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Showing papers in "IEEE Internet Computing in 2014"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The author looks at the collection of standards that make up TLS, including its history, protocol, and future, for securing client-server communications over the Internet.
Abstract: Transport Layer Security is the standard, widely deployed protocol for securing client-server communications over the Internet. TLS is designed to prevent eavesdropping, tampering, and message forgery for client-server applications. Here, the author looks at the collection of standards that make up TLS, including its history, protocol, and future.

508 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article raises a number of points concerning quality, code review, and openness; development practices and training in scientific computing; career recognition of research software engineers; sustainability models for funding scientific software.
Abstract: Modern scientific research isn't possible without software. However, its vital role is often overlooked by funders, universities, assessment committees, and even the research community itself. This is a serious issue that needs urgent attention. This article raises a number of points concerning quality, code review, and openness; development practices and training in scientific computing; career recognition of research software engineers; and sustainability models for funding scientific software. We must get software recognized to be the first-class experimental scientific instrument that it is and get "better software for better research."

69 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors survey existing platforms that provide cloud gaming services and classify them into three architectural frameworks to analyze their pros and cons and identify research directions.
Abstract: Gaming as a service (GaaS) is a future trend in the game industry. The authors survey existing platforms that provide cloud gaming services and classify them into three architectural frameworks to analyze their pros and cons and identify research directions. They also examine the features of different game genres to determine the impact they have on systematic design for cloud gaming services. Finally, they provide a vision on GaaS provisioning for mobile devices.

69 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In addition to providing large-scale, highly available computational resources, clouds also enable a new methodology for software development via crowdsourcing, in which crowd participants either collaborate or compete to contribute software.
Abstract: In addition to providing large-scale, highly available computational resources, clouds also enable a new methodology for software development via crowdsourcing, in which crowd participants either collaborate or compete to contribute software. Using a crowd to develop software is predicted to take its place alongside established methodologies, such as agile, scrum, pair programming, service-oriented computing, and the traditional waterfall.

57 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article analyzes the Memcached workload at Facebook, looking at server-side performance, request composition, caching efficacy, and key locality, to lead to several design insights and new research directions for key-value caches.
Abstract: Memcached is one of the world's largest key-value deployments. This article analyzes the Memcached workload at Facebook, looking at server-side performance, request composition, caching efficacy, and key locality. The observations presented here lead to several design insights and new research directions for key-value caches, such as the relative inadequacy of the least recently used (LRU) replacement policy.

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article aims to add elements to this ongoing debate about big mobile data mining technologies good or evil.
Abstract: Increasingly, application and service providers collect data through sensors embedded in smartphones, such as GPS receivers, while mobile operators collect them through the cellular infrastructure. This information is extremely valuable for marketing applications, but also has an incredible potential to benefit society as a whole. At the same time, mobile data are highly personal, so privacy concerns are increasingly at the center of the public debate. Moreover, data aren't just used for understanding the past and the present, but also for predicting our future behavior, activities, and emotional states. So, should we be worried about the privacy of our mobile future? Are big mobile data mining technologies good or evil? This article aims to add elements to this ongoing debate.

52 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Applying the proposed formalism to real-world data collected from three game genres reveals the implications of the mappings on in-game and gaming-related services, ranging from network and socially aware player matchmaking to an investigation of social network robustness against player departure.
Abstract: Understanding the social structures that people implicitly form when playing networked games helps developers create innovative gaming services to benefit both players and operators. But how can we extract and analyze this implicit social structure? The authors' proposed formalism suggests various ways to map interactions to social structure. Applying this formalism to real-world data collected from three game genres reveals the implications of the mappings on in-game and gaming-related services, ranging from network and socially aware player matchmaking to an investigation of social network robustness against player departure.

50 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors provide an alternative vision--the Open Cloud Exchange (OCX), a public cloud marketplace in which many stakeholders, rather than just a single cloud provider, participate in implementing and operating the cloud.
Abstract: Cloud computing's transition from a subject of research and innovation to a critical infrastructure is proceeding incredibly quickly. One potentially dangerous consequence of this speedy transition is the premature adoption and ossification of the models, technologies, and standards underlying this critical infrastructure. Further exacerbating this issue, innovative research on production-scale platforms is becoming the purview of just a few public cloud providers. Specifically, academic research communities are effectively excluded from contributing meaningfully to the evolution--not to mention innovation and healthy mutation--of cloud computing technologies. As our society and economy's dependency on cloud computing increases, so does the realization that the academic research community can't be shut out from contributing to the design and evolution of this critical infrastructure. Here, the authors provide an alternative vision--the Open Cloud Exchange (OCX), a public cloud marketplace in which many stakeholders, rather than just a single cloud provider, participate in implementing and operating the cloud. This will create an ecosystem to bring the innovation of a broader community to bear on a much healthier and more efficient cloud marketplace.

49 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Intriguing findings from this investigation include the scarcity of standardization in cloud computing, and the lack of evidence for strong cloud computing support from established service-oriented computing technologies.
Abstract: Cloud services have unique characteristics, including dynamic and diverse service offerings at different levels, few standardized description languages, and varied deployment platforms. Searching such services is thus challenging. The authors' cloud service crawler engine collects metadata about 5,883 cloud services over the Web after parsing more than half a million possible links. An extensive statistical analysis on this data gives an overall view of cloud service provisioning's current status. Intriguing findings from this investigation include the scarcity of standardization in cloud computing, and the lack of evidence for strong cloud computing support from established service-oriented computing technologies. The findings offer a better understanding of the current status of cloud service provisioning, and the datasets collected from this study will benefit the cloud research community.

41 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' approach hunts socialbots using a carefully chosen monitoring strategy by intelligently selecting organization member profiles and monitoring their activity, demonstrating the method's efficacy when attackers know the defense strategy being deployed.
Abstract: Advanced attackers use online social networks to extract useful information about the target organization, including its members and their connections, affiliations, and positions. Socialbots are artificial, machine-operated, social network profiles that connect to real members of an organization, greatly increasing the amount of information an attacker can collect. To connect socialbots, attackers can employ several strategies. The authors' approach hunts socialbots using a carefully chosen monitoring strategy by intelligently selecting organization member profiles and monitoring their activity. Their results demonstrate their method's efficacy--specifically, when attackers know the defense strategy being deployed, the attack they will most likely use is randomly sprayed friend requests, which eventually lead to a low number of connections.

35 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In a survey of 473,802 TLS servers, the authors found that 82.9 percent of the DHE-enabled servers use weak DH parameters, resulting in a false sense of security.
Abstract: Many Transport Layer Security (TLS) servers use the ephemeral Diffie-Hellman (DHE) key exchange to support forward secrecy. However, in a survey of 473,802 TLS servers, the authors found that 82.9 percent of the DHE-enabled servers use weak DH parameters, resulting in a false sense of security. They compared the server throughput of various TLS setups, and measured real-world client-side latencies using an advertisement network. Their results indicate that using forward secrecy is no harder, and can even be faster using elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), than no forward secrecy.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Yank system defines a bounded-time virtual machine migration mechanism that leverages an advance warning of a few seconds to provide high availability cheaply and efficiently at large scales.
Abstract: Distributed applications assume that datacenter servers are available unless they fail. Transient servers, which are available temporarily for an uncertain amount of time, are cheaper and more energy efficient than stable servers, which have continuous availability. This article looks at an important characteristic of transient servers: advance warning of unavailability. The Yank system defines a bounded-time virtual machine migration mechanism that leverages an advance warning of a few seconds to provide high availability cheaply and efficiently at large scales.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' approach to detecting k-balanced trusted cliques in such networks bases the detection algorithm on formal context analysis and constructs formal contexts using the modified adjacency matrix after converting a signed social network into an unweighted one.
Abstract: k-Clique detection enables computer scientists and sociologists to analyze social networks' latent structure and thus understand their structural and functional properties. However, the existing k-clique-detection approaches are not applicable to signed social networks directly because of positive and negative links. The authors' approach to detecting k-balanced trusted cliques in such networks bases the detection algorithm on formal context analysis. It constructs formal contexts using the modified adjacency matrix after converting a signed social network into an unweighted one. Experimental results demonstrate that their algorithm can efficiently identify the trusted cliques.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Examination of users' network activities and privacy settings across Facebook, Twitter, and Foursquare shows that user activities are highly correlated among these three OSNs, which causes information leakage for a large fraction of FoursQuare users.
Abstract: Despite recent efforts to characterize online social network (OSN) structures and activities, user behavior across different OSNs has received little attention. Yet such information could provide insight into issues relating to personal privacy protection. For instance, many Foursquare users reveal their Facebook and Twitter accounts to the public. The authors' in-depth measurement study examines users' network activities and privacy settings across Facebook, Twitter, and Foursquare. Results show that user activities are highly correlated among these three OSNs, which causes information leakage for a large fraction of Foursquare users.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A brief overview of the relevant research literature is presented, which will allow user interface developers to temper their assessments of this technology for a particular application with a realistic appreciation of the challenges.
Abstract: To realize truly conversational speech interfaces for applications such as virtual personal assistants, a number of technical challenges must be addressed. This article presents a brief overview of the relevant research literature, which will allow user interface developers to temper their assessments of this technology for a particular application with a realistic appreciation of the challenges.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different models for provisioning user identity and their impact on user privacy are discussed, including a single identity architecture for Web Real-Time Communications services.
Abstract: Secured interpersonal communications should come with asserted user identities and trust between the involved parties. No single trust model exists in Web Real-Time Communications services, so neither is there a single identity architecture. The authors discuss different models for provisioning user identity and their impact on user privacy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors outline problems and suggestions for improvement and further research in DNSSEC deployment, which have resulted in severely limited deployment and furthermore often incorrect deployment.
Abstract: DNS Security Extensions (DNSSEC) became standardized more than 15 years ago, but its adoption is still limited. The recent publication of several new, off-path DNS cache-poisoning and wide-scale man-in-the-middle attacks should motivate DNSSEC adoption. However, significant challenges and pitfalls have resulted in severely limited deployment, which is furthermore often incorrect (and hence vulnerable). The authors outline these problems and suggest directions for improvement and further research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors demystify the social interactions on which network-based business processes are developed, structure them for better tracking, and analyze the value they add to enterprise operations.
Abstract: Tremendous effort and resources go into achieving enterprise agility. Business processes are the primary entity concerned with these efforts and resources because they constitute the know-how of any enterprise. Processes can be structured or unstructured; the former are well formed, often repetitive, and call for intense coordination among stakeholders. The latter are loosely defined and call for stakeholders' personal experiences and social interactions. Here, the authors demystify the social interactions on which network-based business processes are developed, structure them for better tracking, and analyze the value they add to enterprise operations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The approach that WebRTC takes to providing end-to-end security, leveraging both the flexibility of JavaScript and the ability of browsers to create constraints through JavaScript APIs is described.
Abstract: For several years, browsers have been able to assure users that they are talking to a specific, identified website, protected from network-based attackers. In email, messaging, and other applications where sites act as intermediaries, there is a need for additional protections to provide end-to-end security. This article describes the approach that WebRTC takes to providing end-to-end security, leveraging both the flexibility of JavaScript and the ability of browsers to create constraints through JavaScript APIs.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' reputation-based approach automatically assesses accusers' honesty before a social networking site withdraws any reported content, which encourages honest users to report inappropriate content by increasing their reputation within the system.
Abstract: Social network users can report other users' content as inappropriate by arguing that it encroaches on their privacy rights. Blindly accepting such reports as real evidence of something offensive poses substantial risks; malicious users might report harmless content just to compromise that material. The large number of users who flag content as offensive makes moderation difficult for human administrators. The authors' reputation-based approach automatically assesses accusers' honesty before a social networking site withdraws any reported content. It encourages honest users to report inappropriate content by increasing their reputation within the system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explain how to integrate techniques from the cloud and game research communities into a complete architecture for enhanced online gaming quality and examines several open issues that appear only when clouds and games are put together.
Abstract: The computer game landscape is changing: people play games on multiple computing devices with heterogeneous form-factors, capability, and connectivity. Providing high playability on such devices concurrently is difficult. To enhance the gaming experience, designers could leverage abundant and elastic cloud resources, but current cloud platforms aren't optimized for highly interactive games. Existing studies focus on streaming-based cloud gaming, which is a special case for the more general cloud game architecture. The authors explain how to integrate techniques from the cloud and game research communities into a complete architecture for enhanced online gaming quality. They examine several open issues that appear only when clouds and games are put together.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors mine patterns that emerge frequently in the social graph, and show that such patterns possess enough discriminative power to accurately predict the relationships among social network users.
Abstract: In signed social networks, users are connected via directional signed links that indicate their opinions about each other. Predicting the signs of such links is crucial for many real-world applications, such as recommendation systems. The authors mine patterns that emerge frequently in the social graph, and show that such patterns possess enough discriminative power to accurately predict the relationships among social network users. They evaluate their approach through an experimental study that comprises three large-scale, real-world datasets and show that it outperforms state-of-the art methods.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article views manufacturing services as marketable entities, thereby opening up opportunities for new, manufacturing-based business models such as manufacturing as a service, which will lead to large-scale, virtualized, composable business models in the manufacturing world.
Abstract: Cloud-based manufacturing refers to an "as-a-service" manufacturing model that exploits on-demand access to a shared pool of diversified and distributed manufacturing resources. A product bill of materials (BOM) uses distributed manufacturing services for production purposes. Modeling BOMs poses challenges for distributed manufacturing plans, production policies, and its portability among multiple manufacturers. The authors employ the OASIS Topology and Orchestration Specification for Cloud Applications (TOSCA) and propose a TOSCA-based manufacturing mechanism that lets producers model and build their BOMs by composing diverse manufacturing services and resources using the TOSCA standard. This article views manufacturing services as marketable entities, thereby opening up opportunities for new, manufacturing-based business models such as manufacturing as a service, which will lead to large-scale, virtualized, composable business models in the manufacturing world.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors' Continuous Predictive Social Media Analytics system semantically analyzes and links visitors' social network activities to produce high-quality link predictions when information about preferences is sparse.
Abstract: The authors' Continuous Predictive Social Media Analytics system operates in real time on social media streams and graphs to recommend venues to visitors of geo- and temporally bounded city-scale events. By combining deductive and inductive stream reasoning techniques with visitor-modeling functionalities, this system semantically analyzes and links visitors' social network activities to produce high-quality link predictions when information about preferences is sparse. The authors demonstrate their system's quality with experiments on real-world data.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Interference on the network latency between virtual machines is characterized, and it is shown that the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) suffers from a long-tail latency problem due to coscheduling of CPU-bound and latency-sensitive tasks.
Abstract: Public cloud services rely on virtualization to support multitenancy--that is, allowing customers from different organizations to share the datacenter infrastructure. Unfortunately, today's public clouds fail to provide sufficient isolation. Hardware resources are often multiplexed between virtual machines belonging to different customers, which can cause performance interference. This article characterizes interference on the network latency between virtual machines, and shows that the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) suffers from a long-tail latency problem due to coscheduling of CPU-bound and latency-sensitive tasks. The Bobtail system allows cloud customers to proactively detect and avoid these bad neighboring virtual machines without help from cloud service providers.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An evaluation framework is developed to assess commercial PaaS solutions with regard to their development characteristics and several design choices are identified that either benefit or hinder developer productivity.
Abstract: Application platforms in the cloud, also known as platform as a service (PaaS), let developers rapidly implement and deploy Web-based applications. PaaS includes several characteristics that are assumed to positively affect development productivity. Marketing for PaaS usually emphasizes this advantage, but few vendors provide guidance about their products' limitations. The authors' study asked Web application developers about the PaaS characteristics that they perceive as either beneficial or limiting for their own work. Based on these answers, the authors developed an evaluation framework to assess commercial PaaS solutions with regard to their development characteristics. They applied this framework to three commercial products and identified several design choices that either benefit or hinder developer productivity.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of several approaches to create online social networks with technically imposed privacy preservation discusses their privacy benefits, architecture, and suitability for mobile devices.
Abstract: The housing of personal data on large online social networks arouses concerns from privacy advocates and leery users. Researchers have proposed decentralized architectures to create online social networks with technically imposed privacy preservation. This survey of several approaches discusses their privacy benefits, architecture, and suitability for mobile devices.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The author examines the poor state of current tools, argues that theSemantic Web offers a key part of the answer to building better ones, and discusses what needs to change in Semantic Web research to attain that goal.
Abstract: The Semantic Web's potential to deliver tools that help end users capture, communicate, and manage information has yet to be fulfilled, and far too little research is going into doing so. The author examines the poor state of current tools, argues that the Semantic Web offers a key part of the answer to building better ones, and discusses what needs to change in Semantic Web research to attain that goal. The Web extra video for the Atomate example is available at http://youtu.be/91KF1wEOVhU.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The author argues that such attacks are likely to occur repeatedly and that respective countermeasures must be designed, implemented, and put in place: certificate revocation and certificate authorization.
Abstract: Several recent attacks against certification authorities (CAs) and fraudulently issued certificates have put the security and usefulness of the Internet public-key infrastructure (PKI) at stake. In this article, the author argues that such attacks are likely to occur repeatedly and that respective countermeasures must be designed, implemented, and put in place. In particular, he discusses two problem areas in which countermeasures are needed: certificate revocation and certificate authorization. Both areas are related and can be subsumed under the term "certificate legitimation."' The author introduces the notion of certificate legitimation, discusses some recent proposals, and outlines new areas of research and development.