Journal•ISSN: 1549-8328

# IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I-regular Papers

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

About: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems I-regular Papers is an academic journal published by Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Computer science & CMOS. It has an ISSN identifier of 1549-8328. Over the lifetime, 7951 publications have been published receiving 294410 citations. The journal is also known as: Regular papers & Circuits and systems..

Topics: Computer science, CMOS, Amplifier, Nonlinear system, Electronic circuit

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TL;DR: In this article, a distributed observer-type consensus protocol based on relative output measurements is proposed to solve the consensus problem of multi-agent systems with a time-invariant communication topology consisting of general linear node dynamics.

Abstract: This paper addresses the consensus problem of multiagent systems with a time-invariant communication topology consisting of general linear node dynamics. A distributed observer-type consensus protocol based on relative output measurements is proposed. A new framework is introduced to address in a unified way the consensus of multiagent systems and the synchronization of complex networks. Under this framework, the consensus of multiagent systems with a communication topology having a spanning tree can be cast into the stability of a set of matrices of the same low dimension. The notion of consensus region is then introduced and analyzed. It is shown that there exists an observer-type protocol solving the consensus problem and meanwhile yielding an unbounded consensus region if and only if each agent is both stabilizable and detectable. A multistep consensus protocol design procedure is further presented. The consensus with respect to a time-varying state and the robustness of the consensus protocol to external disturbances are finally discussed. The effectiveness of the theoretical results is demonstrated through numerical simulations, with an application to low-Earth-orbit satellite formation flying.

2,096 citations

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TL;DR: The computational theory of perceptions (CTP) as mentioned in this paper is a methodology for reasoning and computing with perceptions rather than measurements, where words play the role of labels of perceptions and, more generally, perceptions are expressed as propositions in a natural language.

Abstract: Discusses a methodology for reasoning and computing with perceptions rather than measurements. An outline of such a methodology-referred to as a computational theory of perceptions is presented in this paper. The computational theory of perceptions, or CTP for short, is based on the methodology of CW. In CTP, words play the role of labels of perceptions and, more generally, perceptions are expressed as propositions in a natural language. CW-based techniques are employed to translate propositions expressed in a natural language into what is called the Generalized Constraint Language (GCL). In this language, the meaning of a proposition is expressed as a generalized constraint, N is R, where N is the constrained variable, R is the constraining relation and isr is a variable copula in which r is a variable whose value defines the way in which R constrains S. Among the basic types of constraints are: possibilistic, veristic, probabilistic, random set, Pawlak set, fuzzy graph and usuality. The wide variety of constraints in GCL makes GCL a much more expressive language than the language of predicate logic. In CW, the initial and terminal data sets, IDS and TDS, are assumed to consist of propositions expressed in a natural language. These propositions are translated, respectively, into antecedent and consequent constraints. Consequent constraints are derived from antecedent constraints through the use of rules of constraint propagation. The principal constraint propagation rule is the generalized extension principle. The derived constraints are retranslated into a natural language, yielding the terminal data set (TDS). The rules of constraint propagation in CW coincide with the rules of inference in fuzzy logic. A basic problem in CW is that of explicitation of N, R, and r in a generalized constraint, X is R, which represents the meaning of a proposition, p, in a natural language.

1,453 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the state-of-the-art on generalized (or any order) derivatives in physics and engineering sciences is outlined for justifying the interest of the noninteger differentiation.

Abstract: The state-of-the-art on generalized (or any order) derivatives in physics and engineering sciences, is outlined for justifying the interest of the noninteger differentiation. The problems subsequent to its use in real-time operations are then set out so as to motivate the idea of synthesizing it by a recursive distribution of zeros and poles. An analysis of the existing work is also proposed to support this idea. A comprehensive study is given of the synthesis of differentiators with integer, noninteger, real or complex orders, and whose action is limited to any given frequency bandwidth. First, a definition, in the operational and frequency domains, of a frequency-band complex noninteger order differentiator, is given in a mathematical space with four dimensions which is a Banach algebra. Then, the determination of its synthesized form, by a recursive distribution of complex zeros and poles characterized by complex recursive factors, is presented. The complex noninteger differentiation order is expressed as a function of these recursive factors. The number of zeros and poles is calculated to be as low as possible while still ensuring the stability of the synthesized differentiator to be synthesized. A time validation is presented. Finally, guidelines are proposed for the conception of the synthesized differentiator.

1,361 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors developed a solid foundation for phase noise that is valid for any oscillator, regardless of operating mechanism, and established novel results about the dynamics of stable nonlinear oscillators in the presence of perturbations, both deterministic and random.

Abstract: Phase noise is a topic of theoretical and practical interest in electronic circuits, as well as in other fields, such as optics. Although progress has been made in understanding the phenomenon, there still remain significant gaps, both in its fundamental theory and in numerical techniques for its characterization. In this paper, we develop a solid foundation for phase noise that is valid for any oscillator, regardless of operating mechanism. We establish novel results about the dynamics of stable nonlinear oscillators in the presence of perturbations, both deterministic and random. We obtain an exact nonlinear equation for phase error, which we solve without approximations for random perturbations. This leads us to a precise characterization of timing jitter and spectral dispersion, for computing of which we have developed efficient numerical methods. We demonstrate our techniques on a variety of practical electrical oscillators and obtain good matches with measurements, even at frequencies close to the carrier, where previous techniques break down. Our methods are more than three orders of magnitude faster than the brute-force Monte Carlo approach, which is the only previously available technique that can predict phase noise correctly.

1,226 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the synchronization phenomenon in scale-free dynamical networks is investigated and it is shown that if the coupling strength of a scale free dynamical network is greater than a positive threshold, then the network will synchronize no matter how large it is.

Abstract: Recently, it has been demonstrated that many large complex networks display a scale-free feature, that is, their connectivity distributions are in the power-law form. In this paper, we investigate the synchronization phenomenon in scale-free dynamical networks. We show that if the coupling strength of a scale-free dynamical network is greater than a positive threshold, then the network will synchronize no matter how large it is. We show that the synchronizability of a scale-free dynamical network is robust against random removal of nodes, but is fragile to specific removal of the most highly connected nodes.

1,089 citations