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Showing papers in "IEEE Computer in 2009"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: As the Netflix Prize competition has demonstrated, matrix factorization models are superior to classic nearest neighbor techniques for producing product recommendations, allowing the incorporation of additional information such as implicit feedback, temporal effects, and confidence levels.
Abstract: As the Netflix Prize competition has demonstrated, matrix factorization models are superior to classic nearest neighbor techniques for producing product recommendations, allowing the incorporation of additional information such as implicit feedback, temporal effects, and confidence levels

9,583 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sophisticated control-computing codesign provides unprecedented performance and efficiency levels for cyber-physical systems.
Abstract: Sophisticated control-computing codesign provides unprecedented performance and efficiency levels for cyber-physical systems.

860 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Even though the technology faces several significant challenges, many vendors and industry observers predict a bright future for cloud computing as mentioned in this paper, and many experts predict a promising future for the cloud computing.
Abstract: Even though the technology faces several significant challenges, many vendors and industry observers predict a bright future for cloud computing.

626 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Work on models@run.time seeks to extend the applicability of models produced in model-driven engineering (MDE) approaches to the runtime environment by developing adaptation mechanisms that leverage software models, referred to as models@ run.
Abstract: Runtime adaptation mechanisms that leverage software models extend the applicability of model-driven engineering techniques to the runtime environment. Contemporary mission-critical software systems are often expected to safely adapt to changes in their execution environment. Given the critical roles these systems play, it is often inconvenient to take them offline to adapt their functionality. Consequently, these systems are required, when feasible, to adapt their behavior at runtime with little or no human intervention. A promising approach to managing complexity in runtime environments is to develop adaptation mechanisms that leverage software models, referred to as models@run. time. Work on models@run.time seeks to extend the applicability of models produced in model-driven engineering (MDE) approaches to the runtime environment. Models@run. time is a causally connected self-representation of the associated system that emphasizes the structure, behavior, or goals of the system from a problem space perspective.

616 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Body area sensors can enable novel applications in and beyond healthcare, but research must address obstacles such as size, cost, compatibility, and perceived value before networks that use such sensors can become widespread.
Abstract: Body area sensors can enable novel applications in and beyond healthcare, but research must address obstacles such as size, cost, compatibility, and perceived value before networks that use such sensors can become widespread.

567 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An approach for specifying and executing dynamically adaptive software systems that combines model-driven and aspect-oriented techniques to help engineers tame the complexity of such systems while offering a high degree of automation and validation is presented.
Abstract: Today's society increasingly depends on software systems deployed in large companies, banks, airports, and so on. These systems must be available 24/7 and continuously adapt to varying environmental conditions and requirements. Such dynamically adaptive systems exhibit degrees of variability that depend on user needs and runtime fluctuations in their contexts. The paper presents an approach for specifying and executing dynamically adaptive software systems that combines model-driven and aspect-oriented techniques to help engineers tame the complexity of such systems while offering a high degree of automation and validation.

375 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Providing better estimates, setting objectives, and identifying critical hot spots in embedded-software engineering requires adequate benchmarking data, according to the complex system context of embedded- software applications.
Abstract: Due to the complex system context of embedded-software applications, defects can cause life-threatening situations, delays can create huge costs, and insufficient productivity can impact entire economies. Providing better estimates, setting objectives, and identifying critical hot spots in embedded-software engineering requires adequate benchmarking data.

365 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The base of Web 3.0 applications resides in the resource description framework (RDF) for providing a means to link data from multiple Web sites or databases, and with the SPARQL query language, applications can use native graph-based RDF stores and extract RDF data from traditional databases.
Abstract: While Web 3.0 technologies are difficult to define precisely, the outline of emerging applications has become clear over the past year. We can thus essentially view Web 3.0 as semantic Web technologies integrated into, or powering, large-scale Web applications. The base of Web 3.0 applications resides in the resource description framework (RDF) for providing a means to link data from multiple Web sites or databases. With the SPARQL query language, a SQL-like standard for querying RDF data, applications can use native graph-based RDF stores and extract RDF data from traditional databases.

216 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Cetus tool provides an infrastructure for research on multicore compiler optimizations that emphasizes automatic parallelization and provides the most important parallelization passes as well as the underlying enabling techniques.
Abstract: The Cetus tool provides an infrastructure for research on multicore compiler optimizations that emphasizes automatic parallelization. The compiler infrastructure, which targets C programs, supports source-to-source transformations, is user-oriented and easy to handle, and provides the most important parallelization passes as well as the underlying enabling techniques.

201 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new architecture with a six-dimensional mesh/torus topology achieves highly scalable and fault-tolerant interconnection networks for large-scale supercomputers that can exceed 10 petaflops.
Abstract: A new architecture with a six-dimensional mesh/torus topology achieves highly scalable and fault-tolerant interconnection networks for large-scale supercomputers that can exceed 10 petaflops.

190 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J. Viega1
TL;DR: The cloud offers several advantages, but until some of its risks are better understood many major players might hold back.
Abstract: The cloud offers several advantages, but until some of its risks are better understood many major players might hold back.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Various algorithms are presented to effectively mine sequences, graphs, and text from such data to improve software productivity and quality.
Abstract: To improve software productivity and quality, software engineers are increasingly applying data mining algorithms to various software engineering tasks. However, mining SE data poses several challenges. The authors present various algorithms to effectively mine sequences, graphs, and text from such data.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A proposed modeling tool can quantitatively compare the cost of leasing CPU time from these online services to that of purchasing and using a server cluster of equivalent capability.
Abstract: IT organizations can now outsource computer hardware by leasing CPU time through cloud computing services. A proposed modeling tool can quantitatively compare the cost of leasing CPU time from these online services to that of purchasing and using a server cluster of equivalent capability.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Through the development of new classes of software, algorithms, and hardware, data-intensive applications provide timely and meaningful analytical results in response to exponentially growing data complexity and associated analysis requirements.
Abstract: Through the development of new classes of software, algorithms, and hardware, data-intensive applications provide timely and meaningful analytical results in response to exponentially growing data complexity and associated analysis requirements.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most basic form of combinatorial testing-pairwise-is well established, and adoption by software testing practitioners continues to increase, but industry usage of these methods remains patchy at best.
Abstract: Combinatorial testing can detect hard-to-find software faults more efficiently than manual test case selection methods. While the most basic form of combinatorial testing-pairwise-is well established, and adoption by software testing practitioners continues to increase, industry usage of these methods remains patchy at best. However, the additional training required is well worth the effort.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Open Data Kit (ODK) as mentioned in this paper is a suite of tools that enable efficient and timely data collection on cell phones, which is designed to let users own, visualize, and share data without the difficulties of setting up and maintaining servers.
Abstract: The ability to collect data is key to the success of many organizations operating in the developing world. Given the weaknesses of current tools and the surge in mobile phone growth, there's an opportunity for mobile and cloud technologies to enable timely and efficient data collection. This paper discusses Open Data Kit (ODK), a suite of tools that enable efficient and timely data collection on cell phones. ODK is designed to let users own, visualize, and share data without the difficulties of setting up and maintaining servers. The tools are easy to use, deploy, and scale. They also go beyond open source - they're based on open standards and supported by a larger community.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research developed the Model-Based Reconfiguration Engine (MoRE) to implement model-management operations and demonstrates the approach's feasibility for smart homes, especially for self-healing and -configuring capabilities.
Abstract: Our research shows that autonomic behavior can be achieved by leveraging variability models at runtime. In this way, the modeling effort made at design time is not only useful for producing the system but also provides a richer semantic base for autonomic behavior during execution. The use of variability models at runtime brings new opportunities for autonomic capabilities by reutilizing the efforts invested at design time. Our proposed approach has two aspects: reuse of design knowledge to achieve AC and reuse of existing model-management technologies at runtime. We developed the Model-Based Reconfiguration Engine (MoRE) to implement model-management operations. Our research demonstrates the approach's feasibility for smart homes, especially for self-healing and -configuring capabilities.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Parallel scripting extends this technique to allow for the rapid development of highly parallel applications that can run efficiently on platforms ranging from multicore workstations to petascale supercomputers.
Abstract: Scripting accelerates and simplifies the composition of existing codes to form more powerful applications. Parallel scripting extends this technique to allow for the rapid development of highly parallel applications that can run efficiently on platforms ranging from multicore workstations to petascale supercomputers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: LBS systems could determine mobile users' locations and enable applications that would not only tell people where they are and how best to get to their destinations, but also whether friends are nearby, what the local weather forecast is, and where businesses of interest in the area are located.
Abstract: As mobile computing has become more popular over the past decade, experts have touted the future of location-based services. LBS systems could determine mobile users' locations. Proponents say they could thus enable applications that would not only tell people where they are and how best to get to their destinations, but also whether friends are nearby, what the local weather forecast is, and where businesses of interest in the area are located. The technology could also help companies track packages or vehicles.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To drive energy efficiency initiatives, SPEC established SPECpower_ssj2008, the first industry-standard benchmark for measuring power and performance characteristics of computer systems.
Abstract: To drive energy efficiency initiatives, SPEC established SPECpower_ssj2008, the first industry-standard benchmark for measuring power and performance characteristics of computer systems.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a new SOA, the components are business services and the connectors are patterns, modeled as commitments, that support key elements of service engagements.
Abstract: Existing service-oriented architectures are formulated in terms of low-level abstractions far removed from business services. In a new SOA, the components are business services and the connectors are patterns, modeled as commitments, that support key elements of service engagements.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The delivery of many diverse computing services over the Internet, with flexible provisioning, has led to much greater efficiency, substantial cost savings, and many ways to enable and empower end users.
Abstract: The delivery of many diverse computing services over the Internet, with flexible provisioning, has led to much greater efficiency, substantial cost savings, and many ways to enable and empower end users. NCSU's own experience with cloud computing, through its Virtual Computing Lab, indicates that this approach would be beneficial to a much wider audience.ays to enable and empower end users. NCSU's own experience with cloud computing, through its Virtual Computing Lab, indicates that this approach would be beneficial to a much wider audience.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To sidestep governments and various types of organizations trying to block or track Internet access and online communications by dissidents, employees, or others, users are turning to anonymization technology.
Abstract: Increasingly, governments and various types of organizations are trying to either block or track Internet access and online communications by dissidents, employees, or others. To sidestep these activities, users are turning to anonymization technology.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Current advances in model-based development technology indicate that embedded-software developers can expect more tool support for the whole embedded- software spectrum, from applications to system software.
Abstract: Current advances in model-based development technology indicate that embedded-software developers can expect more tool support for the whole embedded-software spectrum, from applications to system software.

Journal ArticleDOI
Ed H. Chi1
TL;DR: For reasons ranging from obligation to curiosity, users have a strong inclination to seek information from others during the search process and search systems using statistical analytics over traces left behind by others can help support the search experience.
Abstract: For reasons ranging from obligation to curiosity, users have a strong inclination to seek information from others during the search process. Search systems using statistical analytics over traces left behind by others can help support the search experience.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The AutoTest framework automates the software testing process by relying on programs that contain the instruments of their own verification, in the form of contract-oriented specifications of classes and their individual routines.
Abstract: The AutoTest framework automates the software testing process by relying on programs that contain the instruments of their own verification, in the form of contract-oriented specifications of classes and their individual routines.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An examination of the roles and dimensions of collaborative search reveals new opportunities for information-seeking support tools.
Abstract: An examination of the roles and dimensions of collaborative search reveals new opportunities for information-seeking support tools.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proves that formal methods can survive in an agile world; they are not obsolete and can be integrated into it.
Abstract: Many research have focused on new formal methods, integrating formal methods into agile ones, and assessing the agility of formal methods. This paper proves that formal methods can survive in an agile world; they are not obsolete and can be integrated into it. The potential for combining agile and formal methods holds promise. It might not always be an easy partnership, and succeeding will depend on a fruitful interchange of expertise between the two communities. Conducting a realistic trial project using a combined approach with an appropriate formal methods tool in a controlled environment will help assess the effectiveness of such an approach.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This research is developing prototype dynamic trust management policy services for a service-oriented architecture and will explore adding trust-management language features that better support dynamic policies, based both on the experiences in the initial research and on the GIG's specific requirements.
Abstract: We continue to investigate the use of trust management techniques to specify dynamic policies in complex integrated service-oriented networks. For this work, we use the DoD GIG's service-oriented architecture as a focal point. In this research's initial phase, we are developing prototype dynamic trust management policy services for a service-oriented architecture. In our research's next phase, we will develop and analyze policies with properties that maintain strict separation between services while allowing exceptions. Finally, we are developing improved trust management languages and systems that more explicitly support dynamic policies in service-oriented architectures, based on the semantic and performance experiences gained in the research's first phases. Our focus will be twofold. First, we will explore adding trust-management language features that better support dynamic policies, based both on our experiences in the initial research and on the GIG's specific requirements. Second, we will conduct experiments to measure the performance implications of incorporating the trust management layer in the various layers of such systems. A significant open research question is whether trust management is architecturally best implemented as a low-level operating system service, an application-layer service, or somewhere in between.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: ISSSs provide an exciting opportunity to extend previous information-seeking and interactive information retrieval evaluation models and create a research community that embraces diverse methods and broader participation.
Abstract: ISSSs provide an exciting opportunity to extend previous information-seeking and interactive information retrieval evaluation models and create a research community that embraces diverse methods and broader participation.