM algorithms is addressed, discussion of challenges for using ML/ DM for cyber security is presented, and some recommendations on when to use a given method are provided.
Abstract: This survey paper describes a focused literature survey of machine learning (ML) and data mining (DM) methods for cyber analytics in support of intrusion detection. Short tutorial descriptions of each ML/DM method are provided. Based on the number of citations or the relevance of an emerging method, papers representing each method were identified, read, and summarized. Because data are so important in ML/DM approaches, some well-known cyber data sets used in ML/DM are described. The complexity of ML/DM algorithms is addressed, discussion of challenges for using ML/DM for cyber security is presented, and some recommendations on when to use a given method are provided.
TL;DR: This paper surveys the work done toward all of the outstanding issues, relating to this new class of networks, so as to spur further research in these areas.
Abstract: Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) have enormous potential in the public and civil domains. These are particularly useful in applications, where human lives would otherwise be endangered. Multi-UAV systems can collaboratively complete missions more efficiently and economically as compared to single UAV systems. However, there are many issues to be resolved before effective use of UAVs can be made to provide stable and reliable context-specific networks. Much of the work carried out in the areas of mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), and vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) does not address the unique characteristics of the UAV networks. UAV networks may vary from slow dynamic to dynamic and have intermittent links and fluid topology. While it is believed that ad hoc mesh network would be most suitable for UAV networks yet the architecture of multi-UAV networks has been an understudied area. Software defined networking (SDN) could facilitate flexible deployment and management of new services and help reduce cost, increase security and availability in networks. Routing demands of UAV networks go beyond the needs of MANETS and VANETS. Protocols are required that would adapt to high mobility, dynamic topology, intermittent links, power constraints, and changing link quality. UAVs may fail and the network may get partitioned making delay and disruption tolerance an important design consideration. Limited life of the node and dynamicity of the network lead to the requirement of seamless handovers, where researchers are looking at the work done in the areas of MANETs and VANETs, but the jury is still out. As energy supply on UAVs is limited, protocols in various layers should contribute toward greening of the network. This paper surveys the work done toward all of these outstanding issues, relating to this new class of networks, so as to spur further research in these areas.
TL;DR: This survey unroll and structure the manyfold results and research directions of Bitcoin, and deduce the fundamental structures and insights at the core of the Bitcoin protocol and its applications.
Abstract: Besides attracting a billion dollar economy, Bitcoin revolutionized the field of digital currencies and influenced many adjacent areas. This also induced significant scientific interest. In this survey, we unroll and structure the manyfold results and research directions. We start by introducing the Bitcoin protocol and its building blocks. From there we continue to explore the design space by discussing existing contributions and results. In the process, we deduce the fundamental structures and insights at the core of the Bitcoin protocol and its applications. As we show and discuss, many key ideas are likewise applicable in various other fields, so that their impact reaches far beyond Bitcoin itself.
TL;DR: This survey overviews recent advances on two major areas of Wi-Fi fingerprint localization: advanced localization techniques and efficient system deployment.
Abstract: The growing commercial interest in indoor location-based services (ILBS) has spurred recent development of many indoor positioning techniques. Due to the absence of global positioning system (GPS) signal, many other signals have been proposed for indoor usage. Among them, Wi-Fi (802.11) emerges as a promising one due to the pervasive deployment of wireless LANs (WLANs). In particular, Wi-Fi fingerprinting has been attracting much attention recently because it does not require line-of-sight measurement of access points (APs) and achieves high applicability in complex indoor environment. This survey overviews recent advances on two major areas of Wi-Fi fingerprint localization: advanced localization techniques and efficient system deployment. Regarding advanced techniques to localize users, we present how to make use of temporal or spatial signal patterns, user collaboration, and motion sensors. Regarding efficient system deployment, we discuss recent advances on reducing offline labor-intensive survey, adapting to fingerprint changes, calibrating heterogeneous devices for signal collection, and achieving energy efficiency for smartphones. We study and compare the approaches through our deployment experiences, and discuss some future directions.
TL;DR: This survey reports the characteristics and requirements of UAV networks for envisioned civil applications over the period 2000-2015 from a communications and networking viewpoint and elaborate on general networking related requirements such as connectivity, adaptability, safety, privacy, security, and scalability.
Abstract: The days where swarms of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) will occupy our skies are fast approaching due to the introduction of cost-efficient and reliable small aerial vehicles and the increasing demand for use of such vehicles in a plethora of civil applications. Governments and industry alike have been heavily investing in the development of UAVs. As such it is important to understand the characteristics of networks with UAVs to enable the incorporation of multiple, coordinated aerial vehicles into the air traffic in a reliable and safe manner. To this end, this survey reports the characteristics and requirements of UAV networks for envisioned civil applications over the period 2000–2015 from a communications and networking viewpoint. We survey and quantify quality-of-service requirements, network-relevant mission parameters, data requirements, and the minimum data to be transmitted over the network. Furthermore, we elaborate on general networking related requirements such as connectivity, adaptability, safety, privacy, security, and scalability. We also report experimental results from many projects and investigate the suitability of existing communication technologies for supporting reliable aerial networking.
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of molecular communication (MC) through a communication engineering lens is provided in this paper, which includes different components of the MC transmitter and receiver, as well as the propagation and transport mechanisms.
Abstract: With much advancement in the field of nanotechnology, bioengineering, and synthetic biology over the past decade, microscales and nanoscales devices are becoming a reality. Yet the problem of engineering a reliable communication system between tiny devices is still an open problem. At the same time, despite the prevalence of radio communication, there are still areas where traditional electromagnetic waves find it difficult or expensive to reach. Points of interest in industry, cities, and medical applications often lie in embedded and entrenched areas, accessible only by ventricles at scales too small for conventional radio waves and microwaves, or they are located in such a way that directional high frequency systems are ineffective. Inspired by nature, one solution to these problems is molecular communication (MC), where chemical signals are used to transfer information. Although biologists have studied MC for decades, it has only been researched for roughly 10 year from a communication engineering lens. Significant number of papers have been published to date, but owing to the need for interdisciplinary work, much of the results are preliminary. In this survey, the recent advancements in the field of MC engineering are highlighted. First, the biological, chemical, and physical processes used by an MC system are discussed. This includes different components of the MC transmitter and receiver, as well as the propagation and transport mechanisms. Then, a comprehensive survey of some of the recent works on MC through a communication engineering lens is provided. The survey ends with a technology readiness analysis of MC and future research directions.
TL;DR: This paper provides a survey-style introduction to dense small cell networks and considers many research directions, namely, user association, interference management, energy efficiency, spectrum sharing, resource management, scheduling, backhauling, propagation modeling, and the economics of UDN deployment.
Abstract: The exponential growth and availability of data in all forms is the main booster to the continuing evolution in the communications industry. The popularization of traffic-intensive applications including high definition video, 3-D visualization, augmented reality, wearable devices, and cloud computing defines a new era of mobile communications. The immense amount of traffic generated by today’s customers requires a paradigm shift in all aspects of mobile networks. Ultradense network (UDN) is one of the leading ideas in this racetrack. In UDNs, the access nodes and/or the number of communication links per unit area are densified. In this paper, we provide a survey-style introduction to dense small cell networks. Moreover, we summarize and compare some of the recent achievements and research findings. We discuss the modeling techniques and the performance metrics widely used to model problems in UDN. Also, we present the enabling technologies for network densification in order to understand the state-of-the-art. We consider many research directions in this survey, namely, user association, interference management, energy efficiency, spectrum sharing, resource management, scheduling, backhauling, propagation modeling, and the economics of UDN deployment. Finally, we discuss the challenges and open problems to the researchers in the field or newcomers who aim to conduct research in this interesting and active area of research.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive overview of wireless charging techniques, the developments in technical standards, and their recent advances in network applications, with regard to network applications and discuss open issues and challenges in implementing wireless charging technologies.
Abstract: Wireless charging is a technology of transmitting power through an air gap to electrical devices for the purpose of energy replenishment. The recent progress in wireless charging techniques and development of commercial products have provided a promising alternative way to address the energy bottleneck of conventionally portable battery-powered devices. However, the incorporation of wireless charging into the existing wireless communication systems also brings along a series of challenging issues with regard to implementation, scheduling, and power management. In this paper, we present a comprehensive overview of wireless charging techniques, the developments in technical standards, and their recent advances in network applications. In particular, with regard to network applications, we review the static charger scheduling strategies, mobile charger dispatch strategies and wireless charger deployment strategies. Additionally, we discuss open issues and challenges in implementing wireless charging technologies. Finally, we envision some practical future network applications of wireless charging.
TL;DR: This work can help to understand how to make full use of SDN's advantages to defeat DDoS attacks in cloud computing environments and how to prevent SDN itself from becoming a victim of DDoSDoS attacks, which are important for the smooth evolution ofSDN-based cloud without the distraction ofDDoS attacks.
Abstract: Distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks in cloud computing environments are growing due to the essential characteristics of cloud computing. With recent advances in software-defined networking (SDN), SDN-based cloud brings us new chances to defeat DDoS attacks in cloud computing environments. Nevertheless, there is a contradictory relationship between SDN and DDoS attacks. On one hand, the capabilities of SDN, including software-based traffic analysis, centralized control, global view of the network, dynamic updating of forwarding rules, make it easier to detect and react to DDoS attacks. On the other hand, the security of SDN itself remains to be addressed, and potential DDoS vulnerabilities exist across SDN platforms. In this paper, we discuss the new trends and characteristics of DDoS attacks in cloud computing, and provide a comprehensive survey of defense mechanisms against DDoS attacks using SDN. In addition, we review the studies about launching DDoS attacks on SDN, as well as the methods against DDoS attacks in SDN. To the best of our knowledge, the contradictory relationship between SDN and DDoS attacks has not been well addressed in previous works. This work can help to understand how to make full use of SDN's advantages to defeat DDoS attacks in cloud computing environments and how to prevent SDN itself from becoming a victim of DDoS attacks, which are important for the smooth evolution of SDN-based cloud without the distraction of DDoS attacks.
TL;DR: An in-depth study of the existing literature on data center power modeling, covering more than 200 models, organized in a hierarchical structure with two main branches focusing on hardware-centric and software-centric power models.
Abstract: Data centers are critical, energy-hungry infrastructures that run large-scale Internet-based services. Energy consumption models are pivotal in designing and optimizing energy-efficient operations to curb excessive energy consumption in data centers. In this paper, we survey the state-of-the-art techniques used for energy consumption modeling and prediction for data centers and their components. We conduct an in-depth study of the existing literature on data center power modeling, covering more than 200 models. We organize these models in a hierarchical structure with two main branches focusing on hardware-centric and software-centric power models. Under hardware-centric approaches we start from the digital circuit level and move on to describe higher-level energy consumption models at the hardware component level, server level, data center level, and finally systems of systems level. Under the software-centric approaches we investigate power models developed for operating systems, virtual machines and software applications. This systematic approach allows us to identify multiple issues prevalent in power modeling of different levels of data center systems, including: i) few modeling efforts targeted at power consumption of the entire data center ii) many state-of-the-art power models are based on a few CPU or server metrics, and iii) the effectiveness and accuracy of these power models remain open questions. Based on these observations, we conclude the survey by describing key challenges for future research on constructing effective and accurate data center power models.
TL;DR: A taxonomy is introduced as a framework for systematically studying the existing user association algorithms conceived for HetNets, massive MIMO, mmWave, and energy harvesting networks and provides design guidelines and potential solutions for sophisticated user association mechanisms.
Abstract: The fifth generation (5G) mobile networks are envisioned to support the deluge of data traffic with reduced energy consumption and improved quality of service (QoS) provision. To this end, key enabling technologies, such as heterogeneous networks (HetNets), massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), and millimeter wave (mmWave) techniques, have been identified to bring 5G to fruition. Regardless of the technology adopted, a user association mechanism is needed to determine whether a user is associated with a particular base station (BS) before data transmission commences. User association plays a pivotal role in enhancing the load balancing, the spectrum efficiency, and the energy efficiency of networks. The emerging 5G networks introduce numerous challenges and opportunities for the design of sophisticated user association mechanisms. Hence, substantial research efforts are dedicated to the issues of user association in HetNets, massive MIMO networks, mmWave networks, and energy harvesting networks. We introduce a taxonomy as a framework for systematically studying the existing user association algorithms. Based on the proposed taxonomy, we then proceed to present an extensive overview of the state-of-the-art in user association algorithms conceived for HetNets, massive MIMO, mmWave, and energy harvesting networks. Finally, we summarize the challenges as well as opportunities of user association in 5G and provide design guidelines and potential solutions for sophisticated user association mechanisms.
TL;DR: An overview of the past and recent developments in energy harvesting communications and networking is presented and a number of possible future research avenues are highlighted.
Abstract: Recent emphasis on green communications has generated great interest in the investigations of energy harvesting communications and networking. Energy harvesting from ambient energy sources can potentially reduce the dependence on the supply of grid or battery energy, providing many attractive benefits to the environment and deployment. However, unlike the conventional stable energy, the intermittent and random nature of the renewable energy makes it challenging in the realization of energy harvesting transmission schemes. Extensive research studies have been carried out in recent years to address this inherent challenge from several aspects: energy sources and models, energy harvesting and usage protocols, energy scheduling and optimization, implementation of energy harvesting in cooperative, cognitive radio, multiuser and cellular networks, etc. However, there has not been a comprehensive survey to lay out the complete picture of recent advances and future directions. To fill such a gap, in this paper, we present an overview of the past and recent developments in these areas and highlight a number of possible future research avenues.
TL;DR: The suitability of millimeter wave beamforming methods, both, existing and proposed till midyear 2015, are explored, and the exciting new prospects unfolding in this domain are identified.
Abstract: The remarkable growth of wireless data traffic in recent times has driven the need to explore suitable regions in the radio spectrum to meet the projected requirements. In pursuance of this, millimeter wave communications have received considerable attention in the research fraternity. Due to the high path and penetration losses at millimeter wavelengths, antenna beamforming assumes a pivotal role in establishing and maintaining a robust communication link. Beamforming for millimeter wave communications poses a multitude of diverse challenges due to the large channel bandwidth, unique channel characteristics, and hardware constraints. In this paper, we track the evolution and advancements in antenna beamforming for millimeter wave communications in the context of the distinct requirements for indoor and outdoor communication scenarios. We expand the scope of discussion by including the developments in radio frequency system design and implementation for millimeter wave beamforming. We explore the suitability of millimeter wave beamforming methods, both, existing and proposed till midyear 2015, and identify the exciting new prospects unfolding in this domain.
TL;DR: Diverse strategies that are proposed in the literature to provide incentives for stimulating users to participate in mobile crowd sensing applications are surveyed and divided into three categories: entertainment, service, and money.
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the fast proliferation of mobile devices (e.g., smartphones and wearable devices) in people's lives. In addition, these devices possess powerful computation and communication capabilities and are equipped with various built-in functional sensors. The large quantity and advanced functionalities of mobile devices have created a new interface between human beings and environments. Many mobile crowd sensing applications have thus been designed which recruit normal users to contribute their resources for sensing tasks. To guarantee good performance of such applications, it's essential to recruit sufficient participants. Thus, how to effectively and efficiently motivate normal users draws growing attention in the research community. This paper surveys diverse strategies that are proposed in the literature to provide incentives for stimulating users to participate in mobile crowd sensing applications. The incentives are divided into three categories: entertainment, service, and money. Entertainment means that sensing tasks are turned into playable games to attract participants. Incentives of service exchanging are inspired by the principle of mutual benefits. Monetary incentives give participants payments for their contributions. We describe literature works of each type comprehensively and summarize them in a compact form. Further challenges and promising future directions concerning incentive mechanism design are also discussed.
TL;DR: The fundamental issues in a platoon-based VCPS are discussed, including vehicle platooning/clustering, cooperative adaptive cruise control, platoon- based vehicular communications, etc., all of which are characterized by the tightly coupled relationship between traffic dynamics and VANET behaviors.
Abstract: Vehicles on the road with some common interests can cooperatively form a platoon-based driving pattern, in which a vehicle follows another vehicle and maintains a small and nearly constant distance to the preceding vehicle. It has been proved that, compared with driving individually, such a platoon-based driving pattern can significantly improve road capacity and energy efficiency. Moreover, with the emerging vehicular ad hoc network (VANET), the performance of a platoon in terms of road capacity, safety, energy efficiency, etc., can be further improved. On the other hand, the physical dynamics of vehicles inside the platoon can also affect the performance of a VANET. Such a complex system can be considered a platoon-based vehicular cyber-physical system (VCPS), which has attracted significant attention recently. In this paper, we present a comprehensive survey on a platoon-based VCPS. We first review the related work of a platoon-based VCPS. We then introduce two elementary techniques involved in a platoon-based VCPS, i.e., the vehicular networking architecture and standards, and traffic dynamics, respectively. We further discuss the fundamental issues in a platoon-based VCPS, including vehicle platooning/clustering, cooperative adaptive cruise control, platoon-based vehicular communications, etc., all of which are characterized by the tightly coupled relationship between traffic dynamics and VANET behaviors. Since system verification is critical to VCPS development, we also give an overview of VCPS simulation tools. Finally, we share our view on some open issues that may lead to new research directions.
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey on the CRN communication paradigm in SGs, including the system architecture, communication network compositions, applications, and CR-based communication technologies is provided.
Abstract: Traditional power grids are currently being transformed into smart grids (SGs). SGs feature multi-way communication among energy generation, transmission, distribution, and usage facilities. The reliable, efficient, and intelligent management of complex power systems requires integration of high-speed, reliable, and secure data information and communication technology into the SGs to monitor and regulate power generation and usage. Despite several challenges, such as trade-offs between wireless coverage and capacity as well as limited spectral resources in SGs, wireless communication is a promising SG communications technology. Cognitive radio networks (CRNs) in particular are highly promising for providing timely SG wireless communications by utilizing all available spectrum resources. We provide in this paper a comprehensive survey on the CRN communication paradigm in SGs, including the system architecture, communication network compositions, applications, and CR-based communication technologies. We highlight potential applications of CR-based SG systems. We survey CR-based spectrum sensing approaches with their major classifications. We also provide a survey on CR-based routing and MAC protocols, and describe interference mitigation schemes. We furthermore present open issues and research challenges faced by CR-based SG networks along with future directions.
TL;DR: The challenges to securing the network from the persistent attacker are discussed, and the holistic approach to the security architecture that is required for SDN is described.
Abstract: The proposition of increased innovation in network applications and reduced cost for network operators has won over the networking world to the vision of software-defined networking (SDN). With the excitement of holistic visibility across the network and the ability to program network devices, developers have rushed to present a range of new SDN-compliant hardware, software, and services. However, amidst this frenzy of activity, one key element has only recently entered the debate: Network Security . In this paper, security in SDN is surveyed presenting both the research community and industry advances in this area. The challenges to securing the network from the persistent attacker are discussed, and the holistic approach to the security architecture that is required for SDN is described. Future research directions that will be key to providing network security in SDN are identified.
TL;DR: An extensive survey on pilot contamination in massive MIMO systems is provided, and other possible sources of pilot contamination are identified, which include hardware impairment and non-reciprocal transceivers.
Abstract: Massive MIMO has been recognized as a promising technology to meet the demand for higher data capacity for mobile networks in 2020 and beyond. Although promising, each base station needs accurate estimation of the channel state information (CSI), either through feedback or channel reciprocity schemes in order to achieve the benefits of massive MIMO in practice. Time division duplex (TDD) has been suggested as a better mode to acquire timely CSI in massive MIMO systems. The use of non-orthogonal pilot schemes, proposed for channel estimation in multi-cell TDD networks, is considered as a major source of pilot contamination in the literature due to the limitations of coherence time. Given the importance of pilot contamination in massive MIMO systems, we provide an extensive survey on pilot contamination, and identify other possible sources of pilot contamination, which include hardware impairment and non-reciprocal transceivers. We review established theories that have analyzed the effect of pilot contamination on the performance of massive MIMO systems, particularly on achievable rates. Next, we categorize the different proposed mitigation techniques for pilot contamination using the following taxonomy: pilot-based approach and subspace-based approach. Finally, we highlight the open issues, such as training overhead, deployment scenario, computational complexity, use of channel reciprocity, and conclude with broader perspective and a look at future trends in pilot contamination in massive MIMO systems.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors comprehensively survey the recent advances of C-RANs, including system architectures, key techniques, and open issues, and discuss the system architectures with different functional splits and the corresponding characteristics.
Abstract: As a promising paradigm to reduce both capital and operating expenditures, the cloud radio access network (C-RAN) has been shown to provide high spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. Motivated by its significant theoretical performance gains and potential advantages, C-RANs have been advocated by both the industry and research community. This paper comprehensively surveys the recent advances of C-RANs, including system architectures, key techniques, and open issues. The system architectures with different functional splits and the corresponding characteristics are comprehensively summarized and discussed. The state-of-the-art key techniques in C-RANs are classified as: the fronthaul compression, large-scale collaborative processing, and channel estimation in the physical layer; and the radio resource allocation and optimization in the upper layer. Additionally, given the extensiveness of the research area, open issues, and challenges are presented to spur future investigations, in which the involvement of edge cache, big data mining, social-aware device-to-device, cognitive radio, software defined network, and physical layer security for C-RANs are discussed, and the progress of testbed development and trial test is introduced as well.
TL;DR: This survey presents a review of the most successful MANAL algorithms, focusing on the achievements made in the past decade, and aims to become a starting point for researchers who are initiating their endeavors in MANAL research field.
Abstract: Localization is one of the key technologies in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), since it provides fundamental support for many location-aware protocols and applications. Constraints on cost and power consumption make it infeasible to equip each sensor node in the network with a global position system (GPS) unit, especially for large-scale WSNs. A promising method to localize unknown nodes is to use mobile anchor nodes (MANs), which are equipped with GPS units moving among unknown nodes and periodically broadcasting their current locations to help nearby unknown nodes with localization. A considerable body of research has addressed the mobile anchor node assisted localization (MANAL) problem. However, to the best of our knowledge, no updated surveys on MAAL reflecting recent advances in the field have been presented in the past few years. This survey presents a review of the most successful MANAL algorithms, focusing on the achievements made in the past decade, and aims to become a starting point for researchers who are initiating their endeavors in MANAL research field. In addition, we seek to present a comprehensive review of the recent breakthroughs in the field, providing links to the most interesting and successful advances in this research field.
TL;DR: This paper extensively review the literature on MITM to analyse and categorize the scope of MITM attacks, considering both a reference model, such as the open systems interconnection (OSI) model, as well as two specific widely used network technologies, i.e., GSM and UMTS.
Abstract: The Man-In-The-Middle (MITM) attack is one of the most well known attacks in computer security, representing one of the biggest concerns for security professionals. MITM targets the actual data that flows between endpoints, and the confidentiality and integrity of the data itself. In this paper, we extensively review the literature on MITM to analyse and categorize the scope of MITM attacks, considering both a reference model, such as the open systems interconnection (OSI) model, as well as two specific widely used network technologies, i.e., GSM and UMTS. In particular, we classify MITM attacks based on several parameters, like location of an attacker in the network, nature of a communication channel, and impersonation techniques. Based on an impersonation techniques classification, we then provide execution steps for each MITM class. We survey existing countermeasures and discuss the comparison among them. Finally, based on our analysis, we propose a categorisation of MITM prevention mechanisms, and we identify some possible directions for future research.
TL;DR: The basics of WSN virtualization are introduced and motivate its pertinence with carefully selected scenarios and existing works are presented in detail and critically evaluated using a set of requirements derived from the scenarios.
Abstract: Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are the key components of the emerging Internet-of-Things (IoT) paradigm. They are now ubiquitous and used in a plurality of application domains. WSNs are still domain specific and usually deployed to support a specific application. However, as WSNs' nodes are becoming more and more powerful, it is getting more and more pertinent to research how multiple applications could share a very same WSN infrastructure. Virtualization is a technology that can potentially enable this sharing. This paper is a survey on WSN virtualization. It provides a comprehensive review of the state-of-the-art and an in-depth discussion of the research issues. We introduce the basics of WSN virtualization and motivate its pertinence with carefully selected scenarios. Existing works are presented in detail and critically evaluated using a set of requirements derived from the scenarios. The pertinent research projects are also reviewed. Several research issues are also discussed with hints on how they could be tackled.
TL;DR: This work gathers, categorizes, thoroughly evaluates, and offers a publicly available dataset containing a rich blend of normal and attack traffic against 802.11 networks, anticipated to offer a solid basis for intrusion detection in the current as well as next-generation wireless networks.
Abstract: WiFi has become the de facto wireless technology for achieving short- to medium-range device connectivity. While early attempts to secure this technology have been proved inadequate in several respects, the current more robust security amendments will inevitably get outperformed in the future, too. In any case, several security vulnerabilities have been spotted in virtually any version of the protocol rendering the integration of external protection mechanisms a necessity. In this context, the contribution of this paper is multifold. First, it gathers, categorizes, thoroughly evaluates the most popular attacks on 802.11 and analyzes their signatures. Second, it offers a publicly available dataset containing a rich blend of normal and attack traffic against 802.11 networks. A quite extensive first-hand evaluation of this dataset using several machine learning algorithms and data features is also provided. Given that to the best of our knowledge the literature lacks such a rich and well-tailored dataset, it is anticipated that the results of the work at hand will offer a solid basis for intrusion detection in the current as well as next-generation wireless networks.
TL;DR: A comprehensively survey hypervisors for SDN networks and exhaustively compare the network attribute abstraction and isolation features of the existing SDN hypervisors is exhaustively compared.
Abstract: Software defined networking (SDN) has emerged as a promising paradigm for making the control of communication networks flexible. SDN separates the data packet forwarding plane, i.e., the data plane, from the control plane and employs a central controller. Network virtualization allows the flexible sharing of physical networking resources by multiple users (tenants). Each tenant runs its own applications over its virtual network, i.e., its slice of the actual physical network. The virtualization of SDN networks promises to allow networks to leverage the combined benefits of SDN networking and network virtualization and has therefore attracted significant research attention in recent years. A critical component for virtualizing SDN networks is an SDN hypervisor that abstracts the underlying physical SDN network into multiple logically isolated virtual SDN networks (vSDNs), each with its own controller. We comprehensively survey hypervisors for SDN networks in this paper. We categorize the SDN hypervisors according to their architecture into centralized and distributed hypervisors. We furthermore sub-classify the hypervisors according to their execution platform into hypervisors running exclusively on general-purpose compute platforms, or on a combination of general-purpose compute platforms with general- or special-purpose network elements. We exhaustively compare the network attribute abstraction and isolation features of the existing SDN hypervisors. As part of the future research agenda, we outline the development of a performance evaluation framework for SDN hypervisors.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a comprehensive taxonomy of wireless features that can be used in fingerprinting, and provide a systematic review on fingerprint algorithms including both white-list based and unsupervised learning approaches.
Abstract: Node forgery or impersonation, in which legitimate cryptographic credentials are captured by an adversary, constitutes one major security threat facing wireless networks. The fact that mobile devices are prone to be compromised and reverse engineered significantly increases the risk of such attacks in which adversaries can obtain secret keys on trusted nodes and impersonate the legitimate node. One promising approach toward thwarting these attacks is through the extraction of unique fingerprints that can provide a reliable and robust means for device identification. These fingerprints can be extracted from transmitted signal by analyzing information across the protocol stack. In this paper, the first unified and comprehensive tutorial in the area of wireless device fingerprinting for security applications is presented. In particular, we aim to provide a detailed treatment on developing novel wireless security solutions using device fingerprinting techniques. The objectives are three-fold: (i) to introduce a comprehensive taxonomy of wireless features that can be used in fingerprinting, (ii) to provide a systematic review on fingerprint algorithms including both white-list based and unsupervised learning approaches, and (iii) to identify key open research problems in the area of device fingerprinting and feature extraction, as applied to wireless security.
TL;DR: This article comprehensively survey studies that examine the SDN paradigm in optical networks; in brief, it mainly organize the SDON studies into studies focused on the infrastructure layer, the control layer, and the application layer.
Abstract: The emerging software defined networking (SDN) paradigm separates the data plane from the control plane and centralizes network control in an SDN controller. Applications interact with controllers to implement network services, such as network transport with quality of service. SDN facilitates the virtualization of network functions so that multiple virtual networks can operate over a given installed physical network infrastructure. Due to the specific characteristics of optical (photonic) communication components and the high optical transmission capacities, SDN-based optical networking poses particular challenges, but holds also great potential. In this article, we comprehensively survey studies that examine the SDN paradigm in optical networks; in brief, we survey the area of software defined optical networks (SDONs). We mainly organize the SDON studies into studies focused on the infrastructure layer, the control layer, and the application layer. Moreover, we cover SDON studies focused on network virtualization, as well as SDON studies focused on the orchestration of multilayer and multidomain networking. Based on the survey, we identify open challenges for SDONs and outline future directions.
TL;DR: A common framework is built based on the said OFDM principle that facilitates straightforward understanding of channel equalization and the application of these new waveforms to multiple-input multiple-output channels and facilitates derivation of new structures for more efficient synthesis/analysis of these waveforms.
Abstract: As the standardization activities are being formed to lay the foundation of 5G wireless networks, there is a common consensus on the need to replace the celebrated orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) by a more effective air interface that better serves the challenging needs of 5G. To this end, in the recent past, a number of new waveforms have been introduced in the literature. Interestingly, and at the same time not surprising, these methods share a common fundamental principle with OFDM: each data packet is made up of a number of complex-valued sinusoidals (pure tones) that are modulated by the information symbols. In this tutorial article, we build a common framework based on the said OFDM principle and derive these new waveforms from this point of view. This derivation provides a new perspective that facilitates straightforward understanding of channel equalization and the application of these new waveforms to multiple-input multiple-output channels. It also facilitates derivation of new structures for more efficient synthesis/analysis of these waveforms than those that have been reported in the literature.
TL;DR: In this survey, various spectrum occupancy models from measurement campaigns taken around the world are investigated and spectrum occupancy prediction is also discussed, where autoregressive and/or moving-average models are used to predict the channel status at future time instants.
Abstract: Spectrum occupancy models are very useful in cognitive radio designs. They can be used to increase spectrum sensing accuracy for more reliable operation, to remove spectrum sensing for higher resource usage efficiency, or to select channels for better opportunistic access, among other applications. In this survey, various spectrum occupancy models from measurement campaigns taken around the world are investigated. These models extract different statistical properties of the spectrum occupancy from the measured data. In addition to these models, spectrum occupancy prediction is also discussed, where autoregressive and/or moving-average models are used to predict the channel status at future time instants. After comparing these different methods and models, several challenges are also summarized based on this survey.