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Showing papers in "IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices in 1967"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the resonant gate transistor (RGT) is described as an electrostatically excited tuning fork employing field effect transistor readout, which can be batch-fabricated in a manner consistent with silicon technology.
Abstract: A device is described which permits high- Q frequency selection to be incorporated into silicon integrated circuits. It is essentially an electrostatically excited tuning fork employing field-effect transistor "readout." The device, which is called the resonant gate transistor (RGT), can be batch-fabricated in a manner consistent with silicon technology. Experimental RGT's with gold vibrating beams operating in the frequency range 1 kHz 0 Q 's as high as 500 and overall input-output voltage gain approaching + 10 dB have been constructed. The mechanical and electrical operation of the RGT is analyzed. Expressions are derived for both the beam and the detector characteristic voltage, the device center frequency, as well as the device gain and gain-stability product. A batch-fabrication procedure for the RGT is demonstrated and theory and experiment corroborated. Both single- and multiple-pole pair band pass filters are fabricated and discussed. Temperature coefficients of frequency as low as 90- 150 ppm/°C for the finished batch-fabricated device were demonstrated.

1,143 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
H.K. Gummel1, J.L. Blue
TL;DR: In this paper, a general small-signal theory of the avalanche noise in IMPATT diodes is presented, which is applicable to structures of arbitrary doping profile and uses realistic (α eq \beta in Si) ionization coefficients.
Abstract: A general small-signal theory of the avalanche noise in IMPATT diodes is presented. The theory is applicable to structures of arbitrary doping profile and uses realistic ( \alpha eq \beta in Si) ionization coefficients. The theory accounts in a self-consistent manner for space-charge feedback effects in the avalanche and drift regions. Two single-diffused n-p diodes of identical doping profile, one of germanium and the other of silicon, are analyzed in detail. For description of the noise of the diodes as small-signal amplifiers the noise measure M is used. Values for M of 20 dB are obtained in germanium from effects in the depletion region only, i.e., when parasitic end region resistance is neglected. Inclusion of an assumed parasitic end resistance of one ohm for a diode of area 10-4cm2produces the following noise measure at an input power of 5×104W/cm2, and at optimum frequency: germanium 25 dB, silicon 31 dB. For comparison, a noise figure of 30 dB has been reported [1] for a germanium structure of the same doping profile as used in the calculations. Measurements of silicon diodes of the same doping profile are not available, but typically silicon diodes give 6-8 dB higher noise figures than germanium diodes of comparable doping profile.

233 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an analysis of appropriately selected collector voltage and current waveforms is presented to determine the load impedance at the fundamental and harmonically related frequencies; these conditions define the ClassB "optimum efficiency" case with 100 percent collector efficiency and 1.27 times the conventional Class B value of output power.
Abstract: Although the conventional Class B approach to RF amplifier design yields high output power and reasonable collector efficiency (78.5 percent at maximum output power), neither the power nor the efficiency are optimum, and both are dependent on RF drive level. This paper presents an analysis of appropriately selected collector voltage and current waveforms which determine the load impedance at the fundamental and harmonically related frequencies; these conditions define the ClassB "optimum efficiency" case with 100 percent collector efficiency and 1.27 times the conventional Class B value of output power. If the RF drive level is increased, and the collector voltage and current waveforms are appropriately selected so that the amplifier is overdriven, a different load impedance is determined; these conditions define the "optimum power" case with 1.46 times the conventional Class B value of output power and 88 percent collector efficiency. The "optimum power" case has the added advantage that the output power and collector efficiency are essentially constant over a predetermined range of drive level. Finally, the theory is verified by the construction and testing of a UHF power amplifier having a power output of 46 watts and an over-all dc to RF conversion efficiency of 65 percent with a 1 dB for 10.5- dB insensitivity of output power to RF drive.

227 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
F.P. Heiman1
TL;DR: In this paper, the transient response of the MOS capacitance after the application of a large depleting voltage has been used to determine the minority carrier lifetime for silicon at room temperature.
Abstract: Minority carrier lifetime greater than 10-10seconds can be determined for silicon at room temperature by observing the transient response of the MOS capacitance after the application of a large depleting voltage. The waveform is exponential for heavily doped samples and nonexponential for lightly doped samples. The transition occurs when the oxide capacitance approximately equals the space-charge capacitance. Results are presented for a lightly doped bulk silicon wafer exhibiting an effective minority carrier lifetime of 7.6 microseconds and a thin silicon-on-sapphire film with a lifetime of 4.5 nanoseconds. The ratio of transient time constant to lifetime is typically 105-108at room temperature. Lower lifetime may be determined by cooling the sample. A graphical method is presented to rapidly extract lifetime from the transient response of lightly doped samples when the waveform is nonexponential.

202 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of surface fields on the breakdown voltage of planar silicon diodes is studied experimentally and theoretically, and it is shown that the break voltage can be modulated over a very wide range by the application of an external surface field and that it tends to saturation at a maximum and at a minimum value as the gate voltage is varied in such a way as to deplete the lowly doped and highly doped sides of the junction, respectively.
Abstract: The effect of surface fields on the breakdown voltage of planar silicon diodes is studied experimentally and theoretically. It is shown that the breakdown voltage can be modulated over a very wide range by the application of an external surface field and that it tends to saturation at a maximum and at a minimum value as the gate voltage is varied in such a way as to deplete the lowly doped and highly doped sides of the junction, respectively. Both the high- and the low-voltage saturation of the breakdown voltage appear to be due to the formation of field-induced junctions which prevent further variation in the shape of the depletion region, and hence the breakdown voltage. Between these two extremes, the breakdown voltage is found to be approximately given by BV=mV_{G} +constant, where V G is the gate-to-substrate potential. The slope m approaches unity for low substrate impurity concentrations and for small oxide thicknesses. Numerical solutions of the two-dimensional potential distribution problem give results which are in general agreement with the above experimental observations.

170 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the theoretical capacitance of abrupt p-n heterojunctions including the effects of interface states is examined, and the interface effects depend on the bulk impurity concentrations and their ratio, as well as the density and distribution of interfaces.
Abstract: The theoretical capacitance of abrupt p-n heterojunctions including the effects of interface states is examined. The interface effects depend on the bulk impurity concentrations and their ratio, as well as the density and distribution of interface states. In the Ge-GaAs junctions studied, the impurity concentrations and density of interface states are such that interface effects have only a negligible influence on the capacitance of these devices. Interface states have a considerable effect on the capacitance of the Ge-Si junctions studied, however. They affect the apparent diffusion voltages obtained by extrapolating 1/C2to zero and add a significant frequency-dependent term on many diodes. The frequency-dependent term is due to the rate limited charging and discharging of interface states.

133 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Short circuit photocurrent of avalanche photodiode, determining frequency response and multiplication effect on bandwidth was investigated in this paper, where the frequency response was shown to be a function of the number of short circuits.
Abstract: Short circuit photocurrent of avalanche photodiode, determining frequency response and multiplication effect on bandwidth

112 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the relative roles of sodium and proton transport in silicon dioxide films were investigated, and the results of these analyses were then directly correlated with the observed electrical behavior, which was then used to identify the mobile ions directly.
Abstract: The results of an investigation into the relative roles of sodium and proton transport in silicon-dioxide films are presented. Tritium oxide (3H 2 O), tritiated ethanol, neutron activation, and sodium 22 tracer analyses are used to identify the mobile ions directly, and the results of these analyses are then directly correlated with the observed electrical behavior.

112 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
J.P. Mitchell1
TL;DR: In this article, a simple model for radiation-induced space-charge buildup in the SiO 2 layers of MOS structures has been carried out, and the model assumes that hole-electron pairs are created by the radiation and that some of the electrons thus created drift out of the Si 2 layer under the action of an applied potential across the oxide, V G, while the corresponding holes become trapped.
Abstract: An analysis of a simple model for radiation-induced space-charge buildup in the SiO 2 layers of MOS structures has been carried out. The model assumes that hole-electron pairs are created in the SiO 2 by the radiation and that some of the electrons thus created drift out of the SiO 2 layer under the action of an applied potential across the oxide, V G , while the corresponding holes become trapped. The diffusion of electrons is assumed to be negligible. The analysis predicts 1) a dependence of charge buildup on radiation dose D , approximately of the form ( 1 - e^{-\beta D} ); 2) a linear dependence of the charge buildup on V G , for both polarities of V G ; and 3) the dependence of the charge buildup on the total dose absorbed and not on the rate at which the dose was received. Experimental observations on the SiO 2 layers found in commercial MOS-FET's show good general agreement with the predictions of the analysis. To obtain quantitative agreement, however, it was necessary to assume that the mobility-lifetime product for electrons in the oxide is much lower at the SiO 2 -Si interface than at the SiO 2 - metal interface. Other discrepancies were observed but they can be explained as the result of oversimplifications employed in the analysis. In particular, it was necessary to postulate that under some circumstances diffusion of electrons out of the oxide was important and that, in addition to holes, a small number of electrons may be trapped in the oxide in some cases. The space charge was found to accumulate within ≤ 200 A of the cathode-oxide interface.

108 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the dependence on distance from the surface of the elastic and the electric fields associated with surface elastic-wave propagation in cadmium sulfide has been investigated, and the interaction impedance, relating the external electric field to power flow, is computed for propagation on the basal plane of CdS and found to be low in comparison with values characteristic of electromagnetic slowwave circuits.
Abstract: Surface elastic-wave propagation, transduction, and amplification (in a piezoelectric semiconductor) are discussed with emphasis on characteristics useful in electronic devices. Computed curves show the dependence on distance from the surface of the elastic and the electric fields associated with surface elastic-wave propagation in cadmium sulfide. The interaction impedance, relating the external electric field to power flow, is computed for propagation on the basal plane of CdS and found to be low in comparison with values characteristic of electromagnetic slow-wave circuits. Amplification with a continuous drift field in cadmium sulfide is reported, and differences between surface- and bulk-wave amplifiers are discussed. Some operating characteristics and fabrication techniques for making electrode transducers on piezoelectric crystals are given, together with experimental results on several passive surface-wave devices.

108 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a time-of-flight technique was used to measure the drift velocities of silicon carriers in silicon at high electric fields and the results showed that the results were absolute with an accuracy of approximately ± 5 percent.
Abstract: In this paper we describe a time-of-flight technique which has been used to measure the drift velocities of carriers in silicon at high electric fields. Carrier velocities are determined absolutely by measuring the transit time of carriers through a region of approximately uniform electric field and known width in a p+-ν -n+diode. The transit time is obtained directly as the duration of the sample current pulse following bombardment of one face of the p+-ν-n+diode with a very short pulse of 10-keV electrons. The ratio of the known sample width to the measured transit time gives the carrier velocity for a particular value of electric field. The carrier-velocity data thus obtained are absolute, with an accuracy of approximately ± 5 percent. Drift-velocity data for carriers in silicon are presented for electric fields between 4 and 40 kV/cm and the present data are compared with those obtained from measurements of current density in bulk samples as a function of electric field.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the feasibility of a fast, high gain photodetector based on the phenomenon of avalanche multiplication in semiconductors has been investigated and a practical silicon device optimized for the detection of light with a wavelength of 9000A is suggested and design parameters are presented.
Abstract: The feasibility of a fast, high-gain photodetector based on the phenomenon of avalanche multiplication in semiconductors has been investigated. Based on the process of carrier multiplication in a high electric field, criteria for the design of an optimized avalanche photodiode and for the choice of the best semiconductor material are developed. The device theory of an optimized, realizable avalanche photodiode is presented. A practical silicon device optimized for the detection of light with a wavelength of 9000A is suggested and design parameters are presented. Details of the fabrication process are given and the performance of experimental devices is compared to the device theory presented. The results of the study indicate that it is possible to achieve a silicon photomultiplier with a quantum efficiency-bandwidth product of the order of 100 GHz for the detection of light up to a wavelength of over 9000A.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the thermal effect may cause the incremental emitter-base resistance to assume a negative value, which will cause the current flow in a pair of transistors to be asymmetrical, and the transition from symmetrical to asymmetrical current flow occurs at a power level determined by the nonshared thermal and electrical resistances.
Abstract: The temperature of a transistor can be determined from the emitter-base voltage versus collector-current characteristic. This characteristic was used for studying the stability of parallel pairs of high-frequency high-power transistors. The thermal effect may cause the incremental emitter-base resistance to assume a negative value. This, in turn, will cause the current flow in a pair of transistors to be asymmetrical. The transition from symmetrical to asymmetrical current flow occurs at a power level which is determined by the nonshared thermal and electrical resistances. Stability to a higher current level can be obtained by increasing the nonshared emitter or base resistances or reducing the collector voltage. Higher currents can also be obtained by reducing the nonshared thermal resistances which indicates close thermal coupling between the two units is desirable.

Journal ArticleDOI
John A. Copeland1
TL;DR: In this article, a computer simulation of a GaAs Gunn diode in a parallel resonant circuit has been made to determine the optimum device and circuit parameters for dc-to-RF efficiency.
Abstract: A computer simulation of a GaAs Gunn diode in a parallel resonant circuit has been made to determine the optimum device and circuit parameters. The maximum dc to RF efficiency, 5 to 8 percent, is obtained when the product of doping and length is between 1012and 2 × 1012cm-2, the product of frequency and length is 107cm/s, and the bias voltage divided by length is 8000 V/cm for a load resistance of 30 R_{0} where R 0 is the low-voltage resistance of the diode. The product of output power and load resistance varies with frequency f as C f^{2} where C is 12,000 watt-ohm-GHz2for a load resistance of 50 R_{0} . The frequency can be varied over an octave tuning range by the resonant circuit.

Journal ArticleDOI
C.Y. Duh1, J.L. Moll1
TL;DR: In this article, the electron drift velocity at electric fields where significant avalanching is occurring (2 × 105 < E < 4 × 105V/cm) is obtained as a function of temperature and is consistent with energetic phonon scattering.
Abstract: The differential resistance of an avalanching p+nn+junction is used to obtain the electron drift velocity at electric fields where significant avalanching is occurring (2 × 105< E < 4 × 105V/cm). The velocity is also obtained as a function of temperature and is consistent with energetic phonon scattering.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple analysis of the effect of illumination on MIS capacitance in the strong inversion region is presented, and two mechanisms responsible for the increase of capacitance under illumination are described: the decrease of the time constant generation of the inversion layer, and the decreasing of the space charge region under illumination.
Abstract: A simple analysis is presented of the effect of illumination on MIS capacitance in the strong inversion region. The two mechanisms responsible for the increase of capacitance under illumination are described: the decrease of the time constant generation of the inversion layer, and the decrease of the space-charge region under illumination. The theoretical results are compared with the experimental data on silicon and tellurium MIS capacitances.

Journal ArticleDOI
P. Vohl, D. M. Perkins, S. G. Ellis1, R. R. Addiss, W. Hui1, G. Noel1 
TL;DR: In this paper, thin-film solar cells utilizing polycrystalline gallium-arsenide films have been made and investigated to determine their suitability for future solar-power systems.
Abstract: Thin-film solar cells utilizing polycrystalline gallium-arsenide films have been made and investigated to determine their suitability for future solar-power systems. The gallium-arsenide films are vapor deposited onto substrates of molybdenum or aluminum foil. Of the various junctions investigated, the most successful has been one consisting of a surface barrier employing an evaporated film of platinum or semiconducting copper selenide. The efficiencies of platinum gallium-arsenide barriers on molybdenum substrates have been 3 percent for 4 cm2area, 4.5 percent for 2 cm2area and 5 percent for 0.2 cm2area. For copper selenide gallium-arsenide barriers on molybdenum an efficiency of 4.6 percent for 0.73 cm2area has been measured; using aluminum substrates this figure is 4.3 percent for the same area with a power-to-weight ratio in excess of 135 watts per pound. With an etching treatment, cells made with copper selenide barriers have shown no degradation on the shelf or under load at room ambient.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the surface state density in n-channel MOS transistors operating in the inversion mode has been determined from the channel conductance and related to 1/f noise in these devices.
Abstract: Surface-state density in n-channel MOS transistors operating in the inversion mode has been determined from the channel conductance and related to 1/ f noise in these devices. It has been found that the noise is proportional to the surface-state density at the Fermi level. The surface orientation and temperature affect the noise output only indirectly, through their influence on the surface-state density and the position of the Fermi level at the surface.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a simple method for determining the minority carrier lifetime using the small signal response time of an inversion layer in an MOS capacitor was described, where only a single charge transport electrometer measurement and the oxide thickness are required to compute this lifetime.
Abstract: A simple method is described for the determination of minority carrier lifetime using the small signal response time of an inversion layer in an MOS capacitor Only a single charge transport electrometer measurement and the oxide thickness are required to compute this lifetime It is also shown that since the measured response times are generally several orders of magnitude greater than the actual lifetime, this method allows the ready measurement of lifetimes down to the 10-10seconds range

Journal ArticleDOI
M. Shoji1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the generation of various waveforms with bulk semiconductor (Gunn-effect) oscillators having non-uniform cross sections or connected to external resistive circuits by means of small contacts attached to the bulk between the cathode and anode.
Abstract: This paper describes the generation of various waveforms with bulk semiconductor (Gunn-effect) oscillators having non-uniform cross sections or connected to external resistive circuits by means of small contacts attached to the bulk between the cathode and anode. In nonuniform oscillators, if the variation of the cross section is gradual, a high-field domain is equivalent to a constant current density generator moving at constant velocity. From this simple model, oscillating current waveforms are closely related to the cross-sectional area of the device. The oscillating frequency can be tuned or switched by the bias voltage. In multiterminal oscillators, the cathode current changes whenever a domain passes one of the small contacts connected to the external circuit. The waveforms can be controlled by changing the external circuit parameters. The characteristics of these devices operating in the frequency range from 50 to 150 MHz were extensively studied by changing both the device configuration and the external resistances.

Journal ArticleDOI
T. Misawa1
TL;DR: In this paper, a simplified analytical method of calculating high-frequency, small signal negative resistance of p-n junctions in breakdown is presented, which can lead to microwave oscillations in Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) diodes.
Abstract: A simplified analytical method of calculating high-frequency, small signal negative resistance of p-n junctions in breakdown is presented. The negative resistance can lead to microwave oscillations in Impact Avalanche Transit Time (IMPATT) diodes. The method consists in subdividing the entire space charge region into several uniform layers, each of which has constant avalanche multiplication (including zero), and connecting the analytical solutions of the successive layers (multiple uniform layer approximation). The simplest case of the approximation, in which there is only one constant-avalanche region and one or two avalanche-free drift regions, is used to investigate how the small signal characteristics change with width and position of the avalanche region. From the behavior of the small signal negative Q , it is expected that for low bias currents the oscillator performance improves when the avalanche region becomes relatively shorter, when its position moves from the center to the edge of the space charge region, and when the total space charge layer becomes wider. In materials with larger ionization rates, a negative resistance of a given quality ( Q ) is obtained at lower breakdown voltage and bias current.

Journal ArticleDOI
F.M. Klaassen1
TL;DR: In this article, the high-frequency noise of a junction field effect transistor (JFE transistor) was computed assuming that the noise source is of thermal origin, based on Geurst's treatment of the highfrequency value of the admittances of the JFE transistor.
Abstract: Based on Geurst's treatment of the high-frequency value of the admittances of the junction field-effect transistor, the high-frequency noise of the device has been computed, assuming that the noise source is of thermal origin. By applying an appropriate series expansion of the current it is possible to express the noise of the drain and gate current in terms of known quantities, as steady-state transconductance, gate capacitance, and frequency. At low frequencies the noise spectrum of the drain current is independent of the frequency and is much larger than the noise of the gate current; however, at high frequencies the noise spectra of the gate and drain current both vary by ω2and are of the same order of magnitude.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the complex admittance behavior for a bulk negative conductivity semiconductor, such as n-type GaAs, in the limit of zero doping and zero trapping, when all electrons are due to space-charge limited emissions from the cathode was calculated.
Abstract: The complex admittance behavior is calculated for a bulk negative conductivity semiconductor, such as n-type GaAs, in the limit of zero doping and zero trapping, when all electrons are due to space-charge limited emissions from the cathode Two different approximations are used: in the first, in closed analytical form, electron diffusion is neglected; in the second, by computer simulation of the internal space-charge dynamics, it is included Both approximations agree at low frequencies where they predict a positive device conductance Both predict a negative conductance, of slightly different magnitude, at frequencies around the reciprocal electron transit time At higher frequencies the diffusionless theory predicts slowly damped conductance oscillations; diffusion effects strongly increase the damping

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a method for the measurement of the velocity-field relationship of charge carriers in a semiconductor was presented, which is based on the injection by punch-through of charge carrier into a long depleted region.
Abstract: A method is presented which allows the measurement of the velocity-field relationship of charge carriers in a semiconductor. The device used is a four-layer structure. The mode of operation is based on the injection by punch-through of charge carriers into a long depleted region. The velocity can be determined from the VI characteristic of the device and its geometry. Drift velocity saturation is indicated directly by the form of the characteristic. The method has been applied to the measurement of the high-field velocity of holes in silicon. Technological limitations restricted the measurements to fields above 4 . 104V/cm. From this value up to 11 . 104V/cm the hole velocity is found to be constant and equal to 7.5 . 106cm/s ± 5%.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the GaAs p-n junction photocurrent response is obtained from an optical microprobe with a dynamic range of at least three decades and a light-spot diameter of about 1.3 µm.
Abstract: GaAs p-n junction photocurrent response is obtained from an optical microprobe with a dynamic range of at least three decades and a light-spot diameter of about 1.3 µm. The results are found to correlate well with the appropriate theoretical response which includes surface recombination and assumed infinite absorption coefficient. Minority-carrier diffusion lengths computed from the data are typically 3.5 and 0.7 µm for holes in n-type material doped 1017and 1.4×1018cm-3and 1 µm for electrons in >1018cm-3doped p-type material. Estimates of carrier lifetimes are made and the deviation of surface recombination velocity between devices is demonstrated.

Journal ArticleDOI
H.W. Thim1
TL;DR: In this article, a linear microwave amplifier with continuous power output of 100 mW was constructed utilizing the frequency-independent negative conductance observed externally in Gunn oscillators, which is exhibited only in samples containing propagating dipole layers, in other words, n 0, L must be larger than 1012cm-2 for n-GaAs.
Abstract: Linear microwave amplifiers with continuous power outputs of 100 mW have been constructed utilizing the frequency-independent negative conductance observed externally in Gunn oscillators. This negative conductance is exhibited only in samples containing propagating dipole layers, in other words, n_{0} . L must be larger than 1012cm-2for n-GaAs. The output power obtainable from this amplifier is substantially larger than that from a subcritically doped GaAs amplifier ( n_{0} . L cm-2) because n_{0} . L can be increased. Power output and efficiency are discussed in terms of n 0 and L . The upper-frequency limit for amplification is determined by the time the domain takes to readjust itself after a change of external voltage which leads to an upper limit for the f. L product (about 108cm/s). The essential feature of the amplifier circuit is to provide both a short circuit at the Gunn oscillation frequency and a broadband circuit at the signal frequency. An average gain of 3 dB was exhibited from 5.5 GHz to 6.5 GHz. Gain compression of 1 dB occurred at 60 mW output power with 9 dB gain, while the noise figure was about 19 dB.

Journal ArticleDOI
C.B. Swan1, T. Misawa1, L. Marinaccio1
TL;DR: In this paper, the possibility of operating several avalanche oscillator wafers in parallel to obtain higher power and/or higher efficiency was explored analytically and experimentally, and it was shown that over a wide range the efficiency is roughly proportional to the power density in the semiconductor.
Abstract: The possibility of operating several avalanche oscillator wafers in parallel to obtain higher power and/or higher efficiency CW operation is explored analytically and experimentally. Experiments show that over a wide range the efficiency is roughly proportional to the power density in the semiconductor. The power densities required for good efficiency are very high and cannot be achieved in large area junctions without an excessive temperature rise caused by the thermal spreading resistance of the heat-sink material. The scheme delineated herein considers small area wafers spaced sufficiently close electrically that they operate as a single avalanche oscillator whereas their physical separation permits essentially independent heat sinking. It has been found that, as expected, the efficiency for CW operation improves approximately inversely with the diode diameter whereas the power capability for a given size wafer increases directly with the number of such wafers employed. The relative merits of mounting diodes on copper and on diamond are discussed. Experimental work indicates that the present approach is capable of producing 10 to 15 watts CW at 14 GHz in a single oscillator with available silicon diodes.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a two-port, unilateral traveling-wave amplifier using subcritically doped GaAs specimens several space charge wavelengths long is described, achieving a gain of 2-4 dB in the frequency range 700-1500 MHz.
Abstract: Experiments on a new type of two-port, unilateral traveling-wave amplifier using subcritically doped GaAs specimens several space-charge wavelengths long are described. Net terminal gains of 2-4 dB are reported in the frequency range 700-1500 MHz. The gain is presently limited by inefficient coupling to the space-charge wave; the measured variation of phase delay between input and output terminals as a function of bias voltage is in good accord with theory, however.

Journal ArticleDOI
E.S. Schlegel1
TL;DR: A bibliography of more than 550 papers in the field of metal insulator-semiconductor theory and technology provides a catalog of the published work so that investigators can more easily relate their work to that reported by others as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: A bibliography of more than 550 papers in the field of metal-insulator-semiconductor theory and technology provides a catalog of the published work so that investigators can more easily relate their work to that reported by others. In most of the papers, the insulator layer discussed is SiO 2 or silicon nitride, and the semiconductor is silicon. The information has been arranged according to the following major classifications: MOS transistor behavior physics preparation of oxide layers techniques for evaluating insulator layers related information from the field of glass technology device fabrication technology radiation effects alternative materials.