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Showing papers in "IEICE Transactions on Electronics in 2017"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors give four 5G mmWave deployment examples and describe in chronological order the scenarios and use cases of their probable deployment, including expected system architectures and hardware prototypes.
Abstract: Wireless engineers and business planners commonly raise the question on where, when, and how millimeter-wave (mmWave) will be used in 5G and beyond. Since the next generation network is not just a new radio access standard, but instead an integration of networks for vertical markets with diverse applications, answers to the question depend on scenarios and use cases to be deployed. This paper gives four 5G mmWave deployment examples and describes in chronological order the scenarios and use cases of their probable deployment, including expected system architectures and hardware prototypes. The paper starts with 28 GHz outdoor backhauling for fixed wireless access and moving hotspots, which will be demonstrated at the PyeongChang winter Olympic games in 2018. The second deployment example is a 60 GHz unlicensed indoor access system at the Tokyo-Narita airport, which is combined with Mobile Edge Computing (MEC) to enable ultra-high speed content download with low latency. The third example is mmWave mesh network to be used as a micro Radio Access Network ({\\mu}-RAN), for cost-effective backhauling of small-cell Base Stations (BSs) in dense urban scenarios. The last example is mmWave based Vehicular-to-Vehicular (V2V) and Vehicular-to-Everything (V2X) communications system, which enables automated driving by exchanging High Definition (HD) dynamic map information between cars and Roadside Units (RSUs). For 5G and beyond, mmWave and MEC will play important roles for a diverse set of applications that require both ultra-high data rate and low latency communications.

148 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Wafers with smooth Au thin films were successfully bonded in ambient air at room temperature after an Ar radio frequency plasma activation process and Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that direct bonding on the atomic scale was achieved.
Abstract: Wafers with smooth Au thin films (rms surface roughness: < 0.5 nm, thickness: < 50 nm) were successfully bonded in ambient air at room temperature after an Ar radio frequency plasma activation process. The room temperature bonded glass wafers without any heat treatment showed a sufficiently high die-shear strength of 47–70 MPa. Transmission electron microscopy observations showed that direct bonding on the atomic scale was achieved. This surface-activated bonding method is expected to be a useful technique for future heterogeneous photonic integration. key words: heterogeneous integration, room-temperature bonding, surface-activated bonding, Au-Au bonding

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review presents recent advances relating to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs or SNSPDs) and their broad range of applications and summarizes the photon detection principle and the current performance status of practical SSPD systems.
Abstract: In this review, we present recent advances relating to superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SSPDs or SNSPDs) and their broad range of applications. During a period exceeding ten years, the system performance of SSPDs has been drastically improved, and lately excellent detection efficiencies have been realized in practical systems for a wide range of target photon wavelengths. Owing to their advantages such as high system detection efficiency, low dark count rate, and excellent timing jitter, SSPDs have found application in various research fields such as quantum information, quantum optics, optical communication, and also in the life sciences. We summarize the photon detection principle and the current performance status of practical SSPD systems. In addition, we introduce application examples in which SSPDs have been applied. key words: superconductivity, single-photon detector, quantum information, quantum optics, optical communication, life science

26 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This study enabled an ideal 3D AR HMD system that enables simultaneous viewing of both the real target object and the reconstructed image without feeling visual fatigue.
Abstract: Head-mounted displays (HMDs) and augmented reality (AR) are actively being studied. However, ordinary AR HMDs for visual assistance have a problem in which users have difficulty simultaneously focusing their eyes on both the real target object and the displayed image because the image can only be displayed at a fixed distance from an user’s eyes in contrast to where the real object three-dimensionally exists. Therefore, we considered incorporating a holographic technology, an ideal three-dimensional (3D) display technology, into an AR HMD system. A few studies on holographic HMDs have had technical problems, and they have faults in size and weight. This paper proposes a compact holographic AR HMD system with the purpose of enabling an ideal 3D AR HMD system which can correctly reconstruct the image at any depth. In this paper, a Fourier transform optical system (FTOS) was implemented using only one lens in order to achieve a compact and lightweight structure, and a compact holographic AR HMD system was constructed. The experimental results showed that the proposed system can reconstruct sharp images at the correct depth for a wide depth range. This study enabled an ideal 3D AR HMD system that enables simultaneous viewing of both the real target object and the reconstructed image without feeling visual fatigue. key words: head-mounted display, augmented reality, electro-holography, computer-generated hologram

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The H-polarized plane wave diffraction by a thin material strip is analyzed using the Wiener-Hopf technique together with approximate boundary conditions and a far field expression is derived.
Abstract: The H-polarized plane wave diffraction by a thin material strip is analyzed using the Wiener-Hopf technique together with approximate boundary conditions. An asymptotic solution is obtained under the condition that the thickness and the width of the strip are small and large compared with the wavelength, respectively. The scattered field is evaluated asymptotically based on the saddle point method and a far field expression is derived. Scattering characteristics of the strip are discussed via numerical results of the radar cross section.

15 citations





Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Novel roll-to-roll (R2R) deposition and patterning of ITO on ultra-thin glass were developed with no photolithography and applied to flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) and utilized an etching paste printed by novel R2R screen printing.
Abstract: Novel roll-to-roll (R2R) deposition and patterning of ITO on ultra-thin glass were developed with no photolithography and applied to flexible organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs). The developed deposition consists of low temperature sputtering and annealing. The developed patterning utilizes an etching paste printed by novel R2R screen printing. key words: roll-to-roll, ITO, ultra-thin glass, OLED, flexible, photolithography-free

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is found that the divergence angle of the retro-reflected light is strongly related to the sharpness of the aerial image formed with AIRR.
Abstract: This paper reports on the relationships between the performance of retro-reflectors and the sharpness of an aerial image formed with aerial imaging by retro-reflection (AIRR). We have measured the retroreflector divergence angle and evaluated aerial image sharpness by use of the contrast-transfer function. It is found that the divergence angle of the retro-reflected light is strongly related to the sharpness of the aerial image formed with AIRR. key words: aerial image, retro-reflector, divergence angle, sharpness, contrast transfer function

9 citations








Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The TES coupled with tantalum absorber is developed, which is expected to have higher absorption efficiency for γ-rays and reported the best energy resolution of 465 eV at 662 keV.






Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The novel aggregation control of the LC and monomer during formation of the polymer walls from a LC/monomer mixture is examined in order to suppress the presence of the residual monomers and polymer networks in the pixel areas.
Abstract: We examined the novel aggregation control of the LC and monomer during formation of the polymer walls from a LC/monomer mixture in order to suppress the presence of the residual monomers and polymer networks in the pixel areas. The method is utilization of the differing wettabilities among LC and monomer molecules on a substrate surface. We patterned a substrate surface with a fluororesin and a polyimide film, and promoted phase separation of the LC and monomer by cooling process. This resulted in the LC and monomer aggregates primarily existing in the pixel areas and non-pixel areas, respectively. Moreover, the polymerwalls structure which was formed in this method partitioned into individual pixels in a lattice region and prevented the LC from flowing. This polymerwalls formation technique will be useful for developing high-quality flexible LCDs. key words: polymer wall, wettability, phase separation, fluororesin, polyimide film


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Crystalline GaN films can be grown even on amorphous substrates with the use of graphene buffer layers by pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD), and full-color GaN-based LEDs can be fabricated on the GaN/graphene structures and they are operated successfully.
Abstract: Crystalline GaN films can be grown even on amorphous substrates with the use of graphene buffer layers by pulsed sputtering deposition (PSD). The graphene buffer layers allowed us to grow highly c-axisoriented GaN films at low substrate temperatures. Full-color GaN-based LEDs can be fabricated on the GaN/graphene structures and they are operated successfully. This indicates that the present technique is promising for future large-area light-emitting displays on amorphous substrates. key words: GaN, graphene, glass, pulsed sputtering deposition


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The fabrication of a magnetic metallic contaminant detector using multi-channel high-Tc RF-SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) for large packaged food and a digital filter was introduced and its parameters were optimized.
Abstract: We report on the fabrication of a magnetic metallic contaminant detector using multi-channel high-Tc RF-SQUIDs (superconducting quantum interference devices) for large packaged food. For food safety finding small metallic contaminants is an important issue for a food manufacturer. Hence, a detection method for small sized contaminants is required. Some detection systems for food inspection using high-Tc SQUIDs have been reported to date. The system described here is different from the previous systems in its permitted size for inspection, being larger at 150 mm in height × 300 mm in width. For inspection of large sized food packages, improvement of the signal to noise ratio (SNR) is an important issue because the signal intensity is inversely proportional to the cube of the distance between the SQUID sensor and the object. Therefore a digital filter was introduced and its parameters were optimized. As a result, a steel ball as small as 0.5 mm in diameter at a stand-off distance of 167 mm was successfully detected with more than SNR = 3.3. key words: SQUID, detection, food contaminant digital filter



Journal ArticleDOI
Hiroshi Yabu1
TL;DR: The aim of this research is realizing a high resolution and a fast color switching of electronic papers by establishing basis of electric papers comprised on magnetic Janus particles was established.
Abstract: The aim of this research is realizing a high resolution and a fast color switching of electronic papers. In this report, we realized basis of electric papers comprised on magnetic Janus particles was established. Colored and magnetic Janus particles were successfully prepared, and magnetic Janus particles were introduced into honeycomb matrices. Introduced magnetic Janus particles quickly respond to an external magnetic field. key words: electronic papers, twisting ball, janus particles, magnetic, colored