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Showing papers in "International Journal in 1992"


Journal Article
TL;DR: Overall, milk production is lower during heat stress compared to thermoneutral periods and the cool period of hours per day with temperature less than 21° C provides a margin of safety to reduce the effects of heat stress on decreased milk production.

216 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors define and conceptualize progress in international relations, by Emanuel Adler, Beverly Crawford, and Jack Donnelly, and define a dynamic approach for the study of international relations and their progress.
Abstract: Defining and conceptualizing progress in international relations, by Emanuel Adler, Beverly Crawford, and Jack DonnellyCognitive evolution: a dynamic approach for the study of international relations and their progress, by Emanuel AdlerChange in regime type and progress in international relations, by Philippe C. SchmitterSeasons of peace: progress in postwar international security, by Emanuel AdlerThe ideas of progress and U.S. nonproliferation policy, by Michael BrennerEmbedded liberalism revisited: institutions and progress in international economic relations, by John Gerard RuggieProgress for the rich: the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement, by Robert T. Kudrle and Stefanie Ann LenwayMaking progress in international environmental protection, by Peter M. HaasProgress in human rights, by Jack DonnellyAssisting the Palestinian refugees: progress in human rights?, by Benjamin N. SchiffStructuralism and its critics: recent progress in international relations theory, by Stephen HaggardToward a theory of progress in international relations, by Beverly Crawford

73 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored how political leaders think about international co-operation and examined three explanations of how, when, and why leaders decide to co-operate, concluding that assessments of gains and losses are central.
Abstract: Individuals, organizations, and states routinely co-operate across a broad range of activities. Much of this co-operation is the product of harmonious interests and does not require explanation. More puzzling is co-operation that occurs despite divergent interests, or when convergent interests have to be identified and coordinated before the parties can achieve jointly what they could not accomplish individually.' This kind of co-operation is the focus of this volume. In this collection, we explore how political leaders think about international co-operation. We then examine three explanations of how, when, and why leaders decide to co-operate. Advocates of liberal, realist, and cognitive explanations all concur that assessments of gains and losses are central

33 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The failure of the United States and Britain to co-operate in response to this crisis led to a humiliating diplomatic defeat for Britain and a serious, albeit temporary, weakening of the Atlantic alliance as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: In the autumn of 1956, Britain, France, and Israel undertook military action against Egypt in an effort to overthrow its president and reverse his nationalization of the Suez Canal. The United States, Britain's closest ally, opposed the operation and ensured its defeat. Unlike other contributions to this volume, therefore, this chapter examines a case of the failure to co-operate. This failure is puzzling when one considers the close diplomatic and personal ties between the two governments and their leaders, the shared perceptions of the canal as a vital artery of Western trade, and similar views of Gamal Abdel Nasser as an unsavoury and obstreperous dictator determined to reduce Western influence in the Middle East. The crucial failure of the United States and Britain to co-operate in response to this crisis led to a humiliating diplomatic defeat for Britain and a serious, albeit temporary, weakening of the Atlantic alliance.' I examine the way in which the two most critical decisions were framed by

27 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Two horses were sitting at a bar reminiscing about the day's races and a greyhound sitting at the far end of the bar put down his beer and approached the two horses as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Two horses were sitting at a bar reminiscing about the day's races. The strangest thing happened today,' said the first horse. 'I was waiting for the start of the fifth race at Rockingham Park, when I felt this odd twitch in my hind leg. As soon as the race started, I sprinted to the lead, and never looked back. I won by four lengths.' 'What a coincidence,' said the second horse. The same thing happened to me in the third race at Suffolk Downs. I felt the same twitch just before the race, and I ran faster than I ever have in my life. I won by six lengths!' Just then a greyhound sitting at the far end of the bar put down his beer and approached the two horses. 'Pardon me, boys,' he said, 'but I couldn't help overhearing your conversation. You'll never believe this, but I felt a strange twitch in my leg, too, just before the start of the second race at Wonderland today; I set a course record, winning by eight lengths!' 'Now there's something you don't see every day,' said the first horse to the second: 'A talking dog!'

26 citations




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Structural Impediments Initiative (siI) as mentioned in this paper was a joint initiative between the United States and Japan to rectify the trade and payments imbalance between the two countries, which required each side to scrutinize and seek to alter policies and practices in the other which are normally considered the preserve of domestic politics.
Abstract: Imagine two families, living on opposite sides of a wide boulevard. They agree to visit each other's homes and make a critical assessment of the wallpaper, the furniture, the family budget, and the eating habits of the children. Each recommends changes for the other: rearranging the furniture, eating less meat (and more rice), visiting the grandparents more often. Each agrees to adopt its neighbour's recommendations, to implement them on a specified timetable, and to monitor the results. The neighbours expect to become better friends as a result. The Structural Impediments Initiative (siI) was a novel and ambitious attempt to rectify the trade and payments imbalance between the United States and Japan. It was launched as a joint initiative by President Bush and Prime Minister Uno in June 1989, and, following a year of concentrated formal negotiations and informal meetings, a final agreement was signed in June 199 o . The sii required each side to scrutinize and seek to alter policies and practices in the other which are normally considered the preserve of domestic politics. For example, the United States emphasized the manner in which Japan utilized its land, the

23 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The conceptual framework is new and challenging in adapting prospect theory to foreign policy decision-making; the cases are well chosen, clearly written, and analytically strong; the theoretical and applied implications of the work are highly suggestive and stimulating; and the writing is sensible and mercifully sententious.
Abstract: "This is an excellent book. The conceptual framework is new and challenging in adapting prospect theory to foreign policy decisionmaking; the cases are well chosen, clearly written, and analytically strong; the theoretical and applied implications of the work are highly suggestive and stimulating; and the writing is sensible and mercifully sententious."--Edward Kolodziej, University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign.

22 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors make a compelling case that three images or levels of analysis human beings, their national groupings or states, and the international system itself are central to explaining the origins of war.
Abstract: In 1959 Kenneth Waltz made a compelling case in his book, Man, the State and War, that three images or levels of analysis human beings, their national groupings or states, and the international system itselfare central to explaining the origins of war. In the 1990s those of realist persuasion (and others) will find it increasingly useful to explain international behaviour by concentrating on a fourth level somewhere between the state and the international system: the region. Even though we live in a world of unprecedented transnationalism and supranationalism above the state and resurgent ethno-nationalism below it, regions are assuming greater importance for two fundamental reasons. First, the ending of Soviet-American strategic competition has placed greater emphasis on local rather than on global dynamics in security matters. Second, the globalization of production and finance is having the unexpected consequence of accelerating regional economic integration, usually along continental lines, in the most economically advanced areas of the world. Most North American and European analysts have been transfixed by the dramatic events surrounding the ending of the Cold War in Europe, the collapse of communism in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union, and the new era in RussianAmerican relations. These developments certainly have had their reverberations in an area covering the Asian side of the Pacific




Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a wide-ranging volume analyzes the Intifada in three ways: it defines the nature of the intifada and its relationship both to previous Palestinian resistance movements and to the current PLO leadership.
Abstract: The Palestinian uprising, or Intifada, erupted in December 1987. Since then, successive Israeli governments, the Arab world, and the superpowers have reacted to the complex events in the Middle East in distinct - and discordant - ways. This wide-ranging volume analyzes the Intifada in three ways. It defines the nature of the Intifada and its relationship both to previous Palestinian resistance movements and to the current PLO leadership. It examines the impact of the Intifada on intra-Arab affairs and on the United States and the Soviet Union. Finally, it deals with the effect of the Intifada on Israel's two major political parties, Likud and Labor, on Israeli society, and on Israel's Arab minority and its economy. The authors present a variety of viewpoints. Helena Cobban, a specialist on the PLO who has frequent contacts with its top leadership, describes the PLO's connection with the Intifada. David Pollock, Middle East specialist in the United States Information Agency, examines US policy towards the Intifada. George Gruen, director of Israel and Middle East affairs at the American Jewish Committee, writes about the American Jewish reaction to the Intifada. Five scholars who have lived in Israel describe the impact of the Intifada on that country. This comprehensive book should be of value to policy-makers, journalists, political scientists and all students of Middle East affairs.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examined how decision-makers gather information about the situations they face, how they evaluate what they have learned, and how these evaluations affect their policy choices across a range of international economic and security issues.
Abstract: The case-studies in this volume have tried to understand foreign policy decisions to co-operate with other governments by exploring how decision-makers frame specific problems. We have examined how decision-makers gather information about the situations they face, how they evaluate what they have learned, and how these evaluations affect their policy choices. The five cases provide descriptively accurate accounts of policy-making processes across a range of international economic and security issues. In the analysis of these cases, we focused on a specific set

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors address two issues associated with Japan's increased role in the world's financial system, including the extent to which Japan's rise has undermined the financial hegemony of the United States.
Abstract: The global financial system has been undergoing enormous structural changes in recent years. Not only have financial markets become integrated to a degree unparalleled in the post1945 period, but immense shifts are also under way in the underlying power positions of states. Although full European monetary and financial union will pose a serious threat to American financial hegemony in the near future, the more dramatic shift to date has been the growth in Japan's financial power. This essay addresses two issues associated with Japan's increased role in the world's financial system. The first section seeks to clarify the debate concerning the degree to which Japan's rise has undermined the financial hegemony of the United States. By putting Japan's current position in a long historical context, it is shown that Japan's financial influence has often been exaggerated. At the same time, however, there are strong reasons to believe that it will continue to grow in the coming years. The second section


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performance of the ill-fated multi-national forces deployed to Lebanon in the early eighties was unique in the history of international peacekeeping: analysts agree that no other operation suffered so much to achieve so little.
Abstract: The performance of the ill-fated multi-national forces deployed to Lebanon in the early eighties was unique in the history of international peacekeeping: analysts agree that no other operation suffered so much to achieve so little. As one of the few peacekeeping forces conducted outside UN auspices, MNFI was a daring attempt by three, later four, Western powers to exert influence and contain bloodshed in Beirut in the summer of 1982. By the fall of 1983, MNF had become part of the problem rather than its solution. The two-year history of the MNF, presented here in essays first delivered at the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs, demonstrated the hazard of applying military means to political conflicts and offers invaluable lessons for ocnflict management. The contributors - soldiers, academics, journalists, politicians and diplomats - almost all had direct personal experience in the deployment of the MNF. Though their viewpoints vary, one consensus to emerge is that ignorance of Lebanese social and religious complexities among decisions-makers in Washington, Paris, Rome, New York and London explains many of the problems. In the end, the MNF was a tragic player with no clear mandate and a thankless task in difficult circumstances. The book's sections cover historical and theoretical background on the general issue of peacekeeping; military, diplomatic and political views from the four contributing nations; and views of "other interested parties" such as the Israel Defence Force, the Lebanese Armed Forces and the Shiites.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of human rights in Canada's foreign policy is in evolution and transition, adapting and reacting to the momen- as discussed by the authors The trend towards greater calls to respect human rights and political freedoms is as uncertain as the future role of the United Nations and other international, regional, and, in some cases, national regimes and styles of government.
Abstract: These are extraordinary times. As the end of the millennium approaches, incommensurable feelings of optimism and dread are in the air. History will record this period as the time the Cold War ended, the Soviet empire disintegrated, the map of Europe was redrawn, new independent states emerged, the roots of South African apartheid were severed, and major unintended changes occurred to the environment because of new technologies and economic growth. Significant points of reference are shifting, but as yet no one knows where will they stabilize. Still unfolding are struggles for supremacy between the forces of democracy and inward-looking nationalisms, between a fragile global ecosystem and the much vaunted but highly elusive new international economic order. Woven into this matrix of power relations are challenges to gender, race, and class inequities perpetrated by institutions with inherent patriarchal, racist, and classist tendencies. The tensions created by these struggles cause fear and uncertainty for many people because old ways seem incapable of dealing with unprecedented human rights dilemmas and challenges. The trend towards greater calls to respect human rights and political freedoms is as uncertain as the future role of the United Nations and other international, regional, and, in some cases, national regimes and styles of government. The role of human rights in Canada's foreign policy is in evolution and transition, adapting and reacting to the momen-

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Latin American Strategy as discussed by the authors was a proposal produced by the department in 1989 which recommended oas membership and a number of related actions succeeded in rekindling largely dormant relationships and is now being amplified.
Abstract: strikingly new phase since 1989. Not merely through the North American Free Trade Agreement (nafta) negotiations but, more broadly as an activist in the Organization of American States (oas), a peacekeeper in Central America, and a protagonist in the Haiti debacle Canada has become an active participant in inter-American affairs. More has been written about Mexico by Canadians in the last three years than in the whole of the previous century. And within the Department of External Affairs and International Trade, Latin America has definitely moved up to occupy a higher rung on the foreign policy ladder and is now widely perceived as a region of potential rather than of problems. The Latin American Strategy a proposal produced by the department in 1989 which recommended oas membership and a number of related actions succeeded in rekindling largely dormant relationships and is now being amplified. There is, in short, a sense of expectation and modest accomplishment. But there is not yet a coherent policy more a set of partial policies or building blocks. Despite all the positive signs since 1989, Canada's relations with Latin America retain a certain fragility, as if the historic lack of a long-term political commitment still impedes an irreversible reorientation of Canada's relations with the Americas.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The FSX (Fighter Support Experimental) agreement as mentioned in this paper was a classic case of co-operation for mutual gain, and the agreement promised to strengthen an alliance that both sides deemed critical, to enhance the security of the Pacific region, and to provide both countries with cutting-edge technology.
Abstract: THE PUZZLE OF THE FSX In November i988 the United States and Japan formally agreed to co-operate in the development and production of a new breed of aircraft, a sophisticated fighter dubbed the FSX (Fighter Support Experimental). Under the memorandum of understanding that was signed, the two sides were to collaborate on all aspects of the aircraft's development, sharing the revenues, the risks, and virtually all of the technology. Barring technical difficulties, the agreement provided for the 'co-development' of Japan's next generation of fighter aircraft, with production to commence in 1997. In many respects, the FSX agreement was a classic case of co-operation for mutual gain. The agreement promised to strengthen an alliance that both sides deemed critical, to enhance the security of the Pacific region, and to provide both countries with cutting-edge technology. In addition, co-development was attractive because it was, to a large extent, merely an extension of a co-operative relationship that had existed since the end of World War II.' The specific decision to co-operate on the FSX is not, there-

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (unced) of 1992 symbolizes the ascendance of environmental issues on the global agenda in the 1980s and 1990s as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: policy. The United Nations Conference on the Human Environment of 1972 is associated with the first generation of international environmental activities in the 1960s and 1970s, while the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (unced) of 1992 symbolizes the ascendance of environmental issues on the global agenda in the 1980s and 1990s. In terms of style and substance, there is a strong sense of progression between the two events. Both attracted considerable attention from the


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The involvement of mainstream environmentalists in the trade/environment interconnection is not new; work on this issue within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd), for example, extends back some two decades as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: ronmental protection is not new; work on this issue within the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (oecd), for example, extends back some two decades.1 Until recently, however, the major interest had come from those whose primary interest was trade policy rather than from those whose interest was environmental management.2 The involvement of mainstream environmentalists in the trade/environment inter-

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The state as a contested concept in international relations, Cornelia Navari reality and illusion in the acquisition of statehood, Willie Henderson the variety of states, James Mayall foreign policy and the domestic factor, Brian Porter diplomacy and the modern state, Christopher Hill the state and integration.
Abstract: Introduction - the state as a contested concept in international relations, Cornelia Navari reality and illusion in the acquisition of statehood, Willie Henderson the variety of states, James Mayall foreign policy and the domestic factor, Brian Porter diplomacy and the modern state, Christopher Hill the state and integration, John Brown Martin Kolinsky on the withering away of the state, Cornelia Navari the state and war, Philip Windsor what ought to be done about the condition of states?, Mervyn Frost Hegel, civil society and the state, John Charvet the duties of liberal states, Christopher Brewin states, food and the world common interest, Michael Donelan.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Resourcism is a kind of modern religion which casts all of creation into categories of utility and devalues all. But all we really have is a licence to exploit it as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: Resourcism is a kind of modern religion which casts all of creation into categories of utility. By treating everything as homogeneous matter in search of a use it devalues all. Yet its most dangerous aspect is its apparent good intention. By describing something as a resource we seem to have cause to protect it. But all we really have is a licence to exploit it. Neil Evernden, The Natural Alien, 1985

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In recent years, Canada has become widely recognized in the world community as a proponent of sustainable development, both at home and abroad, and this approach is reflected in the Green Plan, one of only a handful of active national programmes for sustainable development as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In recent years Canada has become widely recognized in the world community as a proponent of sustainable development, both at home and abroad. Domestically, this approach is reflected in the Green Plan, one of only a handful of active national programmes for sustainable development. Internationally, Canada has played a prominent role over the past twenty years in co-operative responses to specific environmental problems including climate change, depletion of the ozone layer, and, through the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and earlier agreements, protection of the ocean environment. Canada has also become strongly identified with efforts to put sustainable development on the international agenda. It contributed to the work of the World Commission on Environment and