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Showing papers in "IEEE Sensors Journal in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The latest reported systems on activity monitoring of humans based on wearable sensors and issues to be addressed to tackle the challenges are reviewed.
Abstract: An increase in world population along with a significant aging portion is forcing rapid rises in healthcare costs. The healthcare system is going through a transformation in which continuous monitoring of inhabitants is possible even without hospitalization. The advancement of sensing technologies, embedded systems, wireless communication technologies, nano technologies, and miniaturization makes it possible to develop smart systems to monitor activities of human beings continuously. Wearable sensors detect abnormal and/or unforeseen situations by monitoring physiological parameters along with other symptoms. Therefore, necessary help can be provided in times of dire need. This paper reviews the latest reported systems on activity monitoring of humans based on wearable sensors and issues to be addressed to tackle the challenges.

1,117 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review of various printing technologies, commonly used substrates and electronic materials is presented, including solution/dry printing and contact/noncontact printing technologies on the basis of technological, materials, and process-related developments in the field.
Abstract: Printing sensors and electronics over flexible substrates are an area of significant interest due to low-cost fabrication and possibility of obtaining multifunctional electronics over large areas. Over the years, a number of printing technologies have been developed to pattern a wide range of electronic materials on diverse substrates. As further expansion of printed technologies is expected in future for sensors and electronics, it is opportune to review the common features, the complementarities, and the challenges associated with various printing technologies. This paper presents a comprehensive review of various printing technologies, commonly used substrates and electronic materials. Various solution/dry printing and contact/noncontact printing technologies have been assessed on the basis of technological, materials, and process-related developments in the field. Critical challenges in various printing techniques and potential research directions have been highlighted. Possibilities of merging various printing methodologies have been explored to extend the lab developed standalone systems to high-speed roll-to-roll production lines for system level integration.

951 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Wonho Kang1, Youngnam Han1
TL;DR: A smartphone-based pedestrian dead reckoning, SmartPDR, which tracks pedestrians through typical dead reckoning approach using data from inertial sensors embedded in smartphones, and validates its practical usage through real deployment.
Abstract: Indoor pedestrian tracking extends location-based services to indoor environments where GPS signal is rarely detected. Typical indoor localization method is Wi-Fi-based positioning system, which is practical showing accuracy and extending coverage. However, it involves significant costs of installing and managing wireless access points. A practical indoor pedestrian-tracking approach should consider the absence of any infrastructure or pretrained database. In this paper, we present a smartphone-based pedestrian dead reckoning, SmartPDR, which tracks pedestrians through typical dead reckoning approach using data from inertial sensors embedded in smartphones. SmartPDR does not require any complex and expensive additional device or infrastructure that most existing pedestrian tracking systems rely on. The proposed system was implemented on off-the-shelf smartphones and the performance was evaluated in several buildings. Despite inherent localization errors from low-cost noisy sensors and complicated human movements, SmartPDR successfully tracks indoor user's location, which is confirmed from the experimental results with reasonable location accuracy. Indoor pedestrian tracking system using smartphone inertial sensors can be a promising methodology validating its practical usage through real deployment.

471 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper measures the depth accuracy of the newly released Kinect v2 depth sensor, and obtains a cone model to illustrate its accuracy distribution, and proposes a trilateration method to improve thedepth accuracy with multiple Kinects simultaneously.
Abstract: Microsoft Kinect sensor has been widely used in many applications since the launch of its first version. Recently, Microsoft released a new version of Kinect sensor with improved hardware. However, the accuracy assessment of the sensor remains to be answered. In this paper, we measure the depth accuracy of the newly released Kinect v2 depth sensor, and obtain a cone model to illustrate its accuracy distribution. We then evaluate the variance of the captured depth values by depth entropy. In addition, we propose a trilateration method to improve the depth accuracy with multiple Kinects simultaneously. The experimental results are provided to ascertain the proposed model and method.

275 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses recent advances in wearable sensors and systems that monitor movement, physiology, and environment, with a focus on applications for Parkinson's disease, stroke, and head and neck injuries.
Abstract: Wearable sensor technology continues to advance and provide significant opportunities for improving personalized healthcare. In recent years, advances in flexible electronics, smart materials, and low-power computing and networking have reduced barriers to technology accessibility, integration, and cost, unleashing the potential for ubiquitous monitoring. This paper discusses recent advances in wearable sensors and systems that monitor movement, physiology, and environment, with a focus on applications for Parkinson’s disease, stroke, and head and neck injuries.

264 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive model for the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes is presented, which takes a system-level perspective to account for all energy expenditures: communications, acquisition and processing and results in a new framework for studying and analyzing the energy life-cycles in applications.
Abstract: Low-energy technologies in the Internet of Things (IoTs) era are still unable to provide the reliability needed by the industrial world, particularly in terms of the wireless operation that pervasive deployments demand. While the industrial wireless performance has achieved an acceptable degree in communications, it is no easy task to determine an efficient energy-dimensioning of the device in order to meet the application requirements. This is especially true in the face of the uncertainty inherent in energy harvesting. Thus, it is of utmost importance to model and dimension the energy consumption of the IoT applications at the pre-deployment or pre-production stages, especially when considering critical factors, such as reduced cost, life-time, and available energy. This paper presents a comprehensive model for the power consumption of wireless sensor nodes. The model takes a system-level perspective to account for all energy expenditures: communications, acquisition and processing. Furthermore, it is based only on parameters that can empirically be quantified once the platform (i.e., technology) and the application (i.e., operating conditions) are defined. This results in a new framework for studying and analyzing the energy life-cycles in applications, and it is suitable for determining in advance the specific weight of application parameters, as well as for understanding the tolerance margins and tradeoffs in the system.

248 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A fall detection system consisting of an inertial unit that includes triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer with efficient data fusion and fall detection algorithms with excellent accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, improving the results of other techniques proposed in the literature.
Abstract: Falls are critical events among elderly people that requires timely rescue. In this paper, we propose a fall detection system consisting of an inertial unit that includes triaxial accelerometer, gyroscope, and magnetometer with efficient data fusion and fall detection algorithms. Starting from the raw data, the implemented orientation filter provides the correct orientation of the subject in terms of yaw, pitch, and roll angles. The system is tested according to experimental protocols, engaging volunteers who performed simulated falls, simulated falls with recovery, and activities of daily living. By placing our wearable sensor on the waist of the subject, the unit is able to achieve fall detection performance above those of similar systems proposed in literature. The results obtained through commonly adopted protocols show excellent accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, improving the results of other techniques proposed in the literature.

221 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a microwave noninvasive planar sensor based on the complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) is proposed for an accurate measurement of the complex permittivity of materials.
Abstract: A novel microwave noninvasive planar sensor based on the complementary split ring resonator (CSRR) is proposed for an accurate measurement of the complex permittivity of materials. The CSRR is etched in the ground plane of the planar microstrip line. Two CSRRs of rectangular and circular cross-sections are chosen for the sensitivity analysis, where the later is found to possess higher sensitivity and hence appears to be more appropriate for the sensor design. At resonance, the electric field induced along the plane of CSRR is found to be quite sensitive for the characterization of specimen kept in contact with the sensor. A numerical model is developed here for the calculation of the complex permittivity as a function of resonant frequency and the quality factor data using the electromagnetic simulator, the Computer Simulation Technology. For practical applications, a detailed air gap analysis is carried out to consider the effect of any air gap present between the test sample and the CSRR. The designed sensor is fabricated and tested, and accordingly the numerically established relations are experimentally verified for various reference samples e.g., teflon, polyvinyl chloride, plexiglas, polyethylene, rubber, and wood. Experimentally, it is found that the permittivity measurement using the proposed sensor is possible with a typical error of 3%.

219 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An intelligent traffic control system to pass emergency vehicles smoothly by using RFID reader, NSK EDK-125-TTL, and PIC16F877A system-on-chip to read the RFID tags attached to the vehicle and counts number of vehicles that passes on a particular path during a specified duration.
Abstract: This paper presents an intelligent traffic control system to pass emergency vehicles smoothly. Each individual vehicle is equipped with special radio frequency identification (RFID) tag (placed at a strategic location), which makes it impossible to remove or destroy. We use RFID reader, NSK EDK-125-TTL, and PIC16F877A system-on-chip to read the RFID tags attached to the vehicle. It counts number of vehicles that passes on a particular path during a specified duration. It also determines the network congestion, and hence the green light duration for that path. If the RFID-tag-read belongs to the stolen vehicle, then a message is sent using GSM SIM300 to the police control room. In addition, when an ambulance is approaching the junction, it will communicate to the traffic controller in the junction to turn ON the green light. This module uses ZigBee modules on CC2500 and PIC16F877A system-on-chip for wireless communications between the ambulance and traffic controller. The prototype was tested under different combinations of inputs in our wireless communication laboratory and experimental results were found as expected.

209 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a chipless radio frequency identification sensor tag for short-range item identification and humidity monitoring applications is presented, which consists of two planar inductor-capacitor resonators operating wirelessly through inductive coupling.
Abstract: This paper presents a fully-printed chipless radio frequency identification sensor tag for short-range item identification and humidity monitoring applications. The tag consists of two planar inductor–capacitor resonators operating wirelessly through inductive coupling. One resonator is used to encode ID data based on frequency spectrum signature, and another one works as a humidity sensor, utilizing a paper substrate as a sensing material. The sensing performances of three paper substrates, including commercial packaging paper, are investigated. The use of paper provides excellent sensitivity and reasonable response time to humidity. The cheap and robust packaging paper, particularly, exhibits the largest sensitivity over the relative humidity range from 20% to 70%, which offers the possibility of directly printing the sensor tag on traditional packages to make the package intelligent at ultralow cost.

208 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An architecture targeting HTTP/CoAP services to provide an authorization framework, which can be integrated by invoking an external oauth-based authorization service (OAS), which is denoted as IoT-OAS is proposed.
Abstract: Open authorization (OAuth) is an open protocol, which allows secure authorization in a simple and standardized way from third-party applications accessing online services, based on the representational state transfer (REST) web architecture. OAuth has been designed to provide an authorization layer, typically on top of a secure transport layer such as HTTPS. The Internet of Things (IoTs) refers to the interconnection of billions of resource-constrained devices, denoted as smart objects, in an Internet-like structure. Smart objects have limited processing/memory capabilities and operate in challenging environments, such as low-power and lossy networks. IP has been foreseen as the standard communication protocol for smart object interoperability. The Internet engineering task force constrained RESTful environments working group has defined the constrained application protocol (CoAP) as a generic web protocol for RESTful-constrained environments, targeting machine-to-machine applications, which maps to HTTP for integration with the existing web. In this paper, we propose an architecture targeting HTTP/CoAP services to provide an authorization framework, which can be integrated by invoking an external oauth-based authorization service (OAS). The overall architecture is denoted as IoT-OAS. We also present an overview of significant IoT application scenarios. The IoT-OAS architecture is meant to be flexible, highly configurable, and easy to integrate with existing services. Among the advantages achieved by delegating the authorization functionality, IoT scenarios benefit by: 1) lower processing load with respect to solutions, where access control is implemented on the smart object; 2) fine-grained (remote) customization of access policies; and 3) scalability, without the need to operate directly on the device.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, two different types of screen-printed flexible and conformable pressure sensors arrays are compared and compared on the basis of fabrication by printing on plastic substrate, ease of processing and handling of the materials, compatibility of the dissimilar materials in multilayers structure, adhesion, and finally according to the response to the normal compressive forces.
Abstract: This paper presents and compares two different types of screen-printed flexible and conformable pressure sensors arrays In both variants, the flexible pressure sensors are in the form of segmental arrays of parallel plate structure—sandwiching the piezoelectric polymer polyvinylidene fluoride trifluoroethylene [P(VDF-TrFE)] between two printed metal layers of silver (Ag) in one case and the piezoresistive [multiwall carbon nanotube (MWCNT) mixed with poly(dimethylsiloxane (PDMS)] layer in the other Each sensor module consists of $4 \times 4$ sensors array with 1-mm $\times 1$ -mm sensitive area of each sensor The screen-printed piezoelectric sensors array exploits the change in polarization level of P(VDF-TrFE) to detect dynamic tactile parameter such as contact force Similarly, the piezoresistive sensors array exploits the change in resistance of the bulk printed layer of MWCNT/PDMS composite The two variants are compared on the basis of fabrication by printing on plastic substrate, ease of processing and handling of the materials, compatibility of the dissimilar materials in multilayers structure, adhesion, and finally according to the response to the normal compressive forces The foldable pressure sensors arrays are completely realized using screen-printing technology and are targeted toward realizing low-cost electronic skin

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper offers a classification of atypical hierarchical routing of WSNs, and gives detailed analysis of different logical topologies, to provide useful guidance for system designers on how to evaluate and select appropriate logical topological protocols for specific applications.
Abstract: Hierarchical routing in wireless sensor networks (WSNs) is a very important topic that has been attracting the research community in the last decade. Typical hierarchical routing is called clustering routing, in which the network is divided into multiple clusters. Recently, some types of atypical hierarchical routing arise, including chain-based, tree-based, grid-based routing, and area-based routing. There are several survey papers that present and compare the hierarchical routing protocols from various perspectives, but a survey on atypical hierarchical routing is still missing. This paper makes a first attempt to provide a comprehensive review on atypical hierarchical routing. We offer a classification of atypical hierarchical routing of WSNs, and give detailed analysis of different logical topologies. The most representative atypical hierarchical routing protocols are described, discussed, and qualitatively compared. In particular, the advantages and disadvantages of different atypical hierarchical routing protocols are analyzed with respect to their significant performances and application scenarios. Finally, we put forward some open issues concerning the design of hierarchical WSNs. This survey aims to provide useful guidance for system designers on how to evaluate and select appropriate logical topologies and hierarchical routing protocols for specific applications.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A mobile sink-based adaptive immune energy-efficient clustering protocol (MSIEEP) that improves the lifetime, the stability, and the instability periods over the previous protocols, because it always selects CHs from high-energy nodes.
Abstract: Energy hole problem is a critical issue for data gathering in wireless sensor networks. Sensors near the static sink act as relays for far sensors and thus will deplete their energy very quickly, resulting energy holes in the sensor field. Exploiting the mobility of a sink has been widely accepted as an efficient way to alleviate this problem. However, determining an optimal moving trajectory for a mobile sink is a non-deterministic polynomial-time hard problem. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile sink-based adaptive immune energy-efficient clustering protocol (MSIEEP) to alleviate the energy holes. A MSIEEP uses the adaptive immune algorithm (AIA) to guide the mobile sink-based on minimizing the total dissipated energy in communication and overhead control packets. Moreover, AIA is used to find the optimum number of cluster heads (CHs) to improve the lifetime and stability period of the network. The performance of MSIEEP is compared with the previously published protocols; namely, low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH), genetic algorithm-based LEACH, amend LEACH, rendezvous, and mobile sink improved energy-efficient PEGASIS-based routing protocol using MATLAB. Simulation results show that MSIEEP is more reliable and energy efficient as compared with other protocols. Furthermore, it improves the lifetime, the stability, and the instability periods over the previous protocols, because it always selects CHs from high-energy nodes. Moreover, the mobile sink increases the ability of the proposed protocol to deliver packets to the destination.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a virtual grid-based dynamic routes adjustment (VGDRA) scheme that aims to minimize the routes reconstruction cost of the sensor nodes while maintaining nearly optimal routes to the latest location of the mobile sink.
Abstract: In wireless sensor networks, exploiting the sink mobility has been considered as a good strategy to balance the nodes energy dissipation. Despite its numerous advantages, the data dissemination to the mobile sink is a challenging task for the resource constrained sensor nodes due to the dynamic network topology caused by the sink mobility. For efficient data delivery, nodes need to reconstruct their routes toward the latest location of the mobile sink, which undermines the energy conservation goal. In this paper, we present a virtual grid-based dynamic routes adjustment (VGDRA) scheme that aims to minimize the routes reconstruction cost of the sensor nodes while maintaining nearly optimal routes to the latest location of the mobile sink. We propose a set of communication rules that governs the routes reconstruction process thereby requiring only a limited number of nodes to readjust their data delivery routes toward the mobile sink. Simulation results demonstrate reduced routes reconstruction cost and improved network lifetime of the VGDRA scheme when compared with existing work.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A two-stage multimodal fusion framework using the cascaded combination of stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and non sub-sampled Contourlet Transform (NSCT) domains for images acquired using two distinct medical imaging sensor modalities is presented.
Abstract: Multimodal medical image fusion is effectuated to minimize the redundancy while augmenting the necessary information from the input images acquired using different medical imaging sensors. The sole aim is to yield a single fused image, which could be more informative for an efficient clinical analysis. This paper presents a two-stage multimodal fusion framework using the cascaded combination of stationary wavelet transform (SWT) and non sub-sampled Contourlet transform (NSCT) domains for images acquired using two distinct medical imaging sensor modalities (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scan). The major advantage of using a cascaded combination of SWT and NSCT is to improve upon the shift variance, directionality, and phase information in the finally fused image. The first stage employs a principal component analysis algorithm in SWT domain to minimize the redundancy. Maximum fusion rule is then applied in NSCT domain at second stage to enhance the contrast of the diagnostic features. A quantitative analysis of fused images is carried out using dedicated fusion metrics. The fusion responses of the proposed approach are also compared with other state-of-the-art fusion approaches; depicting the superiority of the obtained fusion results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Rogowski coil is analyzed from different points of view, including different integration techniques in the output stage, models for the Rogowski Coil, experimental methods for parameter measurement in models, and method for determining the damping resistor.
Abstract: The Rogowski coil is an old device for current measurement. It has been modified and improved over a century and is still being studied for new applications. The Rogowski coil has various advantages over conventional magnetic current transformers (CTs). Not only can it be used instead of CT, but also it has various utilizations in other fields. This paper provides a brief review on different aspects of the Rogowski coil and its advancement procedure, during last decades. In this paper, the history of the coil is brifely reviewed and its bases and applications are discussed. The Rogowski coil is analyzed from different points of view, including different integration techniques in the output stage, models for the Rogowski coil, experimental methods for parameter measurement in models, and method for determining the damping resistor. Finally, a brief review over different applications of the coil ends this paper.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a low cost, wireless, easy to install, adaptable, and smart LED lighting system was proposed to automatically adjust the light intensity to save energy and maintaining user satisfaction.
Abstract: Reducing energy demand in the residential and industrial sectors is an important challenge worldwide. In particular, lights account for a great portion of total energy consumption, and unfortunately a huge amount of this energy is wasted. Light-emitting diode (LED) lights are being used to light offices, houses, industrial, or agricultural facilities more efficiently than traditional lights. Moreover, the light control systems are introduced to current markets, because the installed lighting systems are outdated and energy inefficient. However, due to high costs, installation issues, and difficulty of maintenance; existing light control systems are not successfully applied to home, office, and industrial buildings. This paper proposes a low cost, wireless, easy to install, adaptable, and smart LED lighting system to automatically adjust the light intensity to save energy and maintaining user satisfaction. The system combines motion sensors and light sensors in a low-power wireless solution using Zigbee communication. This paper presents the design and implementation of the proposed system in a real-world deployment. Characterization of a commercial LED panel was performed to evaluate the benefit of dimming for this light technology. Measurements of total power consumption over a continuous six months period (winter to summer) of a busy office were acquired to verify the performance and the power savings across several weather conditions scenarios. The proposed smart lighting system reduces total power consumption in the application scenario by 55% during a six month period and up to 69% in spring months. These figures take also into account individual user preferences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a textile-based strain sensor has been developed to create a respiration belt, where the constituent materials and the knitted structure of the textile sensor have been specifically selected and tailored for this application.
Abstract: In this paper, a textile-based strain sensor has been developed to create a respiration belt. The constituent materials and the knitted structure of the textile sensor have been specifically selected and tailored for this application. Electromechanical modeling has been developed by exploiting Peirce's loop model in order to describe the fabric geometry under static and dynamic conditions. Kirchhoff's node and loop equations have been employed to create a generalized solution for the equivalent electrical resistance of the textile sensor for a given knitted loop geometry and for a specified number of loops. A laboratory test setup was built to characterize the prototype sensor and the resulting equivalent resistance under strain levels up to 40%, and consistent resistance response levels have been obtained from the sensor which correlate well with the modelled data. Production of the respiration belt was realized by bringing together knitted sensor and a relatively inelastic textile strap. Both machine simulations and real-time measurements on a human subject have been performed in order to calculate average breathing frequencies under different static and dynamic conditions. Also, different scenarios have been performed, such as slow breathing and rapid breathing. The sensory belt was located in either the chest area or in the abdominal area during the experimental measurements and the sensor yielded a good response under both static and dynamic conditions. However, body motion artefacts affected the signal quality under dynamic conditions and an additional signal-processing step was added to eliminate unwanted interference from the breathing signal.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A support vector machine-based posterior probabilistic model (SVMPPM) aimed at transforming the drowsiness level to any value of 0~1 instead of discrete labels is proposed, indicating that the combination of the proposed SVMPPM, the EEG headband, and the wrist-worn smart device constitutes an effective, simple, and inexpensive wearable solution for DDD.
Abstract: Driver drowsiness is a major cause of mortality in traffic accidents worldwide. Many physiological signals have been proposed to detect driver drowsiness. Among these signals, an electroencephalographic (EEG) signal, which reflects the brain activities, is more directly related to drowsiness. Thus, many EEG-based driver drowsiness detection (DDD) models gained more and more attention in recent years. However, one limitation of these studies is that these models merely estimate discrete labels and, thus, did not allow for estimating the relative severity of driver drowsiness. This paper proposes a support vector machine-based posterior probabilistic model (SVMPPM) for DDD, aimed at transforming the drowsiness level to any value of $0\sim 1$ instead of discrete labels. A fully wearable EEG system which consists of a Bluetooth-enabled EEG headband and a commercial smartwatch was used to evaluate the proposed model in a real-time way. Twenty subjects who participated in a 1-h monotonous driving simulation experiment were used to develop this model with fifteen subjects for a building model and five subjects for a testing model. According to a video-based reference, the proposed system obtained an accuracy of 91.25% for an alert group (73 out of 80 data sets), 83.78% for an early-warning group (93 out of 111 data sets), and 91.92% for a full-warning group (91 out of 99 data sets). These results indicate that the combination of the proposed SVMPPM, the EEG headband, and the wrist-worn smart device constitutes an effective, simple, and inexpensive wearable solution for DDD.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The generalized likelihood ratio test for target detection and detector statistic for NSP and orthogonal waveform are derived and the target detection performance for both waveforms is studied theoretically and via Monte Carlo simulations.
Abstract: Future wireless communication systems are envisioned to share radio frequency spectrum with radars in order to meet the growing spectrum demands. In this paper, we address the problem of target detection by radars that project waveform onto the null space of interference channel in order to mitigate interference to cellular systems. We consider a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar and an MIMO cellular communication system with $ \mathcal {K}$ base stations (BSs). We consider two spectrum sharing scenarios. In the first scenario, the degrees of freedom (DoF) available at the radar are not sufficient enough to simultaneously detect target and mitigate interference to $ \mathcal {K}$ BSs. For this case, we select one BS among $ \mathcal {K}$ BSs for waveform projection on the basis of guaranteeing minimum waveform degradation. For the second case, the radar has sufficient DoF to simultaneously detect target and mitigate interference to all $ \mathcal {K}$ BSs. We study target detection capabilities of null-space projected (NSP) waveform and compare it with the orthogonal waveform. We derive the generalized likelihood ratio test for target detection and derive detector statistic for NSP and orthogonal waveform. The target detection performance for both waveforms is studied theoretically and via Monte Carlo simulations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is presented, in which a sheet of graphene acting as a sensing layer is coated around the gold film.
Abstract: In this paper, a fiber-optic surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor is presented, in which a sheet of graphene acting as a sensing layer is coated around the gold film. A theoretical study of the proposed fiber-optic biosensor has been carried out by applying four-layer modal, which shows that by incorporating a graphene sensing layer, the sensitivity of the proposed SPR fiber biosensor can be greatly enhanced than the conventional gold film SPR fiber sensors. The relationship between resonance wavelengths and sensitivity of the proposed graphene sensing layer-based SPR fiber biosensor with the number of sensing layer has also been studied.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An animal health monitoring system for monitoring the physiological parameters, such as rumination, body temperature, and heart rate with surrounding temperature and humidity, has been developed and tested with high accuracy results.
Abstract: An animal health monitoring system for monitoring the physiological parameters, such as rumination, body temperature, and heart rate with surrounding temperature and humidity, has been developed. The developed system can also analyze the stress level corresponding to thermal humidity index. The IEEE802.15.4 and IEEE1451.2 standards-based sensor module has been developed successfully. The Zigbee device and PIC18F4550 microcontroller are used in the implementation of sensor module. The graphical user interface (GUI) is implemented in LabVIEW 9 according to the IEEE1451.1 standard. The real-time monitoring of physiological and behavioral parameters can be present on the GUI PC. The device is very helpful for inexpensive health care of livestock. A prototype model is developed and tested with high accuracy results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a phase-based technique for localization and tracking of items moving along a conveyor belt and equipped with ultra-high frequency-radio frequency identification (UHF-RFID) tags is described and validated.
Abstract: A new phase-based technique for localization and tracking of items moving along a conveyor belt and equipped with ultrahigh frequency-radio frequency identification (UHF-RFID) tags is described and validated here. The technique is based on a synthetic-array approach that takes advantage of the fact that the tagged items move along a conveyor belt whose speed and path are known a priori. In this framework, a joint use is done of synthetic-array radar principles, knowledge-based processing, and efficient exploitation of the reader-tag communication signal. The technique can be easily implemented in any conventional reader based on an in-phase and quadrature receiver and it does not require any modification of the reader antenna configurations usually adopted in UHF-RFID portals. Numerical results are used to investigate the performance analysis of such methods, and also to furnish system design guidelines. Finally, the localization capability is also demonstrated through a measurement campaign in a real conveyor belt scenario, showing that a centimeter-order accuracy in the tag position estimation can be achieved even in a rich multipath environment.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of EIT and its application as a robotics sensitive skin, including EIT excitation and image reconstruction techniques, materials, and skin fabrication techniques is also reviewed.
Abstract: Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a nondestructive imaging technique used to estimate the internal conductivity distribution of a conductive domain by taking potential measurements only at the domain boundaries. If a thin electrically conductive material that responds to pressure with local changes in conductivity is used as a conductive domain, then EIT can be used to create a large-scale pressure-sensitive artificial skin for robotics applications. This paper presents a review of EIT and its application as a robotics sensitive skin, including EIT excitation and image reconstruction techniques, materials, and skin fabrication techniques. Touch interpretation via EIT-based artificial skins is also reviewed.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comprehensive survey of current state of the bio-sensing technologies focusing on hand motion capturing and its application to interfacing hand prostheses is provided in this article, where the authors also outline the new challenges and directions: exploration of robust sensing technology; multi-modal sensory fusion; online signal processing and learning algorithms; and bio-feedbacks.
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive survey of current state of the bio-sensing technologies focusing on hand motion capturing and its application to interfacing hand prostheses. These sensing techniques include electromyography, sonomyography, mechnomyography, electroneurography, electroencephalograhy, electrocorticography, intracortical neural interfaces, near infrared spectroscopy, magnetoencephalography, and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Relevant approaches that interpret bio-signals in the view of prosthetic hand manipulation are discussed as well. Multi-modal sensory fusion provides a new strategy in this area, and the latest multi-modal sensing techniques are surveyed. This paper also outlines the new challenges and directions: 1) exploration of robust sensing technology; 2) multi-modal sensory fusion; 3) online signal processing and learning algorithms; and 4) bio-feedbacks.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance of the proposed E-OEERP in terms of energy consumption, throughput, packet delivery ratio, and network lifetime are evaluated and compared with the existing OEERP, low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy, data routing for in-network aggregation, base-station controlled dynamic clustering protocols.
Abstract: Particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based effective clustering in wireless sensor networks is proposed. In the existing optimized energy efficient routing protocol (OEERP), during cluster formation some of the nodes are left out without being a member of any of the cluster which results in residual node formation. Such residual or individual nodes forward the sensed data either directly to the base station or by finding the next best hop by sending many control messages hence reduces the network lifetime. The proposed enhanced-OEERP (E-OEERP) reduces/eliminates such individual node formation and improves the overall network lifetime when compared with the existing protocols. It can be achieved by applying the concepts of PSO and gravitational search algorithm (GSA) for cluster formation and routing, respectively. For each cluster head (CH), a supportive node called cluster assistant node is elected to reduce the overhead of the CH. With the help of PSO, clustering is performed until all the nodes become a member of any of the cluster. This eliminates the individual node formation which results in comparatively better network lifetime. With the concept of GSA, the term force between the CHs is considered for finding the next best hop during route construction phase. The performance of the proposed work in terms of energy consumption, throughput, packet delivery ratio, and network lifetime are evaluated and compared with the existing OEERP, low energy adaptive clustering hierarchy, data routing for in-network aggregation, base-station controlled dynamic clustering protocols. This paper is simulated using NS-2 simulator. The results prove that, the proposed E-OEERP shows better performance in terms of lifetime.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A network of smart sensors, based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451 suite of standards, for in situ and in continuous space-time monitoring of surface water bodies, in particular for seawater, to capture possible extreme events and collect long-term periods of data.
Abstract: Measurement of chlorophyll concentration is gaining more-and-more importance in evaluating the status of the marine ecosystem. For wide areas monitoring a reliable architecture of wireless sensors network is required. In this paper, we present a network of smart sensors, based on ISO/IEC/IEEE 21451 suite of standards, for in situ and in continuous space–time monitoring of surface water bodies, in particular for seawater. The system is meant to be an important tool for evaluating water quality and a valid support to strategic decisions concerning critical environment issues. The aim of the proposed system is to capture possible extreme events and collect long-term periods of data.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses previous pothole detection methods that have been developed and proposes a cost-effective solution to identify the potholes and humps on roads and provide timely alerts to drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages.
Abstract: One of the major problems in developing countries is maintenance of roads. Well maintained roads contribute a major portion to the country’s economy. Identification of pavement distress such as potholes and humps not only helps drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages, but also helps authorities to maintain roads. This paper discusses previous pothole detection methods that have been developed and proposes a cost-effective solution to identify the potholes and humps on roads and provide timely alerts to drivers to avoid accidents or vehicle damages. Ultrasonic sensors are used to identify the potholes and humps and also to measure their depth and height, respectively. The proposed system captures the geographical location coordinates of the potholes and humps using a global positioning system receiver. The sensed-data includes pothole depth, height of hump, and geographic location, which is stored in the database (cloud). This serves as a valuable source of information to the government authorities and vehicle drivers. An android application is used to alert drivers so that precautionary measures can be taken to evade accidents. Alerts are given in the form of a flash messages with an audio beep.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a low cost and flexible plantar pressure monitoring system is presented that is suited for everyday use to prevent pressure ulcers, based on a multivariate approach and neural network classification.
Abstract: In this paper, a low cost and flexible plantar pressure monitoring system is presented that is suited for everyday use to prevent pressure ulcers. To define the technical specifications of the sensor system, a gait analysis study was carried out. Analysis of measured data based on a multivariate approach and neural network classification shows that it is possible to dissociate between healthy and unhealthy rollover patterns. To implement a pressure sensor element, a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-composite was selected. A sensor matrix made of the composite was fully printed to enable pressure distribution measurements. As a final application, a printed insole was fabricated with six single MWCNT-PDMS pressure sensors that were situated on characteristic points of the insole to detect the unhealthy rollover patterns. Its functionality to measure plantar pressures was proven on a human foot inside a running shoe during walking.