# Showing papers in "IEEE Transactions on Information Theory in 2008"

••

TL;DR: For the fully connected K user wireless interference channel where the channel coefficients are time-varying and are drawn from a continuous distribution, the sum capacity is characterized as C(SNR)=K/2log (SNR)+o(log( SNR), which almost surely has K/2 degrees of freedom.

Abstract: For the fully connected K user wireless interference channel where the channel coefficients are time-varying and are drawn from a continuous distribution, the sum capacity is characterized as C(SNR)=K/2log(SNR)+o(log(SNR)) . Thus, the K user time-varying interference channel almost surely has K/2 degrees of freedom. Achievability is based on the idea of interference alignment. Examples are also provided of fully connected K user interference channels with constant (not time-varying) coefficients where the capacity is exactly achieved by interference alignment at all SNR values.

3,385 citations

••

TL;DR: A practical secure communication protocol is developed, which uses a four-step procedure to ensure wireless information-theoretic security and is shown that the protocol is effective in secure key renewal-even in the presence of imperfect channel state information.

Abstract: This paper considers the transmission of confidential data over wireless channels. Based on an information-theoretic formulation of the problem, in which two legitimates partners communicate over a quasi-static fading channel and an eavesdropper observes their transmissions through a second independent quasi-static fading channel, the important role of fading is characterized in terms of average secure communication rates and outage probability. Based on the insights from this analysis, a practical secure communication protocol is developed, which uses a four-step procedure to ensure wireless information-theoretic security: (i) common randomness via opportunistic transmission, (ii) message reconciliation, (iii) common key generation via privacy amplification, and (iv) message protection with a secret key. A reconciliation procedure based on multilevel coding and optimized low-density parity-check (LDPC) codes is introduced, which allows to achieve communication rates close to the fundamental security limits in several relevant instances. Finally, a set of metrics for assessing average secure key generation rates is established, and it is shown that the protocol is effective in secure key renewal-even in the presence of imperfect channel state information.

1,759 citations

••

TL;DR: The capacity of the two-user Gaussian interference channel has been open for 30 years and the best known achievable region is due to Han and Kobayashi as mentioned in this paper, but its characterization is very complicated.

Abstract: The capacity of the two-user Gaussian interference channel has been open for 30 years. The understanding on this problem has been limited. The best known achievable region is due to Han and Kobayashi but its characterization is very complicated. It is also not known how tight the existing outer bounds are. In this work, we show that the existing outer bounds can in fact be arbitrarily loose in some parameter ranges, and by deriving new outer bounds, we show that a very simple and explicit Han-Kobayashi type scheme can achieve to within a single bit per second per hertz (bit/s/Hz) of the capacity for all values of the channel parameters. We also show that the scheme is asymptotically optimal at certain high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) regimes. Using our results, we provide a natural generalization of the point-to-point classical notion of degrees of freedom to interference-limited scenarios.

1,473 citations

••

TL;DR: The positive impact of fading on the secrecy capacity is revealed and the critical role of rate adaptation, based on the main channel CSI, in facilitating secure communications over slow fading channels is established.

Abstract: We consider the secure transmission of information over an ergodic fading channel in the presence of an eavesdropper. Our eavesdropper can be viewed as the wireless counterpart of Wyner's wiretapper. The secrecy capacity of such a system is characterized under the assumption of asymptotically long coherence intervals. We first consider the full channel state information (CSI) case, where the transmitter has access to the channel gains of the legitimate receiver and the eavesdropper. The secrecy capacity under this full CSI assumption serves as an upper bound for the secrecy capacity when only the CSI of the legitimate receiver is known at the transmitter, which is characterized next. In each scenario, the perfect secrecy capacity is obtained along with the optimal power and rate allocation strategies. We then propose a low-complexity on/off power allocation strategy that achieves near-optimal performance with only the main channel CSI. More specifically, this scheme is shown to be asymptotically optimal as the average signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) goes to infinity, and interestingly, is shown to attain the secrecy capacity under the full CSI assumption. Overall, channel fading has a positive impact on the secrecy capacity and rate adaptation, based on the main channel CSI, is critical in facilitating secure communications over slow fading channels.

1,227 citations

••

TL;DR: It is shown that by using mixed design schemes, rather than decomposition schemes, and taking the statistical properties of the interference terms into account, the power offset of the system can be improved.

Abstract: In a multiple-antenna system with two transmitters and two receivers, a scenario of data communication, known as the X channel, is studied in which each receiver receives data from both transmitters. In this scenario, it is assumed that each transmitter is unaware of the other transmitter's data (noncooperative scenario). This system can be considered as a combination of two broadcast channels (from the transmitters' points of view) and two multiple-access channels (from the receivers' points of view). Taking advantage of both perspectives, two signaling schemes for such a scenario are developed. In these schemes, some linear filters are employed at the transmitters and at the receivers which decompose the system into either two noninterfering multiple-antenna broadcast subchannels or two noninterfering multiple-antenna multiple-access subchannels. The main objective in the design of the filters is to exploit the structure of the channel matrices to achieve the highest multiplexing gain (MG). It is shown that the proposed noncooperative signaling schemes outperform other known noncooperative schemes in terms of the achievable MG. In particular, it is shown that in some specific cases, the achieved MG is the same as the MG of the system if full cooperation is provided either between the transmitters or between the receivers. In the second part of the paper, it is shown that by using mixed design schemes, rather than decomposition schemes, and taking the statistical properties of the interference terms into account, the power offset of the system can be improved. The power offset represents the horizontal shift in the curve of the sum-rate versus the total power in decibels.

1,176 citations

••

TL;DR: A Reed-Solomon-like code construction, related to Gabidulin's construction of maximum rank-distance codes, is described and a Sudan-style ldquolist-1rdquo minimum-distance decoding algorithm is provided.

Abstract: The problem of error-control in random linear network coding is considered. A ldquononcoherentrdquo or ldquochannel obliviousrdquo model is assumed where neither transmitter nor receiver is assumed to have knowledge of the channel transfer characteristic. Motivated by the property that linear network coding is vector-space preserving, information transmission is modeled as the injection into the network of a basis for a vector space V and the collection by the receiver of a basis for a vector space U. A metric on the projective geometry associated with the packet space is introduced, and it is shown that a minimum-distance decoder for this metric achieves correct decoding if the dimension of the space V capU is sufficiently large. If the dimension of each codeword is restricted to a fixed integer, the code forms a subset of a finite-field Grassmannian, or, equivalently, a subset of the vertices of the corresponding Grassmann graph. Sphere-packing and sphere-covering bounds as well as a generalization of the singleton bound are provided for such codes. Finally, a Reed-Solomon-like code construction, related to Gabidulin's construction of maximum rank-distance codes, is described and a Sudan-style ldquolist-1rdquo minimum-distance decoding algorithm is provided.

1,121 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, the secrecy capacity region of the fading broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC) was investigated, where a source node has common information for two receivers (receivers 1 and 2), and has confidential information intended only for receiver 1.

Abstract: The fading broadcast channel with confidential messages (BCC) is investigated, where a source node has common information for two receivers (receivers 1 and 2), and has confidential information intended only for receiver 1. The confidential information needs to be kept as secret as possible from receiver 2. The broadcast channel from the source node to receivers 1 and 2 is corrupted by multiplicative fading gain coefficients in addition to additive Gaussian noise terms. The channel state information (CSI) is assumed to be known at both the transmitter and the receivers. The parallel BCC with independent subchannels is first studied, which serves as an information-theoretic model for the fading BCC. The secrecy capacity region of the parallel BCC is established, which gives the secrecy capacity region of the parallel BCC with degraded subchannels. The secrecy capacity region is then established for the parallel Gaussian BCC, and the optimal source power allocations that achieve the boundary of the secrecy capacity region are derived. In particular, the secrecy capacity region is established for the basic Gaussian BCC. The secrecy capacity results are then applied to study the fading BCC. The ergodic performance is first studied. The ergodic secrecy capacity region and the optimal power allocations that achieve the boundary of this region are derived. The outage performance is then studied, where a long-term power constraint is assumed. The power allocation is derived that minimizes the outage probability where either the target rate of the common message or the target rate of the confidential message is not achieved. The power allocation is also derived that minimizes the outage probability where the target rate of the confidential message is not achieved subject to the constraint that the target rate of the common message must be achieved for all channel states.

942 citations

••

TL;DR: The Homotopy method is applied to the underdetermined lscr1-minimization problem min parxpar1 subject to y=Ax and is shown to run much more rapidly than general-purpose LP solvers when sufficient sparsity is present, implying that homotopy may be used to rapidly decode error-correcting codes in a stylized communication system with a computational budget constraint.

Abstract: The minimum lscr1-norm solution to an underdetermined system of linear equations y=Ax is often, remarkably, also the sparsest solution to that system. This sparsity-seeking property is of interest in signal processing and information transmission. However, general-purpose optimizers are much too slow for lscr1 minimization in many large-scale applications.In this paper, the Homotopy method, originally proposed by Osborne et al. and Efron et al., is applied to the underdetermined lscr1-minimization problem min parxpar1 subject to y=Ax. Homotopy is shown to run much more rapidly than general-purpose LP solvers when sufficient sparsity is present. Indeed, the method often has the following k-step solution property: if the underlying solution has only k nonzeros, the Homotopy method reaches that solution in only k iterative steps. This k-step solution property is demonstrated for several ensembles of matrices, including incoherent matrices, uniform spherical matrices, and partial orthogonal matrices. These results imply that Homotopy may be used to rapidly decode error-correcting codes in a stylized communication system with a computational budget constraint. The approach also sheds light on the evident parallelism in results on lscr1 minimization and orthogonal matching pursuit (OMP), and aids in explaining the inherent relations between Homotopy, least angle regression (LARS), OMP, and polytope faces pursuit.

921 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered the general Gaussian multiple access wiretap channel (GGMAC-WT) and the Gaussian two-way wiretap channels (GTW-WT), and the achievable secrecy rate regions were found for both channels.

Abstract: The general Gaussian multiple-access wiretap channel (GGMAC-WT) and the Gaussian two-way wiretap channel (GTW-WT) are considered. In the GGMAC-WT, multiple users communicate with an intended receiver in the presence of an eavesdropper who receives their signals through another GMAC. In the GTW-WT, two users communicate with each other over a common Gaussian channel, with an eavesdropper listening through a GMAC. A secrecy measure that is suitable for this multiterminal environment is defined, and achievable secrecy rate regions are found for both channels. For both cases, the power allocations maximizing the achievable secrecy sum rate are determined. It is seen that the optimum policy may prevent some terminals from transmission in order to preserve the secrecy of the system. Inspired by this construct, a new scheme cooperative jamming is proposed, where users who are prevented from transmitting according to the secrecy sum rate maximizing power allocation policy ldquojamrdquo the eavesdropper, thereby helping the remaining users. This scheme is shown to increase the achievable secrecy sum rate. Overall, our results show that in multiple-access scenarios, users can help each other to collectively achieve positive secrecy rates. In other words, cooperation among users can be invaluable for achieving secrecy for the system.

916 citations

••

TL;DR: The utility of user cooperation in facilitating secure wireless communications is established and an outer-bound on the optimal rate-equivocation region is derived and the novel noise-forwarding strategy is used to illustrate the deaf helper phenomenon.

Abstract: This paper establishes the utility of user cooperation in facilitating secure wireless communications. In particular, the four-terminal relay-eavesdropper channel is introduced and an outer-bound on the optimal rate-equivocation region is derived. Several cooperation strategies are then devised and the corresponding achievable rate-equivocation region are characterized. Of particular interest is the novel noise-forwarding (NF) strategy, where the relay node sends codewords independent of the source message to confuse the eavesdropper. This strategy is used to illustrate the deaf helper phenomenon, where the relay is able to facilitate secure communications while being totally ignorant of the transmitted messages. Furthermore, NF is shown to increase the secrecy capacity in the reversely degraded scenario, where the relay node fails to offer performance gains in the classical setting. The gain offered by the proposed cooperation strategies is then proved theoretically and validated numerically in the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel.

862 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the degrees of freedom region of a MIMO X channel with two transmitters, two receivers, each equipped with multiple antennas, where independent messages need to be conveyed over fixed channels from each transmitter to each receiver is analyzed.

Abstract: We provide achievability as well as converse results for the degrees of freedom region of a multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) X channel, i.e., a system with two transmitters, two receivers, each equipped with multiple antennas, where independent messages need to be conveyed over fixed channels from each transmitter to each receiver. The inner and outer bounds on the degrees of freedom region are tight whenever integer degrees of freedom are optimal for each message. With M = 1 antennas at each node, we find that the total (sum rate) degrees of freedom are bounded above and below as 1 les eta*x les 4/3. If M > 1 and channel matrices are nondegenerate then the precise degrees of freedom eta*x = (4/3)M. Thus, the MIMO X channel has noninteger degrees of freedom when M is not a multiple of 3. Simple zero forcing without dirty paper encoding or successive decoding, suffices to achieve the (4/3)M degrees of freedom. If the channels vary with time/frequency then the channel with single antennas (M = 1) at all nodes has exactly 4/3 degrees of freedom. The key idea for the achievability of the degrees of freedom is interference alignment-i.e., signal spaces are aligned at receivers where they constitute interference while they are separable at receivers where they are desired. We also explore the increase in degrees of freedom when some of the messages are made available to a transmitter or receiver in the manner of cognitive radio.

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the problem of error control in random linear network coding is addressed from a matrix perspective that is closely related to the subspace perspective of Rotter and Kschischang.

Abstract: The problem of error control in random linear network coding is addressed from a matrix perspective that is closely related to the subspace perspective of Rotter and Kschischang. A large class of constant-dimension subspace codes is investigated. It is shown that codes in this class can be easily constructed from rank-metric codes, while preserving their distance properties. Moreover, it is shown that minimum distance decoding of such subspace codes can be reformulated as a generalized decoding problem for rank-metric codes where partial information about the error is available. This partial information may be in the form of erasures (knowledge of an error location but not its value) and deviations (knowledge of an error value but not its location). Taking erasures and deviations into account (when they occur) strictly increases the error correction capability of a code: if mu erasures and delta deviations occur, then errors of rank t can always be corrected provided that 2t les d - 1 + mu + delta, where d is the minimum rank distance of the code. For Gabidulin codes, an important family of maximum rank distance codes, an efficient decoding algorithm is proposed that can properly exploit erasures and deviations. In a network coding application, where n packets of length M over F(q) are transmitted, the complexity of the decoding algorithm is given by O(dM) operations in an extension field F(qn).

••

TL;DR: In this article, the concept of compressed sensing was extended to signals that are not sparse in an orthonormal basis but rather in a redundant dictionary, and it was shown that a matrix, which is a composition of a random matrix of certain type and a deterministic dictionary, has small restricted isometry constants.

Abstract: This paper extends the concept of compressed sensing to signals that are not sparse in an orthonormal basis but rather in a redundant dictionary. It is shown that a matrix, which is a composition of a random matrix of certain type and a deterministic dictionary, has small restricted isometry constants. Thus, signals that are sparse with respect to the dictionary can be recovered via basis pursuit (BP) from a small number of random measurements. Further, thresholding is investigated as recovery algorithm for compressed sensing, and conditions are provided that guarantee reconstruction with high probability. The different schemes are compared by numerical experiments.

••

TL;DR: An encoding scheme in which transmitters dedicate some of their power to create artificial noise is proposed and shown to outperform both time-sharing and simple multiplexed transmission of the confidential messages.

Abstract: We study information-theoretic security for discrete memoryless interference and broadcast channels with independent confidential messages sent to two receivers. Confidential messages are transmitted to their respective receivers while ensuring mutual information-theoretic secrecy. That is, each receiver is kept in total ignorance with respect to the message intended for the other receiver. The secrecy level is measured by the equivocation rate at the eavesdropping receiver. In this paper, we present inner and outer bounds on secrecy capacity regions for these two communication systems. The derived outer bounds have an identical mutual information expression that applies to both channel models. The difference is in the input distributions over which the expression is optimized. The inner bound rate regions are achieved by random binning techniques. For the broadcast channel, a double-binning coding scheme allows for both joint encoding and preserving of confidentiality. Furthermore, we show that, for a special case of the interference channel, referred to as the switch channel, derived bounds meet. Finally, we describe several transmission schemes for Gaussian interference channels and derive their achievable rate regions while ensuring mutual information-theoretic secrecy. An encoding scheme in which transmitters dedicate some of their power to create artificial noise is proposed and shown to outperform both time-sharing and simple multiplexed transmission of the confidential messages.

••

TL;DR: This paper introduces the first distributed polynomial-time rate-optimal network codes that work in the presence of Byzantine nodes, and presents algorithms that target adversaries with different attacking capabilities.

Abstract: Network coding substantially increases network throughput. But since it involves mixing of information inside the network, a single corrupted packet generated by a malicious node can end up contaminating all the information reaching a destination, preventing decoding. This paper introduces distributed polynomial-time rate-optimal network codes that work in the presence of Byzantine nodes. We present algorithms that target adversaries with different attacking capabilities. When the adversary can eavesdrop on all links and jam links, our first algorithm achieves a rate of , where is the network capacity. In contrast, when the adversary has limited eavesdropping capabilities, we provide algorithms that achieve the higher rate of . Our algorithms attain the optimal rate given the strength of the adversary. They are information-theoretically secure. They operate in a distributed manner, assume no knowledge of the topology, and can be designed and implemented in polynomial time. Furthermore, only the source and destination need to be modified; nonmalicious nodes inside the network are oblivious to the presence of adversaries and implement a classical distributed network code. Finally, our algorithms work over wired and wireless networks.

••

TL;DR: The separation principle reveals the optimality of myopic policies for the design of the spectrum sensor and the access strategy, leading to closed-form optimal solutions and reduces the constrained POMDP to an unconstrained one.

Abstract: Opportunistic spectrum access (OSA) that allows secondary users to independently search for and exploit instantaneous spectrum availability is considered. The design objective is to maximize the throughput of a secondary user while limiting the probability of colliding with primary users. Integrated in the joint design are three basic components: a spectrum sensor that identifies spectrum opportunities, a sensing strategy that determines which channels in the spectrum to sense, and an access strategy that decides whether to access based on potentially erroneous sensing outcomes. This joint design is formulated as a constrained partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP), and a separation principle is established. The separation principle reveals the optimality of myopic policies for the design of the spectrum sensor and the access strategy, leading to closed-form optimal solutions. Furthermore, it decouples the design of the sensing strategy from that of the spectrum sensor and the access strategy, and reduces the constrained POMDP to an unconstrained one. Numerical examples are provided to study the tradeoff between sensing time and transmission time, the interaction between the physical layer spectrum sensor and the MAC layer sensing and access strategies, and the robustness of the ensuing design to model mismatch.

••

TL;DR: This correspondence derives performance bounds for this problem for each of three decode-and-forward protocols for coded bidirectional cooperation and finds that in some cases, the achievable rate region of the four phase protocol contains points that are outside the outer bounds of the other two protocols.

Abstract: In coded bidirectional cooperation, two nodes wish to exchange messages over a shared half-duplex channel with the help of a relay. In this correspondence, we derive performance bounds for this problem for each of three decode-and-forward protocols. The first protocol is a two phase protocol where both users simultaneously transmit during the first phase and the relay alone transmits during the second. In this protocol, our bounds are tight. The second protocol considers sequential transmissions from the two users followed by a transmission from the relay while the third protocol is a hybrid of the first two protocols and has four phases. In the latter two protocols the bounds are not identical. Numerical evaluation shows that in some cases of interest our bounds do not differ significantly. Finally, in the Gaussian case with path loss, we derive achievable rates and compare the relative merits of each protocol. This case is of interest in cellular systems. Surprisingly, we find that in some cases, the achievable rate region of the four phase protocol contains points that are outside the outer bounds of the other two protocols.

••

TL;DR: It is established that the recently discovered Chong-Motani-Garg rate region is a new representation of the Han-Kobayashi region, and a tighter bound for the cardinality of the time-sharing auxiliary random variable emerges from this simplified description.

Abstract: In this correspondence, we derive a simplified description of the Han-Kobayashi rate region for the general interference channel. Using this result, we establish that the recently discovered Chong-Motani-Garg rate region is a new representation of the Han-Kobayashi region. Moreover, a tighter bound for the cardinality of the time-sharing auxiliary random variable emerges from our simplified description.

••

TL;DR: In this work the capacity region of the broadcast phase in terms of the maximal probability of error is determined and is characterized by the mutual informations of the separate channels coupled by the common input.

Abstract: In a three-node network bidirectional communication between two nodes can be enabled by a half-duplex relay node with a decode-and-forward protocol. In the first phase, the messages of two nodes are transmitted to the relay node. In the second phase a re-encoded composition is broadcasted by the relay node. In this work the capacity region of the broadcast phase in terms of the maximal probability of error is determined. It is characterized by the mutual informations of the separate channels coupled by the common input.

••

TL;DR: A discrete memoryless multiple-access channel (MAC) with confidential messages is studied, where two users attempt to transmit common information to a destination and each user also has private (confidential) information intended for the destination.

Abstract: A discrete memoryless multiple-access channel (MAC) with confidential messages is studied, where two users attempt to transmit common information to a destination and each user also has private (confidential) information intended for the destination. This channel generalizes the classical MAC model in that each user also receives channel outputs, and hence may obtain the confidential information sent by the other user from the channel output it receives. However, each user views the other user as a wiretapper or eavesdropper, and wishes to keep its confidential information as secret as possible from the other user. The level of secrecy of the confidential information is measured by the equivocation rate, i.e., the entropy rate of the confidential information conditioned on channel outputs at the wiretapper (the other user). The performance measure is the rate-equivocation tuple that includes the common rate, two private rates, and two equivocation rates as components. The set that includes all achievable rate-equivocation tuples is referred to as the capacity-equivocation region. The case of perfect secrecy is particularly of interest, in which each user's confidential information is perfectly hidden from the other user. The set that includes all achievable rates with perfect secrecy is referred to as the secrecy capacity region. For the MAC with two confidential messages, in which both users have confidential messages for the destination, inner bounds on the capacity-equivocation region, and secrecy capacity region are obtained. It is demonstrated that there is a tradeoff between the two equivocation rates (secrecy levels) achieved for the two confidential messages. For the MAC with one confidential message, in which only one user (user 1) has private (confidential) information for the destination, inner and outer bounds on the capacity-equivocation region are derived. These bounds match partially, and hence the capacity-equivocation region is partially characterized. Furthermore, the outer bound provides a tight converse for the case of perfect secrecy, and hence establishes the secrecy capacity region. A class of degraded MACs with one confidential message is further studied, and the capacity-equivocation region and the secrecy capacity region are established. These results are further explored via two example channels: the binary and Gaussian MACs. For both channels, the capacity-equivocation regions and the secrecy capacity regions are obtained.

••

TL;DR: It is shown that, using a suitable binning strategy, a common message can be reliably and securely transmitted at a rate independent of the number of receivers, and that a simple opportunistic transmission strategy is optimal for the reliable and secure transmission of independent messages in the limit of large number of receiver.

Abstract: We study a problem of broadcasting confidential messages to multiple receivers under an information-theoretic secrecy constraint. Two scenarios are considered: 1) all receivers are to obtain a common message; and 2) each receiver is to obtain an independent message. Moreover, two models are considered: parallel channels and fast-fading channels. For the case of reversely degraded parallel channels, one eavesdropper, and an arbitrary number of legitimate receivers, we determine the secrecy capacity for transmitting a common message, and the secrecy sum-capacity for transmitting independent messages. For the case of fast-fading channels, we assume that the channel state information of the legitimate receivers is known to all the terminals, while that of the eavesdropper is known only to itself. We show that, using a suitable binning strategy, a common message can be reliably and securely transmitted at a rate independent of the number of receivers. We also show that a simple opportunistic transmission strategy is optimal for the reliable and secure transmission of independent messages in the limit of large number of receivers.

••

TL;DR: This work considers the Gaussian multiple access wire-tap channel (GMAC-WT), which in this scenario, multiple users communicate with an intended receiver in the presence of an intelligent and informed wire-tapper who receives a degraded version of the signal at the receiver.

Abstract: We consider the Gaussian multiple access wire-tap channel (GMAC-WT). In this scenario, multiple users communicate with an intended receiver in the presence of an intelligent and informed wire-tapper who receives a degraded version of the signal at the receiver. We define suitable security measures for this multiaccess environment. Using codebooks generated randomly according to a Gaussian distribution, achievable secrecy rate regions are identified using superposition coding and time-division multiple access (TDMA) coding schemes. An upper bound for the secrecy sum-rate is derived, and our coding schemes are shown to achieve the sum capacity. Numerical results are presented showing the new rate region and comparing it with the capacity region of the Gaussian multiple-access channel (GMAC) with no secrecy constraints, which quantifies the price paid for secrecy.

••

TL;DR: It is shown that for matrices A with a row-span intersecting the positive orthant, if this problem admits a sufficiently sparse solution, it is necessarily unique, and the bound on the required sparsity depends on a coherence property of the matrix A.

Abstract: An underdetermined linear system of equations Ax = b with nonnegativity constraint x ges 0 is considered. It is shown that for matrices A with a row-span intersecting the positive orthant, if this problem admits a sufficiently sparse solution, it is necessarily unique. The bound on the required sparsity depends on a coherence property of the matrix A. This coherence measure can be improved by applying a conditioning stage on A, thereby strengthening the claimed result. The obtained uniqueness theorem relies on an extended theoretical analysis of the lscr0 - lscr1 equivalence developed here as well, considering a matrix A with arbitrary column norms, and an arbitrary monotone element-wise concave penalty replacing the lscr1-norm objective function. Finally, from a numerical point of view, a greedy algorithm-a variant of the matching pursuit-is presented, such that it is guaranteed to find this sparse solution. It is further shown how this algorithm can benefit from well-designed conditioning of A .

••

TL;DR: In this article, the authors determine the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-encoder source-coding problem, which is achieved by a simple architecture that separates the analog and digital aspects of the compression.

Abstract: We determine the rate region of the quadratic Gaussian two-encoder source-coding problem. This rate region is achieved by a simple architecture that separates the analog and digital aspects of the compression. Furthermore, this architecture requires higher rates to send a Gaussian source than it does to send any other source with the same covariance. Our techniques can also be used to determine the sum-rate of some generalizations of this classical problem. Our approach involves coupling the problem to a quadratic Gaussian ldquoCEO problem.rdquo

••

TL;DR: The test for uniformity introduced here is based on the number of observed ldquocoincidencesrdquo (samples that fall into the same bin), the mean and variance of which may be computed explicitly for the uniform distribution and bounded nonparametrically for any distribution that is known to be epsiv-distant from uniform.

Abstract: How many independent samples N do we need from a distribution p to decide that p is epsiv-distant from uniform in an L1 sense, Sigmai=1 m |p(i) - 1/m| > epsiv? (Here m is the number of bins on which the distribution is supported, and is assumed known a priori.) Somewhat surprisingly, we only need N epsiv2 Gt m 1/2 to make this decision reliably (this condition is both sufficient and necessary). The test for uniformity introduced here is based on the number of observed ldquocoincidencesrdquo (samples that fall into the same bin), the mean and variance of which may be computed explicitly for the uniform distribution and bounded nonparametrically for any distribution that is known to be epsiv-distant from uniform. Some connections to the classical birthday problem are noted.

••

TL;DR: New estimators of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrix are derived, that are shown to be consistent in a more general asymptotic setting than the traditional one and have an excellent performance in small sample size scenarios.

Abstract: The problem of estimating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrix associated with a multivariate stochastic process is considered. The focus is on finite sample size situations, whereby the number of observations is limited and comparable in magnitude to the observation dimension. Using tools from random matrix theory, and assuming a certain eigenvalue splitting condition, new estimators of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the covariance matrix are derived, that are shown to be consistent in a more general asymptotic setting than the traditional one. Indeed, these estimators are proven to be consistent, not only when the sample size increases without bound for a fixed observation dimension, but also when the observation dimension increases to infinity at the same rate as the sample size. Numerical evaluations indicate that the estimators have an excellent performance in small sample size scenarios, where the observation dimension and the sample size are comparable in magnitude.

••

TL;DR: It is shown that a simple distributed scheduling strategy, maximal scheduling, attains a guaranteed fraction of the maximum throughput region in arbitrary wireless networks, which can be generalized to end-to-end multihop sessions.

Abstract: The question of providing throughput guarantees through distributed scheduling, which has remained an open problem for some time, is addressed in this paper. It is shown that a simple distributed scheduling strategy, maximal scheduling, attains a guaranteed fraction of the maximum throughput region in arbitrary wireless networks. The guaranteed fraction depends on the ldquointerference degreerdquo of the network, which is the maximum number of transmitter-receiver pairs that interfere with any given transmitter-receiver pair in the network and do not interfere with each other. Depending on the nature of communication, the transmission powers and the propagation models, the guaranteed fraction can be lower-bounded by the maximum link degrees in the underlying topology, or even by constants that are independent of the topology. The guarantees are tight in that they cannot be improved any further with maximal scheduling. The results can be generalized to end-to-end multihop sessions. Finally, enhancements to maximal scheduling that can guarantee fairness of rate allocation among different sessions, are discussed.

••

TL;DR: This paper proves the correctness and convergence of max-product for finding the maximum weight matching (MWM) in bipartite graphs and provides a bound on the number of iterations required and it is shown that for a graph of size n, the computational cost of the algorithm scales as O(n3), which is the same as the computationalcost of the best known algorithms forFinding the MWM.

Abstract: Max-product "belief propagation" (BP) is an iterative, message-passing algorithm for finding the maximum a posteriori (MAP) assignment of a discrete probability distribution specified by a graphical model. Despite the spectacular success of the algorithm in many application areas such as iterative decoding and combinatorial optimization, which involve graphs with many cycles, theoretical results about both the correctness and convergence of the algorithm are known in only a few cases (see section I for references). In this paper, we prove the correctness and convergence of max-product for finding the maximum weight matching (MWM) in bipartite graphs. Even though the underlying graph of the MWM problem has many cycles, somewhat surprisingly we show that the max-product algorithm converges to the correct MWM as long as the MWM is unique. We provide a bound on the number of iterations required and show that for a graph of size n, the computational cost of the algorithm scales as O(n3), which is the same as the computational cost of the best known algorithms for finding the MWM. We also provide an interesting relation between the dynamics of the max-product algorithm and the auction algorithm, which is a well-known distributed algorithm for solving the MWM problem.

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TL;DR: The achievable rates of classification error convergence for broad classes of distributions characterized by decision boundary regularity and noise conditions are studied using minimax analysis techniques to indicate the conditions under which one can expect significant gains through active learning.

Abstract: This paper analyzes the potential advantages and theoretical challenges of "active learning" algorithms. Active learning involves sequential sampling procedures that use information gleaned from previous samples in order to focus the sampling and accelerate the learning process relative to "passive learning" algorithms, which are based on nonadaptive (usually random) samples. There are a number of empirical and theoretical results suggesting that in certain situations active learning can be significantly more effective than passive learning. However, the fact that active learning algorithms are feedback systems makes their theoretical analysis very challenging. This paper aims to shed light on achievable limits in active learning. Using minimax analysis techniques, we study the achievable rates of classification error convergence for broad classes of distributions characterized by decision boundary regularity and noise conditions. The results clearly indicate the conditions under which one can expect significant gains through active learning. Furthermore, we show that the learning rates derived are tight for "boundary fragment" classes in d-dimensional feature spaces when the feature marginal density is bounded from above and below.

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: This paper advocates a unified approach to an important class of problems in quantum Shannon theory, consisting of those that are bipartite, unidirectional, and memoryless.

Abstract: Quantum Shannon theory is loosely defined as a collection of coding theorems, such as classical and quantum source compression, noisy channel coding theorems, entanglement distillation, etc., which characterize asymptotic properties of quantum and classical channels and states. In this paper, we advocate a unified approach to an important class of problems in quantum Shannon theory, consisting of those that are bipartite, unidirectional, and memoryless.