Journal•ISSN: 1053-587X

# IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing

About: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Estimation theory & Estimator. It has an ISSN identifier of 1053-587X. Over the lifetime, 13643 publication(s) have been published receiving 822863 citation(s).

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Topics: Estimation theory, Estimator, Signal processing ...read more

##### Papers

More filters

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TL;DR: Both optimal and suboptimal Bayesian algorithms for nonlinear/non-Gaussian tracking problems, with a focus on particle filters are reviewed.

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Abstract: Increasingly, for many application areas, it is becoming important to include elements of nonlinearity and non-Gaussianity in order to model accurately the underlying dynamics of a physical system. Moreover, it is typically crucial to process data on-line as it arrives, both from the point of view of storage costs as well as for rapid adaptation to changing signal characteristics. In this paper, we review both optimal and suboptimal Bayesian algorithms for nonlinear/non-Gaussian tracking problems, with a focus on particle filters. Particle filters are sequential Monte Carlo methods based on point mass (or "particle") representations of probability densities, which can be applied to any state-space model and which generalize the traditional Kalman filtering methods. Several variants of the particle filter such as SIR, ASIR, and RPF are introduced within a generic framework of the sequential importance sampling (SIS) algorithm. These are discussed and compared with the standard EKF through an illustrative example.

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10,977 citations

4

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TL;DR: The authors introduce an algorithm, called matching pursuit, that decomposes any signal into a linear expansion of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary of functions, chosen in order to best match the signal structures.

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Abstract: The authors introduce an algorithm, called matching pursuit, that decomposes any signal into a linear expansion of waveforms that are selected from a redundant dictionary of functions. These waveforms are chosen in order to best match the signal structures. Matching pursuits are general procedures to compute adaptive signal representations. With a dictionary of Gabor functions a matching pursuit defines an adaptive time-frequency transform. They derive a signal energy distribution in the time-frequency plane, which does not include interference terms, unlike Wigner and Cohen class distributions. A matching pursuit isolates the signal structures that are coherent with respect to a given dictionary. An application to pattern extraction from noisy signals is described. They compare a matching pursuit decomposition with a signal expansion over an optimized wavepacket orthonormal basis, selected with the algorithm of Coifman and Wickerhauser see (IEEE Trans. Informat. Theory, vol. 38, Mar. 1992). >

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8,847 citations

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TL;DR: A novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations, the K-SVD algorithm, an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data.

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Abstract: In recent years there has been a growing interest in the study of sparse representation of signals. Using an overcomplete dictionary that contains prototype signal-atoms, signals are described by sparse linear combinations of these atoms. Applications that use sparse representation are many and include compression, regularization in inverse problems, feature extraction, and more. Recent activity in this field has concentrated mainly on the study of pursuit algorithms that decompose signals with respect to a given dictionary. Designing dictionaries to better fit the above model can be done by either selecting one from a prespecified set of linear transforms or adapting the dictionary to a set of training signals. Both of these techniques have been considered, but this topic is largely still open. In this paper we propose a novel algorithm for adapting dictionaries in order to achieve sparse signal representations. Given a set of training signals, we seek the dictionary that leads to the best representation for each member in this set, under strict sparsity constraints. We present a new method-the K-SVD algorithm-generalizing the K-means clustering process. K-SVD is an iterative method that alternates between sparse coding of the examples based on the current dictionary and a process of updating the dictionary atoms to better fit the data. The update of the dictionary columns is combined with an update of the sparse representations, thereby accelerating convergence. The K-SVD algorithm is flexible and can work with any pursuit method (e.g., basis pursuit, FOCUSS, or matching pursuit). We analyze this algorithm and demonstrate its results both on synthetic tests and in applications on real image data

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8,149 citations

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TL;DR: The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code.

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Abstract: The embedded zerotree wavelet algorithm (EZW) is a simple, yet remarkably effective, image compression algorithm, having the property that the bits in the bit stream are generated in order of importance, yielding a fully embedded code The embedded code represents a sequence of binary decisions that distinguish an image from the "null" image Using an embedded coding algorithm, an encoder can terminate the encoding at any point thereby allowing a target rate or target distortion metric to be met exactly Also, given a bit stream, the decoder can cease decoding at any point in the bit stream and still produce exactly the same image that would have been encoded at the bit rate corresponding to the truncated bit stream In addition to producing a fully embedded bit stream, the EZW consistently produces compression results that are competitive with virtually all known compression algorithms on standard test images Yet this performance is achieved with a technique that requires absolutely no training, no pre-stored tables or codebooks, and requires no prior knowledge of the image source The EZW algorithm is based on four key concepts: (1) a discrete wavelet transform or hierarchical subband decomposition, (2) prediction of the absence of significant information across scales by exploiting the self-similarity inherent in images, (3) entropy-coded successive-approximation quantization, and (4) universal lossless data compression which is achieved via adaptive arithmetic coding >

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5,503 citations

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TL;DR: It is shown how the proposed bidirectional structure can be easily modified to allow efficient estimation of the conditional posterior probability of complete symbol sequences without making any explicit assumption about the shape of the distribution.

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Abstract: In the first part of this paper, a regular recurrent neural network (RNN) is extended to a bidirectional recurrent neural network (BRNN). The BRNN can be trained without the limitation of using input information just up to a preset future frame. This is accomplished by training it simultaneously in positive and negative time direction. Structure and training procedure of the proposed network are explained. In regression and classification experiments on artificial data, the proposed structure gives better results than other approaches. For real data, classification experiments for phonemes from the TIMIT database show the same tendency. In the second part of this paper, it is shown how the proposed bidirectional structure can be easily modified to allow efficient estimation of the conditional posterior probability of complete symbol sequences without making any explicit assumption about the shape of the distribution. For this part, experiments on real data are reported.

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5,216 citations