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Showing papers in "Injury Epidemiology in 2021"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the impact of the national stay-at-home orders on alcohol or drug use and screenings among trauma admissions, and found that patients who were admitted during the period after the onset of the COVID-19 restrictions (defined as March 16, 2020-May 31, 2020) were compared with those admitted during a similar time period in 2019.
Abstract: Since the national stay-at-home order for COVID-19 was implemented, clinicians and public health authorities worldwide have expressed growing concern about the potential repercussions of drug and alcohol use due to social restrictions. We explored the impact of the national stay-at-home orders on alcohol or drug use and screenings among trauma admissions. This was a retrospective cohort study at six Level I trauma centers across four states. Patients admitted during the period after the onset of the COVID-19 restrictions (defined as March 16, 2020-May 31, 2020) were compared with those admitted during the same time period in 2019. We compared 1) rate of urine drug screens and blood alcohol screens; 2) rate of positivity for drugs or alcohol (blood alcohol concentration ≥ 10 mg/dL); 3) characteristics of patients who were positive for drug or alcohol, by period using chi-squared tests or Fisher’s exact tests, as appropriate. Two-tailed tests with an alpha of p < 0.05 was used on all tests. There were 4762 trauma admissions across the study period; 2602 (55%) in 2019 and 2160 (45%) in 2020. From 2019 to 2020, there were statistically significant increases in alcohol screens (34% vs. 37%, p = 0.03) and drug screens (21% vs. 26%, p < 0.001). Overall, the rate of alcohol positive patients significantly increased from 2019 to 2020 (32% vs. 39%, p = 0.007), while the rate of drug positive patients was unchanged (57% vs. 52%, p = 0.13). Of the 1025 (22%) patients who were positive for alcohol or drugs, there were significant increases in a history of alcoholism (41% vs. 26%, p < 0.001), and substance abuse (11% vs. 23%, p < 0.001) in the 2020 period. No other statistically significant differences were identified among alcohol or drug positive patients during COVID-19 compared to the same period in 2019. Our first wave of COVID-19 data suggests that trauma centers were admitting significantly more patients who were alcohol positive, as well those with substance use disorders, potentially due to the impact of social restrictions and guidelines. Further longitudinal research is warranted to assess the alcohol and drug positive rates of trauma patients over the COVID-19 pandemic.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an ecological Bayesian spatial analysis examining neighborhood disadvantage as a social determinant of firearm injury in Seattle, Washington, was conducted using the National Neighborhood Data Archive disadvantage index, which measures the proportion of female-headed households with children, proportion of households with public assistance income and proportion of people with income below poverty in the past 12 months.
Abstract: Firearm violence is a public health problem that disparately impacts areas of economic and social deprivation. Despite a growing literature on neighborhood characteristics and injury, few studies have examined the association between neighborhood disadvantage and fatal and nonfatal firearm assault using data on injury location. We conducted an ecological Bayesian spatial analysis examining neighborhood disadvantage as a social determinant of firearm injury in Seattle, Washington. Neighborhood disadvantage was measured using the National Neighborhood Data Archive disadvantage index. The index includes proportion of female-headed households with children, proportion of households with public assistance income, proportion of people with income below poverty in the past 12 months, and proportion of the civilian labor force aged 16 and older that are unemployed at the census tract level. Firearm injury counts included individuals with a documented assault-related gunshot wound identified from medical records and supplemented with the Gun Violence Archive between March 20, 2016 and December 31, 2018. Available addresses were geocoded to identify their point locations and then aggregated to the census tract level. Besag-York-Mollie (BYM2) Bayesian Poisson models were fit to the data to estimate the association between the index of neighborhood disadvantage and firearm injury count with a population offset within each census tract. Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with the count of firearm injury in both non-spatial and spatial models. For two census tracts that differed by 1 decile of neighborhood disadvantage, the number of firearm injuries was higher by 21.0% (95% credible interval: 10.5, 32.8%) in the group with higher neighborhood disadvantage. After accounting for spatial structure, there was still considerable residual spatial dependence with 53.3% (95% credible interval: 17.0, 87.3%) of the model variance being spatial. Additionally, we observed census tracts with higher disadvantage and lower count of firearm injury in communities with proximity to employment opportunities and targeted redevelopment, suggesting other contextual protective factors. Even after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, firearm injury research should investigate spatial clustering as independence cannot be able to be assumed. Future research should continue to examine potential contextual and environmental neighborhood determinants that could impact firearm injuries in urban communities.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the role of domestic violence in mass shootings in the United States and found that 59.1% of mass shootings between 2014 and 2019 were DV-related, history of DV, or non-DV-related.
Abstract: Fatal mass shootings, defined as four or more people killed by gunfire, excluding the perpetrator, account for a small percentage of firearm homicide fatalities. Research has not extensively focused on the role of domestic violence (DV) in mass shootings in the United States. This study explores the role of DV in mass shootings in the United States. Using 2014–2019 mass shooting data from the Gun Violence Archive, we indexed our data by year and mass shooting and collected the number of deaths and injuries. We reviewed news articles for each mass shooting to determine if it was 1) DV-related (i.e., at least one victim of a mass shooting was a dating partner or family member of the perpetrator); 2) history of DV (i.e., the perpetrator had a history of DV but the mass shooting was not directed toward partners or family members); or 3) non-DV-related (i.e., the victims were not partners or family members, nor was there mention of the perpetrator having a history of DV). We conducted descriptive analyses to summarize the percent of mass shootings that were DV-related, history of DV, or non-DV-related, and analyzed how many perpetrators died during the incidents. We conducted one-way ANOVA to examine whether there were differences in the average number of injuries or fatalities or the case fatality rates (CFR) between the three categories. One outlier and 17 cases with unknown perpetrators were excluded from our main analysis. We found that 59.1% of mass shootings between 2014 and 2019 were DV-related and in 68.2% of mass shootings, the perpetrator either killed at least one partner or family member or had a history of DV. We found significant differences in the average number of injuries and fatalities between DV and history of DV shootings and a higher average case fatality rate associated with DV-related mass shootings (83.7%) than non-DV-related (63.1%) or history of DV mass shootings (53.8%). Fifty-five perpetrators died during the shootings; 39 (70.9%) died by firearm suicide, 15 (27.3%) were killed by police, and 1 (1.8%) died from an intentional overdose. Most mass shootings are related to DV. DV-related shootings had higher CFR than those unrelated to DV. Given these findings, restricting access to guns by perpetrators of DV may affect the occurrence of mass shootings and associated casualties.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding transition on traumatic injury-related hospitalization trends among young adults across a geographically and demographically diverse group of U.S. states was estimated.
Abstract: We aimed to estimate the impact of the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) coding transition on traumatic injury-related hospitalization trends among young adults across a geographically and demographically diverse group of U.S. states. Interrupted time series analyses were conducted using statewide inpatient databases from 12 states and including traumatic injury-related hospitalizations in adults aged 19–44 years in 2011–2017. Segmented regression models were used to estimate the impact of the October 2015 coding transition on external cause of injury (ECOI) completeness (percentage of hospitalizations with a documented ECOI code) and on population-level rates of injury-related hospitalizations by nature, intent, mechanism, and severity of injury. The transition to ICD-10-CM was associated with a drop in ECOI completion in the transition month (− 3.7%; P 15) was observed when the general equivalence mapping maximum severity method for converting ICD-10-CM codes to ICD-9-CM codes was used. State-specific results for the outcomes of ECOI completion and TBI-related hospitalization rates are provided in an online supplement. The U.S. transition from ICD-9-CM to ICD-10-CM coding led to a significant decrease in ECOI completion and several significant changes in measured rates of injury-related hospitalizations by injury intent, mechanism, nature, and severity. The results of this study can inform the design and analysis of future traumatic injury-related health services research studies that use both ICD-9-CM and ICD-10-CM coded data. II (Interrupted Time Series)

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Describing pediatricians’ perceived barriers to providing firearm safety education to families in the pediatric primary care setting in Ohio revealed a lack of time during office visits, lack of education and few resources to provide to families were commonly cited.
Abstract: Background Firearms are the second leading cause of injury-related death in American children. Safe storage of firearms is associated with a significantly decreased odds of firearm-related death, however more than half of US firearm owners store at least one firearm unlocked or accessible to a minor. While guidance by primary care providers has been shown to improve storage practices, firearm safety counseling occurs infrequently in the primary care setting. The primary objective of this study was to describe pediatricians' perceived barriers to providing firearm safety education to families in the pediatric primary care setting. Secondary objectives included identifying pediatric provider attitudes and current practices around firearm counseling. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of pediatric primary care providers in Ohio. Participants were recruited from the Ohio AAP email list over a 3-month period. Only pediatric primary care providers in Ohio were included; subspecialists, residents and non-practicing physicians were excluded. Participants completed an anonymous online survey detailing practice patterns around and barriers to providing firearm safety counseling. Three follow-up emails were sent to pediatricians that failed to initially respond. Response frequencies were calculated using Microsoft Excel. Results Two hundred eighty-nine pediatricians completed the survey and 149 met inclusion criteria for analysis. One hundred seven (72%) respondents agreed that it is the responsibility of the pediatric primary care provider to discuss safe storage. Counseling, however, occurred infrequently with 119 (80%) of respondents performing firearm safety education at fewer than half of well child visits. The most commonly cited barriers to providing counseling were lack of time during office visits, lack of education and few resources to provide to families. A majority, 82 of pediatric providers (55%), agreed they would counsel more if given additional training, with 110 (74%) conveying they would distribute firearm safety devices to families if these were available in their practice. Conclusion Ohio pediatricians agree that it is the responsibility of the primary care provider to discuss firearm safety. However, counseling occurs infrequently in the primary care setting due to a lack of time, provider education and available resources. Improving access to resources for primary care pediatricians will be critical in helping educate families in order to protect their children through improved storage practices.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of the pandemic-associated lockdown on trauma admissions, patient demographics, mechanisms of injury, injury severity, and outcomes in the Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital was investigated.
Abstract: The COVID-19 pandemic led to world-wide restrictions on social activities to curb the spread of this disease. Very little is known about the impact of these restrictions on trauma centers. Our objective was to determine the effect of the pandemic-associated lockdown on trauma admissions, patient’s demographics, mechanisms of injury, injury severity, and outcomes in the Puerto Rico Trauma Hospital. An IRB-approved quasi-experimental study was performed to assess the impact of the restrictions by comparing trauma admissions during the lockdown (March 15, 2020 – June 15, 2020) with a control period (same period in 2017–2019). Comparisons were done using the Pearson’s chi-square test, Fisher exact test, or Mann-Whitney U test, as appropriate. A negative binomial model was fitted to estimate the incidence rate ratio for overall admissions among pre-lockdown and during-lockdown periods. Statistical significance was set at p 15 (37.3% vs. 26.8%; p = 0.014); while there were no differences in the median hospital length of stay and the mortality rate between the comparison groups. Finally, the decrease in overall admissions registered during the lockdown accounts for a 59% (IRR 0.41; 95% CI 0.31–0.54) change compared to the pre-lockdown period, when controlling for sex, age, mechanism of injury, and ISS. Following periods of social isolation and curfews, trauma centers can expect drastic reductions in their overall patient volume with associated changes in trauma patterns. Our findings will help inform new interventions and improve healthcare preparedness for future or similar circumstances.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2018 to 2020 for cases with product codes 1313 (firework injury) and narratives containing "fireworks" as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Despite a national decrease in emergency department visits in the United States during the first 10 months of the pandemic, preliminary Consumer Product Safety Commission data indicate increased firework-related injuries. We hypothesized an increase in firework-related injuries during 2020 compared to years prior related to a corresponding increase in consumer firework sales. METHODS The National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) was queried from 2018 to 2020 for cases with product codes 1313 (firework injury) and narratives containing "fireworks". Population-based national estimates were calculated using US Census data, then compared across the three years of study inclusion. Patient demographic and available injury information was also tracked and compared across the three years. Firework sales data obtained from the American Pyrotechnics Association were determined for the same time period to examine trends in consumption. RESULTS There were 935 firework-related injuries reported to the NEISS from 2018 to 2020, 47% of which occurred during 2020. National estimates for monthly injuries per million were 1.6 times greater in 2020 compared to 2019 (p < 0.0001) with no difference between 2018 and 2019 (p = 0.38). The same results were found when the month of July was excluded. Firework consumption in 2020 was 1.5 times greater than 2019 or 2018, with a 55% increase in consumer fireworks and 22% decrease in professional fireworks sales. CONCLUSIONS Firework-related injures saw a substantial increase in 2020 compared to the two years prior, corroborated by a proportional increase in consumer firework sales. Increased incidence of firework-related injuries was detected even with the exclusion of the month of July, suggesting that the COVID-19 pandemic may have impacted firework epidemiology more broadly than US Independence Day celebrations.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a study aimed to describe the epidemiology of sudden death in organized school sports in Japan, and the overall incidence rate of sports-related death was 0.38 deaths per 100,000 athlete-years (95%CI 0.30, 0.45).
Abstract: Nearly half of the sudden deaths documented in Japanese middle and high school occurred during school organized sport activities. However, no study to date has calculated the incidence rates of these deaths by sport. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the epidemiology of sudden death in organized school sports in Japan. Data submitted to Japan Sport Council (JSC) Injury and Accident Mutual Aid Benefit System between 2005 and 2016 were retrieved from JSC website for analysis (n = 1137). Case information on fatal incidents that occurred during organized school sports in middle and high school students were extracted for analysis (n = 198). Descriptive statistics about activity type, sex, sport, cause of death, and presence of on-site trained medical personnel were calculated using frequencies and proportions. Sudden death incidence rates were expressed per 100,000 athlete-years with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The overall incidence rate of sports-related death was 0.38 deaths per 100,000 athlete-years (95%CI = 0.30, 0.45). Only three cases (2%) reported having trained medical personnel on-site at the time of death. Most deaths were in male student athletes (n = 149/162, 92%), with 7.5 times greater fatality rate in male compared to female student athletes (incidence rate ratio, 7.5; 95%CI = 4.43, 13.22). Baseball (n = 25/162, 15.4%), judo (n = 24/162, 14.8%), soccer/futsal (n = 20/162, 12.3%), and basketball (n = 18/162, 11.1%) accounted for 53.7% of deaths. Accounting for the number of participants in the respective sport, the three highest average incident rates of death were reported in rugby (4.59 deaths per 100,000 athlete-years, 95%CI = 2.43, 6.75), judo (3.76 deaths per 100,000 athlete-years, 95%CI = 1.58, 5.93), and baseball (0.59 deaths per 100,000 athlete-years, 95%CI = 0.38, 0.79). The top three causes of death were sudden cardiac arrest (n = 68/162, 42.0%), head trauma (n = 32/162, 19.8%), and heat related injury (n = 25/162, 15.4%). In conclusion, the highest rates of sports-related death among Japanese student athletes were observed in the following: rugby, male athletes, and during practices. The leading cause of death was sudden cardiac arrest.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors report the prevalence, mechanism, and pattern of traumatic injuries sustained by undocumented immigrants who crossed the U.S.-Mexico border at the Rio Grande Valley sector over a span of 5 years and were treated at a local American College of Surgeons verified Level II trauma center.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Apprehensions of undocumented immigrants in the Rio Grande Valley sector of the U.S.-Mexico border have grown to account for nearly half of all apprehensions at the border. The purpose of this study is to report the prevalence, mechanism, and pattern of traumatic injuries sustained by undocumented immigrants who crossed the U.S.-Mexico border at the Rio Grande Valley sector over a span of 5 years and were treated at a local American College of Surgeons verified Level II trauma center. METHODS A retrospective chart review was conducted from January 2014 to December 2019. Demographics, comorbidities, injury severity score (ISS), mechanism of injury, anatomical part of the body affected, hospital and ICU length of stay (LOS), and treatment costs were analyzed. Descriptive statistics for demographics, injury location and cause, and temporal trends are reported. The impact of ISS or surgical intervention on hospital LOS was analyzed using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). RESULTS Of 178 patients, 65.2% were male with an average age of 31 (range 0-67) years old and few comorbidities (88.8%) or social risk factors (86%). Patients most commonly sustained injuries secondary to a border fence-related incident (33.7%), fleeing (22.5%), or motor vehicle accident (16.9%). There were no clear temporal trends in the total number of patients injured, or in causes of injury, between 2014 and 2019. The majority of patients (60.7%) sustained extremity injuries, followed by spine injuries (20.2%). Border fence-related incidents and fleeing increased risk of extremity injuries (Odds ratio (OR) > 3; p 4; p < 0.004). Extremity injuries increased the odds (OR: 9.4, p < 0.001) that surgery would be required. Surgical intervention was common (64%), and the median LOS of patients who underwent surgery was 3 days more than those who did not (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION In addition to border fence related injuries, undocumented immigrants also sustained injuries while fleeing and in motor vehicle accidents, among others. Extremity injuries, which were more likely with border fence-related incidents, were the most common type. This type of injury often requires surgical intervention and, therefore, a longer hospital stay for severe injuries.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors conducted a survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 18 years or older and found that a high rate of rideshare use among parents suggests that a large number of children could be at risk of injury due to a lack of appropriate restraint use.
Abstract: Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death for young children. Millions of ridesharing trips are taken each day, and use of these services is predicted to increase. Therefore, it is important to examine the safety of children in these vehicles. We conducted a survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults aged 18 years or older (N = 2017). Of the total sample, 450 respondents reported being a parent or legal guardian of children below the age of 10. Of these, 307 or 68% had ever used ridesharing. Among those who had used ridesharing, a total of 253 or 82% reported using ridesharing with their children below the age of 10 years. Among this group, rideshare use was significantly higher among individuals with college education, and in higher income households. Given that the majority of U.S. states have legislation exempting rideshare vehicles from child restraint system law coverage, our finding of high rates of rideshare use among parents suggests that a large number of children could be at risk of injury due to a lack of appropriate restraint use.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examined the characteristics of mass, multiple, and single homicides to identify prevention points that may lead to a reduction in different types of homicides in the United States.
Abstract: Background Multi-victim homicides are a persistent public health problem confronting the United States. Previous research shows that homicide rates in the U.S. are approximately seven times higher than those of other high-income countries, driven by firearm homicide rates that are 25 times higher; 31% of public mass shootings in the world also occur in the U.S.. The purpose of this analysis is to examine the characteristics of mass, multiple, and single homicides to help identify prevention points that may lead to a reduction in different types of homicides. Methods We used all available years (2003-2017) and U.S. states/jurisdictions (35 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico) included in CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS), a public health surveillance system which combines death certificate, coroner/medical examiner, and law enforcement reports into victim- and incident-level data on violent deaths. NVDRS includes up to 600 standard variables per incident; further information on types of mental illness among suspected perpetrators and incident resolution was qualitatively coded from case narratives. Data regarding number of persons nonfatally shot within incidents were cross-validated when possible with several other resources, including government reports and the Gun Violence Archive. Mass homicides (4+ victims), multiple homicides (2-3 victims) and single homicides were analyzed to assess group differences using Chi-square tests with Bonferroni-corrected post-hoc comparisons. Results Mass homicides more often had female, child, and non-Hispanic white victims than other homicide types. Compared with victims of other homicide types, victims of mass homicides were more often killed by strangers or someone else they did not know well, or by family members. More than a third were related to intimate partner violence. Approximately one-third of mass homicide perpetrators had suicidal thoughts/behaviors noted in the time leading up to the incident. Multi-victim homicides were more often perpetrated with semi-automatic firearms than single homicides. When accounting for nonfatally shot victims, over 4 times as many incidents could have resulted in mass homicide. Conclusions These findings underscore the important interconnections among multiple forms of violence. Primary prevention strategies addressing shared risk and protective factors are key to reducing these incidents.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a systematic review aimed to identify LMR methods most commonly communicated by healthcare providers in the emergency department, and barriers to the delivery of such counseling, including lack of specialized skills and skepticism regarding the effectiveness of LMR counseling.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Suicide is a leading cause of death in the US. Lethal means restriction (LMR), which encourages limiting access and reducing the lethality of particular methods of suicide, has been identified as a viable prevention strategy. For this approach to be successful, adequate education about risks and means must be communicated to families and individuals at risk for suicide. This systematic review aims to identify LMR methods most commonly communicated by healthcare providers in the emergency department, and barriers to the delivery of such counseling. METHODS The protocol for this systematic review is registered with PROSPERO (CRD42018076734). Included studies were identified through searching four databases (PubMed, Scopus, PsycInfo, and EBSCO). Studies were selected and coded independently by two researchers using the PICOS framework. Included studies examined LMR counseling delivered in the ED regardless of patient age, sex or race/ethnicity. RESULTS A total of 1282 studies were screened; 9 met the inclusion criteria. Included studies were published from 1998 to 2020. Study participants were majority female, and safe firearm storage was the most common form of LMR counseling provided. Eight studies included counseling on multiple forms of lethal means, [e.g., alcohol, medication, and firearm storage] and one study focused solely on safe firearm storage. Two studies reported barriers limiting healthcare providers' delivery of LMR counseling, including lack of specialized skills and skepticism regarding the effectiveness of LMR counseling. CONCLUSION There is limited published evidence that identifies the most effective methods and target populations for LMR counseling. Given the growing literature that provides evidence of gender differences in suicide modality (e.g., guns, medications, suffocation), LMR counseling should be multifaceted, to address common means of suicide in both men and women. Despite evidence that the majority of suicide attempts and half of completed suicides do not involve firearms, results showed that LMR counseling is frequently focused on promoting the safe storage of firearms. This highlights the need to include counseling focused on a variety of lethal means to reduce risk of suicide completion. Prospective studies should also aim to identify the most efficacious methods of delivering LMR counseling in the clinical settings.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Pickleball -related injuries grew rapidly over the study period and by 2018, the annual number of senior pickleball injuries reached parity with senior tennis-related injuries, becoming an increasingly important cause of injury.
Abstract: Pickleball is growing rapidly with a passionate senior following. Understanding and comparing players’ injury experience through analysis of a nationally representative hospital emergency department sample helps inform senior injury prevention and fitness goals. A cross-sectional descriptive study was performed using 2010 to 2019 data from the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission’s (CPSC) National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS). Tennis was selected for comparison purposes because of the similarity of play, occasional competition for the same court space, and because many seniors play both sports. Non-fatal pickleball and tennis-related cases were identified, examined, recoded, and separated by injury versus non-injury conditions. Since over 85% of the pickleball injury-related cases were to players ≥60 years of age, we mostly focused on this older age group. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, injury frequency, type and trends over time, and comparative measures of risk. Among players ≥60 years of age, non-injuries (i.e., cardiovascular events) accounted for 11.1 and 21.5% of the pickleball and tennis-related cases, respectively. With non-injuries removed for seniors (≥60 years), the NEISS contained a weighted total of 28,984 pickleball injuries (95% confidence interval [CI] = 19,463–43,163) and 58,836 tennis injuries (95% CI = 44,861-77,164). Pickleball-related injuries grew rapidly over the study period, and by 2018 the annual number of senior pickleball injuries reached parity with senior tennis-related injuries. Pickleball-related Slip/Trip/Fall/Dive injury mechanisms predominated (63.3, 95% CI = 57.7–69.5%). The leading pickleball-related diagnoses were strains/sprains (33.2, 95% CI = 27.8–39.5%), fractures (28.1, 95% CI = 24.3–32.4%) and contusions (10.6, 95% CI = 8.0–14.1%). Senior males were three-and-a-half times more likely than females to suffer a pickleball-related strain or sprain (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.5, 95% CI = 2.2–5.6) whereas women were over three-and-a-half times more likely to suffer a fracture (OR 3.7, 95% CI = 2.3–5.7) compared to men and nine times more likely to suffer a wrist fracture (OR 9.3 95% CI = 3.6–23.9). Patterns of senior tennis and pickleball injuries were mostly similar. NEISS is a valuable data source for describing the epidemiology of recreational injuries. However, careful case definitions are necessary when examining records involving older populations as non-injury conditions related to the activity/product codes of interest are frequent. As pickleball gains in popularity among active seniors, it is becoming an increasingly important cause of injury. Identifying and describing the most common types of injuries may can help inform prevention and safety measures.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, suicide risk among OEF/OIF/OND veterans by gender and unit component was assessed using standardized mortality ratios (SMR) and hazard ratios (HR) s, generated by Cox proportional hazards models.
Abstract: There has been concern about the risk of suicide among veterans returning from deployment to Afghanistan and Iraq as part of Operation Enduring Freedom, Operation Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND). This study assessed suicide risk among OEF/OIF/OND veterans by gender and unit component. Firearm related suicide was also briefly examined. The study cohort was identified from records of the US Department of Defense. Vital status and cause of death through 2016 was obtained from the Mortality Data Repository, which obtains data from the National Death Index. Suicide risk was first assessed using standardized mortality ratios (SMR)s, comparing the rate of suicide among all veterans, both collectively and separately by gender and unit component (active vs. reserve/National Guard) to the expected based on the US population adjusted for age, race, sex, and calendar year. Risk of suicide among active duty compared to reserve/National Guard veterans and male compared to female veterans was assessed with hazard ratios (HR) s, generated by Cox proportional hazards models, that included the covariates race, age, marital status, rank, and branch of service. There was an increased risk of suicide when all OEF/OIF/OND Veterans were compared to the US population, (SMR = 1.42; 95%, C.I., 1.38,1.46). Both male and female veterans had an increased risk of suicide when compared to their gender specific non-veteran counterparts, (SMR = 1.40; 95%, C.I., 1.36,1.45 and SMR = 1.85; 95%, C.I., 1.60,2.13), respectively. Active duty veterans had an increased risk of suicide compared to reserve/National Guard veterans, (HR = 1.22; 95%, C.I., 1.14,1.30). Male veterans had an almost 3-fold increased risk compared to female veterans, (HR = 2.85; 95%, C.I., 2.47,3.29). Among all veteran suicides 68.3% involved a firearm, including 68.7% among males and 59.5% among females. All OEF/OIF/OND veterans have an increased risk of suicide compared to non-veterans. Veterans will benefit from enhanced access to mental health services and initiatives to promote suicide prevention. Strategies that emphasize lethal means safety, an evidence based suicide prevention strategy which includes increasing safe storage practices (i.e., storing firearms unloaded and locked) can help address this increased risk of veteran suicide.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a compendium of secondary data sources in an effort to promote exploration of relationships between the COVID-19 pandemic and rates of injury and violence.
Abstract: Published works have raised concerns that certain violent behaviors and firearm acquisition have encountered dramatic increases since the onset of COVID-19. While these works provide important preliminary insights, they lack the empirical robustness necessary to inform a targeted societal response. Having the ability to perform the research needed to support evidence-based policy requires that data at national, state and local-levels be accessible and of sufficient quality. While related, robust data sources do arguably exist, their availability may come long after the window for effective prevention and intervention efforts has closed or may otherwise present with quality limitations, leaving populations at risk for various forms of violence without the support of protective policies. The University of Iowa Injury Prevention Research Center and the Public Policy Center has compiled a compendium of secondary data sources in an effort to promote exploration of relationships between the COVID-19 pandemic and rates of injury and violence. The forms of violence and firearm-related behavior that were identified as being at risk for amplification given the social stress, economic stress and isolation associated with the public health emergency period included: firearm acquisition, firearm violence, intimate partner violence and family violence.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of a child's race on the likelihood of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is not well described, and the authors hypothesized that traumatically injured children of minority race would have higher rates of PICU admission, compared to white children.
Abstract: The public health impact of pediatric trauma makes identifying opportunities to equalize health related disparities imperative. The influence of a child’s race on the likelihood of admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) is not well described. We hypothesized that traumatically injured children of minority race would have higher rates of PICU admission, compared to White children. This was a retrospective review of a single institution’s trauma registry including children ≤18 years of age presenting to the emergency department (ED) whose injury necessitated pediatric trauma team activation at a Level 1 Pediatric Trauma Center from July 1, 2011 through June 30, 2016. Demographics, injury characteristics and hospital utilization data were collected. Race was categorized as White or racial minority, which included patients identifying as Black, Hispanic ethnicity, Native American or “other.” The primary outcome measure was admission to the PICU. Chi square or Mann Whitney rank sum tests were used, as appropriate, to compare differences in demographics and injury characteristics between those children who were and were not admitted to the PICU setting. Variables associated with PICU admission in univariate analyses were included in a multivariate analysis. Data are presented as median values and interquartile ranges, or numbers and percentages. The median age of the 654 included subjects was 8 [IQR 4–13] years; 55.2% were a racial minority. Nine (1.4%) children died in the ED and 576 (88.1%) were admitted to the hospital. Of the children requiring hospitalization, 195 (33.9%) were admitted to the PICU. Children admitted to the PICU were less likely to be from a racial minority group (26.1% vs 42.5%, p < 0.001). After adjusting for age and injury characteristics in a multivariable analysis, racial minority children had a lower odds of PICU admission compared to White children (OR 0.492 [95% C.I. 0.298–0.813, p = 0.006]). In this retrospective analysis of traumatically injured children, minority race was associated with lower odds of PICU admission, suggesting that health care disparities based on race persist in pediatric trauma-related care.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a mobile technology-based health behavior change intervention, the Make Safe Happen® app, was evaluated to increase safety knowledge and safety actions/behaviors for the prevention of child unintentional injuries in and around the home.
Abstract: Leading causes of unintentional child injury such as poisoning and falls are preventable, and the majority occur in the home. Numerous home safety interventions have been developed and tested to increase safety behaviors; however, no smart phone-based applications (apps) have been developed and evaluated for this purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether a mobile technology-based health behavior change intervention, the Make Safe Happen® app, was an effective tool to increase safety knowledge and safety actions/behaviors for the prevention of child unintentional injuries in and around the home. Data were collected in pretest and posttest online surveys from an existing nationwide population-based survey panel. Intervention subjects were randomized to organically (participant-driven) use the Make Safe Happen® app for 1 week, which provided home safety information and the ability to purchase safety products, while control participants were assigned to download and use an app about a topic other than home safety. The primary outcomes of safety knowledge and home safety actions were assessed by using linear mixed model regressions with intention-to-treat analyses. A total of 5032 participants were randomized to either the intervention (n = 4182) or control (n = 850) group, with 2055 intervention participants downloading and entering their participant IDs into the Make Safe Happen® app. The online posttest survey was completed by 770 intervention and 283 control subjects. Mean knowledge parent safety score increased at a greater rate for intervention than control subjects (p < 0.0001), and at posttest was significantly higher for intervention than control subjects (p < 0.0001). The percentage of intervention subjects who reported doing all one-time and repeated safety actions significantly increased from pretest to posttest (p < 0.0001 and p = 0.0001, respectively), but there was no change among the control subjects (p = 0.1041 and p = 0.9755, respectively). At posttest, this percentage was larger for intervention than control subjects only for repeated safety actions (p = 0.0340). The mobile application significantly improved safety knowledge and safety actions for participants using the Make Safe Happen® app, although loss to follow-up was a limitation. The results of this study indicate the usefulness of widespread distribution and use of the Make Safe Happen® app. Trial registration number NCT02751203 ; Registered April 26, 2016.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss barriers to recruitment, retention, and intervention delivery in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of patients presenting with firearm injuries to a Level 1 trauma center, and discuss approaches to overcome these barriers and the importance of such efforts to further implement and evaluate hospital-based violence intervention programs in the future.
Abstract: We discuss barriers to recruitment, retention, and intervention delivery in a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of patients presenting with firearm injuries to a Level 1 trauma center. The intervention was adapted from the Critical Time Intervention and included a six-month period of support in the community after hospital discharge to address recovery goals. This study was one of the first RCTs of a hospital- and community-based intervention provided solely among patients with firearm injuries. Barriers to recruitment included limited staffing, coupled with wide variability in length of stay and admission times, which made it difficult to predict the best time to recruit. At the same time, more acutely affected patients needed more time to stabilize in order to determine whether eligibility criteria were met. Barriers to retention included insufficient patient resources for stable housing, communication and transportation, as well as limited time for patients to meet with study staff to respond to follow-up surveys. These barriers similarly affected intervention delivery as patients who were recruited, but had fewer resources to help with recovery, had lower intervention engagement. These barriers fall within the broader context of system avoidance (e.g., avoiding institutions that keep formal records). Since the patient sample was racially diverse with the majority of patients having prior criminal justice system involvement, this may have precluded active participation from some patients, especially those from communities that have been subject to long and sustained history of trauma and racism. We discuss approaches to overcoming these barriers and the importance of such efforts to further implement and evaluate hospital-based violence intervention programs in the future. Developing strategies to overcome barriers to data collection and ongoing participant contact are essential to gathering robust information to understand how well violence prevention programs work and providing the best care possible for people recovering from injuries. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02630225 . Registered 12/15/2015.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors evaluated the efficacy of a scald burn prevention program at a Level One Pediatric Trauma Center in a low-income, underserved community and found that the program was helpful, 99% stated that they were likely to share this information with others, and 100% indicated that they would use the information from the program.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Over 450,000 individuals are hospitalized with burns annually and roughly 35% are scald burns. Children younger than 5 years of age are at the greatest risk of scald burn injury. Caregiver burn prevention programs have been found to reduce the prevalence of injuries in young children; however, low-income and underserved populations seldomly have access to these programs. The impact of scald burn prevention programs in underserved populations remains unexplored. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a scald burn prevention program at a Level One Pediatric Trauma Center in a low-income, underserved community. METHODS Our hospital developed a one-hour scald burn prevention program for caregivers with children 5 years of age or younger. The program educated caregivers on ways to prevent scald burns and create safeguards in their home. Caregivers completed a pre-post survey to measure their ability to identify hot or cold objects, as well as respond to items about their perceptions of the program's utility, their willingness to share it with others, and the likelihood that they would use the information in the future. Data was analyzed using a paired t-test. RESULTS Two-hundred and sixty-nine (N = 269) caregivers participated in the program. Before the program, caregivers could identify potentially hot objects 83.17% of the time, and after the program, they were able to identify these items 92.31% of the time: t (268) = 12.46, p < .001, d = 1.07. Additionally, 95% of caregivers indicated that the program was helpful, 99% stated that they were likely to share this information with others, and 100% indicated that they would use the information from the program. CONCLUSIONS Education is a critical component to prevent scald burns. Results indicate that a hospital-led scald burn prevention program can positively impact a caregiver's ability to identify possible scald-burn risks. Providing education to caregivers who typically do not receive this information could lower the prevalence of scald burns not only institutionally, but in communities that are disproportionately impacted by this mechanism of injury.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article developed a definition for identifying intentional self-harm (ISH) injuries in emergency department (ED) records coded with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes.
Abstract: Non-suicidal self-injury and suicide attempts are increasing problems among American adolescents. This study developed a definition for identifying intentional self-harm (ISH) injuries in emergency department (ED) records coded with International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) codes. The definition is based on the injury-reporting framework proposed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The study sought to estimate the definition’s positive predictive value (PPV), and the proportion of ISH injuries with intent to die (i.e., suicide attempt). The study definition, based on first-valid external cause-of-injury ICD-10-CM codes X71-X83, T14.91, T36-T65, or T71, captured 207 discharge records for initial encounters for ISH in one Kentucky ED. Medical records were reviewed to confirm provider-documented diagnosis for ISH, and identify intent to die or suicide ideation. The PPV of the study definition for capturing provider-documented ISH injuries was reported with its 95% confidence interval (95% CI). The estimated PPV for the study definition to capture ISH injuries was 88.9%, 95% CI (83.8%, 92.8%). The estimated percentage of ISH with intent to die was 45.9, 95% CI (47.1, 61.0%). The ICD-10-CM code “suicide attempt” (T14.91) captured only 7 cases, but coding guidelines restrict assignment of this code to cases in which the mechanism of the suicide attempt is unknown. The proposed case definition supported a robust PPV for ISH injuries. Our findings add to the evidence that the current ICD-10-CM coding system and coding guidelines do not allow identification of ISH with intent to die; modifications are needed to address this issue.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors estimated the association between cumulative excess firearm purchases in March through July 2020 (measured as the difference between observed rates and those expected from autoregressive integrated moving average models) and injuries from intentional, interpersonal firearm violence (non-domestic and domestic violence).
Abstract: Firearm violence is a significant public health problem in the United States. A surge in firearm purchasing following the onset of the coronavirus pandemic may have contributed to an increase in firearm violence. We sought to estimate the state-level association between firearm purchasing and interpersonal firearm violence during the pandemic. Cross-sectional study of the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia from January 2018 through July 2020. Data were obtained from the National Instant Criminal Background Check System (a proxy for firearm purchasing) and the Gun Violence Archive. Using negative binomial regression models, we estimated the association between cumulative excess firearm purchases in March through July 2020 (measured as the difference between observed rates and those expected from autoregressive integrated moving average models) and injuries (including nonfatal and fatal) from intentional, interpersonal firearm violence (non-domestic and domestic violence). We estimated that there were 4.3 million excess firearm purchases nationally from March through July 2020 and a total of 4075 more firearm injuries than expected from April through July. We found no relationship between state-level excess purchasing and non-domestic firearm violence, e.g., each excess purchase per 100 population was associated with a rate ratio (RR) of firearm injury from non-domestic violence of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.50–1.02) in April; 0.99 (95% CI: 0.72–1.25) in May; 1.10 (95% CI: 0.93–1.32) in June; and 0.98 (95% CI: 0.85–1.12) in July. Excess firearm purchasing within states was associated with an increase in firearm injuries from domestic violence in April (RR: 2.60; 95% CI: 1.32–5.93) and May (RR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.19–2.91), though estimates were sensitive to model specification. Nationwide, firearm purchasing and firearm violence increased substantially during the first months of the coronavirus pandemic. At the state level, the magnitude of the increase in purchasing was not associated with the magnitude of the increase in firearm violence. Increases in purchasing may have contributed to additional firearm injuries from domestic violence in April and May. Results suggest much of the rise in firearm violence during our study period was attributable to other factors, indicating a need for additional research.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors analyzed geographic differences in road traffic mortality and its associated factors using the Vital Statistics in Japan (VSS) in 2013 to 2017 and calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of RT for each municipality by sex using an empirical Bayes method.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Regional differences in road traffic (RT) mortality among municipalities have not been revealed in Japan. Further, the association between RT mortality and regional socioeconomic characteristics has not been investigated. We analyzed geographic differences in RT mortality and its associated factors using the Vital Statistics in Japan. METHODS We used data on RT mortality by sex and municipality in Japan from 2013 to 2017. We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of RT for each municipality by sex using an Empirical Bayes method. The SMRs were mapped onto a map of Japan to show the geographic differences. In addition, an ecological study investigated the municipal characteristics associated with the SMR using demographic socioeconomic, medical, weather, and vehicular characteristics as explanatory variables. The ecological study used a spatial statistical model. RESULTS The mapping revealed that the number of municipalities with a high SMR of RT (SMR > 2) was larger in men than in women. In addition, SMRs of capital areas (Kanagawa and Tokyo prefectures) tended to be low in men and women. The regression analysis revealed that population density was negatively associated with the SMR in men and women, and the degree of the association was the largest among explanatory variables. In contrast, there was a positive association between the proportion of non-Japanese persons and SMR. The proportions of lower educational level (elementary school or junior high school graduates), agriculture, forestry, and fisheries workers, service workers, and blue-collar workers were positively associated with the SMR in men. The proportion of unemployed persons was negatively associated with the SMR in men. CONCLUSIONS Socioeconomic characteristics are associated with geographic differences in RT mortality particularly in men. The results suggested preventive measures targeted at men of low socioeconomic status and non-Japanese persons are needed to decrease RT mortality further.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Statistical data linkage enables accurate, routine matching for small de-identified injury and fatality datasets such as those in commercial fishing, and enables expanding and sharpening details of individual incidents in support of occupational safety research.
Abstract: Commercial fishing consistently has among the highest workforce injury and fatality rates in the United States. Data related to commercial fishing incidents are routinely collected by multiple organizations which do not currently coordinate or automatically link data. Each data set has the potential to generate a more complete picture to inform prevention efforts. Our objective was to examine the utility of using statistical data linkage methods to link commercial fishing incident data when personally identifiable information is not available. In this feasibility study, we identified true matches and discrepancies between de-identified data sets using the Python Record Linkage Toolkit. Four commercial fishing data sets from Oregon and Washington were linked: the Commercial Fishing Incident Database, the Vessel Casualty Database, the Nonfatal Injuries Database, and the Oregon Trauma Registry. The data sets each covered different date ranges within 2000–2017, containing 458, 524, 184, and 11 cases respectively. Several data linkage classifiers were evaluated. The Naive-Bayes classifier returned the highest number of true matches between these small data sets. A total of 41 true matches and 8 close matches were identified, of which 29 were determined to be duplicates. In addition, linkage highlighted 4 records that were not commercial fishing cases from Oregon and Washington. The optimum match parameters were the date, state, vessel official number, and number of people on board. Statistical data linkage enables accurate, routine matching for small de-identified injury and fatality data sets such as those in commercial fishing. It provides information needed to improve the accuracy of existing data records. It also enables expanding and sharpening details of individual incidents in support of occupational safety research.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Nighttime crash victims, particularly adults, were characterized by more frequent risky behaviors like carrying passengers, roadway riding, alcohol use, and lack of helmets, which put children at potential risk for injury.
Abstract: Driving at night is considered a risk factor for all-terrain vehicle (ATV) crashes and injuries but few studies have addressed this issue. Our objective was to compare daytime and nighttime ATV crashes to better understand the potential risk factors associated with riding at night. A retrospective study was conducted on Iowa ATV-related crashes and injuries from January 1, 2002 through December 31, 2019 using four statewide datasets: the Iowa Department of Transportation (2002–2019), the Iowa Department of Natural Resources (2002–2019), the Iowa State Trauma Registry (2002–2018) and Iowa newspaper clippings (2009–2019). A standardized coding system was developed, and matching records were identified using Link Plus®. Descriptive (frequencies) and bivariate (chi-square, Fisher's exact test) analyses were performed using VassarStats (Statistical Computation Website). Among crash victims where light conditions were documented (2125/3752, 57%), about one-quarter (485/2125, 23%) were injured at night. Nighttime crash victims were less likely youth (14% vs. 30%, p < 0.0001), less likely to be wearing helmets (11% vs. 18%, p = 0.003), and less frequently involved in motor vehicle crashes (7% vs. 14%, p < 0.0001) as compared to daytime victims. Nighttime victims were also more likely to be passengers (22% vs. 15%, p = 0.002), to test positive for alcohol (44% vs. 13% in adults, p < 0.0001), and to be injured on a roadway (53% vs. 45%, p = 0.007) and on weekends (76% vs. 63%, p < 0.0001). Numerous differences between daytime and nighttime characteristics were observed for males, females, and adults, whereas most characteristics were similar for youth. The severity of injuries and proportion of fatalities were similar among daytime and nighttime crash victims. Nighttime crash victims, particularly adults, were characterized by more frequent risky behaviors like carrying passengers, roadway riding, alcohol use, and lack of helmets. Whereas the frequency of risky behaviors among youth was similar for daytime and nighttime crashes, these behaviors put children at potential risk for injury. Multi-factorial, targeted injury prevention strategies are needed, including improved vehicle design, education about the dangers of nighttime operation, and passage and enforcement of ATV safety laws. Particularly relevant to our study are laws that prohibit nighttime riding.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors used generalized linear mixed models to identify factors associated with a composite outcome that they termed clinically significant injuries (defined as admission, operating room charge, sedation, fractures/dislocations, intracranial/eye injury, skin/soft tissue infection, or in-hospital mortality).
Abstract: Background To characterize pediatric dog bite injuries presenting to US children's hospitals and identify factors associated with clinically significant injuries. Methods We performed a multicenter observational study from 26 pediatric hospitals between July 1, 2010, and June 30, 2020, including patients ≤ 18 years with dog bites, consolidating together encounters from patients with multiple encounters within 30 days as a single episode of care. We characterized diagnoses and procedures performed in these patients. We used generalized linear mixed models to identify factors associated with a composite outcome that we term clinically significant injuries (defined as admission, operating room charge, sedation, fractures/dislocations, intracranial/eye injury, skin/soft tissue infection, or in-hospital mortality). Results 68,833 episodes were included (median age 6.6 years [interquartile range 3.5-10.4 years], 55.5% male) from 67,781 patients. We identified 16,502 patients (24.0%) with clinically significant injuries, including 6653 (9.7%) admitted, 5080 (7.4%) managed in the operating room, 11,685 (17.0%) requiring sedation, 493 (0.7%) with a skull fracture, 32 (0.0%) with a fracture in the neck or trunk, 389 (0.6%) with a fracture of the upper limb, 51 (0.1%) with a fracture in the lower limb, 15 (0.0%) with dislocations, 66 (0.1%) with an intracranial injury and 164 (0.2%) with an injury to the eyeball, 3708 (5.4%) with skin/soft tissue infections, and 5 (0.0%) with in-hospital mortality. In multivariable analysis, younger age (0-4 years, 5-9 years, and 10-14 years relative to 15-18 years), weekday injuries, and an income in the second and third quartiles (relative to the lowest quartile) had higher odds of clinically significant injuries. Black patients (relative to White), Hispanic/Latino ethnicity, and private insurance status (relative to public insurance) had lower odds of clinically important injuries. When evaluating individual components within the composite outcome, most followed broader trends. Conclusion Dog bites are an important mechanism of injury encountered in children's hospitals. Using a composite outcome measure, we identified younger, White, non-Hispanic children at higher risk of clinically significant injuries. Findings with respect to race and ethnicity and dog bite injuries warrant further investigation. Results can be used to identify populations for targeted prevention efforts to reduce severe dog bite injuries.

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TL;DR: A novel program integrating hemorrhage control into critical incident training for school staff in order to blunt the impact of mass casualty events on children is developed, implemented and evaluated.
Abstract: Background Following the shooting at Sandy Hook Elementary School, the Hartford Consensus produced the Stop the Bleed program to train bystanders in hemorrhage control. In our region, the police bureau delivers critical incident training to public schools, offering instruction in responding to violent or dangerous situations. Until now, widespread training in hemorrhage control has been lacking. Our group developed, implemented and evaluated a novel program integrating hemorrhage control into critical incident training for school staff in order to blunt the impact of mass casualty events on children. Methods The staff of 25 elementary and middle schools attended a 90-minute course incorporating Stop the Bleed into the critical incident training curriculum, delivered on-site by police officers, nurses and doctors over a three-day period. The joint program was named Protect Our Kids. At the conclusion of the course, hemorrhage control kits and educational materials were provided and a four-question survey to assess the quality of training using a ten-point Likert scale was completed by participants and trainers. Results One thousand eighteen educators underwent training. A majority were teachers (78.2%), followed by para-educators (5.8%), counselors (4.4%) and principals (2%). Widely covered by local and state media, the Protect Our Kids program was rated as excellent and effective by a majority of trainees and all trainers rated the program as excellent. Conclusions Through collaboration between trauma centers, police and school systems, a large-scale training program for hemorrhage control and critical incident response can be effectively delivered to schools.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the epidemiologic characteristics and trends of furniture and TV tip-over injuries treated in United States emergency departments among children < 6' years old.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Furniture and television tip-over injuries are an important source of injury to children, especially those younger than 6 years old. A current epidemiologic evaluation of tip-over injuries is needed, especially considering changes in the voluntary safety standard for clothing storage units (CSUs) and the shift in the consumer market from cathode ray tube to flat-screen televisions (TVs), and a decline in household TV ownership during recent years. The objective of this study is to update our understanding of the epidemiologic characteristics and trends of furniture (especially CSU) and TV tip-over injuries treated in United States emergency departments among children < 18 years old. METHODS This study retrospectively analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System from 1990 to 2019. Trends in population-based rates were evaluated with regression techniques. All numbers of cases are expressed as national estimates. RESULTS An estimated 560,203 children < 18 years old were treated in United States emergency departments for furniture or TV tip-over injuries during the 30-year study period, averaging 18,673 children annually. CSUs were involved in 17.2% (n = 96,321) of tip-overs, and TVs accounted for 41.1% (n = 230,325), which included 16,904 tip-overs (3.0%) that involved both a CSU and TV. The rate of furniture and TV tip-over injuries among children < 18 years old increased by 53.8% (p < 0.0001) from 1990 to 2010, and then decreased by 56.8% (p < 0.0001) from 2010 to 2019. Almost half (47.0%) of injuries occurred to the head/neck; 3.4% of children were admitted to the hospital. Children < 6 years old accounted for 69.9% of furniture and TV tip-over injuries overall; they accounted for 82.5% of CSU-related and 74.7% of TV-related tip-over injuries. CONCLUSIONS Despite the decline in tip-over injuries since 2010, more should be done to prevent these injuries, especially among children < 6 years old, because the number of injuries remains high, outcomes can be life-threatening, and effective prevention strategies are known. Safety education, warning labels, and promotion and use of tip restraint devices, while important, are not a substitute for strengthening and enforcing the stability requirements for CSUs and TVs.

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined associations between state-level firearm policies and non-fatal intimate partner violence (IPV)-related injuries among U.S. IPV survivors.
Abstract: Comprehensive state firearm policies related to intimate partner violence (IPV) may have a significant public health impact on non-lethal IPV-related injuries. Research indicates that more restrictive firearm policies may reduce risk for intimate partner homicide, however it is unclear whether firearm policies prevent or reduce the risk of non-lethal IPV-related injuries. This study sought to examine associations between state-level policies and injuries among U.S. IPV survivors. Individual-level data were drawn from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey, a nationally-representative study of noninstitutionalized adults. State-level data were drawn from a firearm policy compendium. Multivariable regressions were used to test associations of individual policies with non-fatal IPV-related injuries (N = 5493). Regression models were also conducted to explore differences in the policy-injury associations among women and men survivors. Three categories of policies were associated with IPV-related injuries. The odds of injuries was lower for IPV survivors living in states that prohibited firearm possession and require firearm relinquishment among persons convicted of IPV-related misdemeanors (aOR [95% CI] = .76 [.59, .97]); prohibited firearm possession and require firearm relinquishment among persons subject to IPV-related restraining orders (aOR [95% CI] = .81 [.66, .98]); and prohibited firearm possession among convicted of stalking (aOR [95% CI] = .82 [.68, .98]) than IPV survivors living in states without these policies. There was a significant difference between women and men survivors in the association between IPV-related misdemeanors policy and injuries (B [SE] = .60 [.29]), such that the association was stronger for men survivors (aOR [95% CI] = .10 [.06, .17]) than women survivors (aOR [95% CI] = .60 [.48, .76]). Restrictive state firearm policies regarding IPV may provide unique opportunities to protect IPV survivors from injuries.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the existing evidence on the burden of firearm suicide and what clinicians can do to reduce their patients' risk of firearm injury and death, including counseling on storage practices, temporary transfer of firearms, or further intervention may be appropriate.
Abstract: Suicide is complex, with psychiatric, cultural, and socioeconomic roots. Though mental illnesses like depression contribute to risk for suicide, access to lethal means such as firearms is considered a key risk factor for suicide, and half of suicides in the USA are by firearm. When a person at risk of suicide has access to firearms, clinicians have a range of options for intervention. Depending on the patient, the situation, and the access to firearms, counseling on storage practices, temporary transfer of firearms, or further intervention may be appropriate. In the USA, ownership of and access to firearms are common and discussing added risk of access to firearms for those at risk of suicide is not universally practiced. Given the burden of suicide (particularly by firearm) in the USA, the prevalence of firearm access, and the lethality of suicide attempts with firearms, we present the existing evidence on the burden of firearm suicide and what clinicians can do to reduce their patients' risk. Specifically, we review firearm ownership in the USA, firearm injury epidemiology, risk factors for firearm-related harm, and available interventions to reduce patients' risk of firearm injury and death.

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TL;DR: In this article, the relative contributions of a large set of covariates to the difference in mortality rates between Black and White children were analyzed using Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition.
Abstract: In the United States social disparities in health outcomes are found wherever they are sought, and they have been documented extensively in trauma care. Because social factors cannot cause a trauma outcome directly, there must exist mediating causal factors related to the nature and severity of the injury, the robustness of the victim, access to care, or processes of care. An understanding these mediators is the point of departure for addressing inequities in outcomes. Data were extracted from the registry of the Trauma Quality Improvement Program of the American College of Surgeons for 2007 through 2010. Inclusion criteria were age less than 19 years and head Abbreviated Injury Scale score of 4, 5, or 6. An Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition was undertaken to analyze the relative contributions of a large set of covariates to the difference in mortality rates between Black and White children. Covariates were aggregated into the following categories: “Severity,” “Structure and Process,” “Mechanism,” “Demographics,” and “Insurance.” Eligible for analysis were 7273 White children and 2320 Black children. There were 1661 deaths (17.3%) The raw mortality rates were 15.6 and 22.8% for White and Black children, respectively. Factors categorized as “Severity” accounted for 95% of the mortality difference, “Mechanism” accounted for 13%, “Insurance” accounted for 5%, and “Demographics” accounted for 2%. The contribution of “Structure and Process” did not attain statistical significance. Severity of injury accounts for most of the disparity between Black and White children in traumatic brain injury mortality rates. Mechanism, insurance status, and gender make a small contributions. Because insurance status like other social factors cannot directly affect trauma survival, what mediates its contribution requires further study.