IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
About: IEEE Electromagnetic Compatibility Magazine is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Electromagnetic compatibility & Electromagnetic interference. It has an ISSN identifier of 2162-2264. Over the lifetime, 252 publications have been published receiving 1611 citations.
Topics: Electromagnetic compatibility, Electromagnetic interference, Power integrity, Smart grid, Printed circuit board
TL;DR: Some of the properties of harmonics and supraharmonics are compared and a proposal is made for setting limits in this frequency range based on existing standards and meant to be for discussion.
Abstract: There is a serious interest from the international standard-setting community in knowledge about voltage and current distortion in the frequency range 2 to 150 kHz, referred to as supraharmonics. At the same time, research is ongoing at a number of locations, but the knowledge about supraharmonics remains limited. This paper compares some of the properties of harmonics and supraharmonics. An increase in supraharmonics for individual devices is observed in association with a decrease in harmonic emission (i.e. below 2 kHz). A proposal is made for setting limits in this frequency range. The proposal is based on existing standards and is meant to be for discussion. The authors strongly encourage an open discussion about the proposed limits. There are a number of differences between harmonics and supraharmonics that are not covered by the proposed set of limits. A substantial amount of further research is needed to extend the standard framework for supraharmonics such that this can be covered by standards.
TL;DR: In this paper, it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor and negative deviations for the Hall sensors, while the meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46% deviation.
Abstract: Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are sometimes complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has been observed between active infeed converters as used in photo-voltaic systems and static meters. Reducing the interference levels eliminated inaccurate reading in static meters. Several field investigations failed to identify a clear root cause of inaccurate readings of static energy meters. Experiments were performed in a controlled lab environment. Three-phase meters showed large deviations, even when supplied with an ideal sinusoidal voltage from a fourquadrant power amplifier. Large variations could be observed when non-linear, fast switching, loads were connected. A deviation of +276 % was measured with one static energy meter, +265% with a second and -46% with a third static energy meter. After dismantling it was revealed that the meters with the positive deviation used a Rogowski coil current sensor. The meter with a Hall effect-based current sensor gave the -46% deviation. The fourth meter, with a current transformer, resulted in -10% in one experiment and +8% in another experiment, where the deviations are with respect to a conventional electromechanical meter. Measurements were repeated with more meters and supplied from standard, low internal impedance, mains supply in the laboratory. Deviations of +475%, +566%, +569%, +581%, +582% and -31% and -32% were registered, with again the positive deviation for Rogowski coil current sensors and negative deviations for the Hall sensors.
TL;DR: In this paper, the main goal of such a stirring mechanism is to generate an amplitude-varying electromagnetic field that is ideally statistically uniform, which is the goal of the RC.
Abstract: Reverberation chambers (RC), a name inspired in room acoustics, are also known in literature as reverberating, reverb, mode-stirred or mode-tuned chambers. In their basic form, they consist of a shielded metallic enclosure, forming a cavity resonator, together with some mode-stirring mechanism. The main goal of such stirring mechanism is to generate an amplitude-varying electromagnetic field that is ideally statistically uniform.
TL;DR: The article briefly reviews virtually all existing methods for the statistical analysis of transmission lines, whilst focusing on the popular and accurate stochastic Galerkin (SG) method as well as on the recent, more efficient and non-intrusive formulation of the so-called Stochastic testing (ST) method.
Abstract: The aim of this article is to provide an overview of polynomial chaos (PC) based methods for the statistical analysis of transmission lines. The underlying idea of PC is to represent stochastic line voltages and currents as expansions of predefined orthogonal polynomials. The determination of the expansion coefficients allows obtaining pertinent statistical information and is generally much faster than running, e.g., a Monte Carlo (MC) analysis. There exist several approaches to calculate the PC expansion coefficients. The article briefly reviews virtually all existing methods, whilst focusing on the popular and accurate stochastic Galerkin (SG) method as well as on the recent, more efficient and non-intrusive formulation of the so-called stochastic testing (ST) method. These two techniques are introduced by way of a simple illustrative example, i.e., a single-wire line running above a ground plane. Numerical comparisons in terms of accuracy and efficiency are also provided for a four-wire line with nonlinear terminations.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the problem of interference in the 2-150 kHz band, where interference is not caused by some single types of equipment such as power drive systems, but relates to a quite larger spectrum of electrical equipment, including intentional signals which also cause interference challenges.
Abstract: Conducted interference has become increasingly problematic in the past few years, especially within the 2–150 kHz band. The high penetration of non-linear loads, combined with distributed generation, will influence the voltage profile, i.e. the power quality. New technologies will introduce new types of interference. Protection devices like varistors and filters in one equipment will also influence the impact on neighboring equipment, shunting intentional signals or causing resonances, resulting in high currents between equipment. Due to the lack of (and interest in) standards, the 2–150 kHz has been the garbage bin for power electronics. Communication problems as well as interference problems are occurring already and are delaying the introduction of systems. Interference is not caused by some single types of equipment such as power drive systems, but relates to a quite larger spectrum of electrical equipment, including intentional signals which also cause interference challenges.
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