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Showing papers in "International Journal of Advanced Research in Management and Social Sciences in 2015"


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors found that there is a negative linear relationship between likelihood of financial distress and corporate cash holdings, and confirmed a positive relationship between cash flow variability and corporate stock holdings.
Abstract: Cash is an important requirement to ensure continued operations, yet excessive cash holdings might result in many problems which include; higher opportunity costs of holding cash, cash abuse, a tool for obtaining the controlled self-interests and the higher agency costs. The study established that there is a negative and insignificant linear relationship between growth opportunities and corporate cash holdings. The study also revealed that leverage is a significant positive determinant of corporate cash holdings in line with the precautionary motive. In regard to firm size, the study findings indicate that firm size positively determines corporate cash holding. Further, the study revealed that there is a negative linear relationship between likelihood of financial distress and cash holdings. The findings also confirmed a positive relationship between cash flow variability and corporate cash holdings. The study therefore concludes that; leverage, firm size, likelihood of financial distress and cash flow variability determine corporate cash holdings among private manufacturing firms in Kenya.

34 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a non-probability sampling design named VOLUME 7, 2019 VOLUME 6, 2019 "voluntary sampling" design, which divides the target population into volunteers and non-volunteers strata.
Abstract: This article proposes a novel non-probability sampling design named “voluntary sampling” design. The final survey sample is selected from volunteered and qualified potential respondents in the target population. The intent to conduct a survey is published prior to the implementation of the sampling design. This accords prospective respondents ample time to decide on whether or not to volunteer for selection to participate in the survey. A pilot sampling is conducted to determine the alacrity of the prospective respondents to participate in the survey. The proposed sampling design divides the target population into volunteers and non-volunteers strata. The implementation of the sampling design achieved a hundred percentage response rate and gathered quality and dependable research data in a brief HIV/AIDS survey.

32 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the impact of globalization on higher education is discussed and a number of countries have introduced reforms to meet the challenges arising out of such a situation, though the context and nature of reforms vary from one country to another.
Abstract: Globalization has, as we all know, entered almost every aspect of human life. It has affected the day-to-day routine trades and services of the people of various countries. Globalization can be seen widely in areas of agriculture, handicrafts, technologies, etc. In short it can be said that globalization has affected all the sectors of economy. The process of globalization, though rapidly developing in recent times, is by no means completely a modern phenomenon. In the realm of education, the institutions of higher education face new pressures and demands for accountability, access, quality, introduction of new technologies and curriculum. A number of countries have introduced reforms to meet the challenges arising out of such a situation, though the context and nature of reforms vary from one country to another. The present paper emphasizes on the meaning of higher education and globalization, impact of globalization on higher education

13 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors have highlighted the reasons and forms of cyber crime and explored some suggestions how to curb cyber crime against women and how it is impacting their social life in the context of India.
Abstract: Violence against women is a violation of human rights and not a new phenomenon. It is always taking it shapes time to time in Indian history. With the passage of time, many feminists fought against women violence and for their empowerment in the society, but there is no end of her vulnerable life and her exploitation. Thanks to the information technology which brought a great revolution in the communication space for making world a ‘Global Village’ and giving equal realization of rights to women. Invention of World Wide Web, mobile phones and tabs etc. changed women's standard of living. Although, these inventions came with huge benefits for us, but it too has some negative effects on our life and created great threat which is generally known as Cyber Crime. Mostly, cyber crimes take place against women who can be easily exploited. Due to lack of evidences and fear of defamation, identifying criminal is very hard. Cyber violence has exposed women to cyber defamation, sexual harassment and abuse, pornography, email-misrepresentation etc. Women receive sexual and disturbing massage from unknown emails and phone numbers which may be the result of their harassment and can disrobe her before society at large, which takes her to the brink of committing suicide. This paper presumes the cyber violence against women, how it is impacting their social life in the context of India. It highlights the reasons and forms of cyber crime and explores some suggestions how to curb cyber crime against women.

8 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of career development and training on employee performance was investigated in 6 KCB branches in the North Rift region of Kenya using a case study research design approach.
Abstract: The relationship between the organization and its employees is influenced by what motivates them to work, the rewards and fulfillment they derive from the organization. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of training and career development on employee performance, a study of Kenya Commercial Bank. The study was conducted in 6 KCB branches in the North Rift region. The study adopted a case study research design approach. Census technique was used to collect data from 6 branches of Kenya Commercial Bank in the North Rift Region. The study relied on both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected through questionnaires while secondary data was sourced through review of relevant records. Data analysis for this study was conducted through qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaires were tested for reliability and validity. Data coding, entry and analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20.0). The analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, proportions and percentages. Research findings indicate that indeed trainings and career development has an impact on their performance. From regression analysis, it was observed that trainings and career development contributed to 55.29% of employee performance while the rest contributed to 44.71%. The study therefore concluded that trainings and career development highly influence employee performance and thus recommends that KCB and any other financial institution should focus more on trainings and career development in enhancing their employee performance and reduce the employee turnover.

7 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigate whether social norms affecting entrepreneurial intention in three countries (Iran, Argentina and Singapore) can influence entrepreneurial intention; and the impact of entrepreneurial competencies and innovation confidence (individual factors) as mediator variables are investigated.
Abstract: Starting a business is not an accidental behavior. We react to the conditions around us by starting a new venture intentionally. Establishment of new ventures is the outcome of entrepreneurial intent. intention is the best predictor of individual behaviors that situational factor can affect it. Social norms (as situational factor) often reflect the influence of a community culture and provide guidelines for what in a culture is regarded as desirable. So the main question of this study is to investigate whether that social norms affecting entrepreneurial intention in three countries (Iran, Argentina and Singapore). Also, individual factors can influence on entrepreneurial intention; so the impact of entrepreneurial competencies and innovation confidence (individual factors) as mediator variables are investigated. The model of research tested by SEM technique. The sample consisted of 7038 in the year 2012 based on data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). Results show that social norms have a positive effect on entrepreneurial intention. Also social norms have empowered affect on entrepreneurial intention through the mediator variables.

7 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors systematically introduce and analyse the concepts of Direct Selling, Multi-level marketing and Illegal Ponzi Pyramid schemes. And they argue for the legalisation of Multi-Level Marketing schemes in India.
Abstract: This paper systematically introduces and analyses the concepts of Direct Selling, Multi-level Marketing and Illegal Ponzi Pyramid schemes. Multi-level marketing is a multi-million dollar global industry. There exists a thin line differentiating a valid Multi-level Marketing scheme and bogus Pyramid money circulation scheme. The Indian courts reading Multi-level Marketing schemes as synonymous with Money Circulation schemes defined in Prize Chits and Money Circulation (Prohibition) 1978 Act have held all Pyramid and Multilevel Marketing schemes illegal. The paper elucidates the position of law in India, as distinct from United States, and argues for the legalisation of Multi-level Marketing schemes.

7 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a study was conducted to measure the relationship between leadership styles and followership style (i.e. independent thinking and active engagement) using 79 usable questionnaires obtained from employees who were working in Delhi NCR, showed important findings by using Pearson correlation analysis: first, the most preferred style of leadership is participative leadership style; second, Exemplary style of followership is most preferred followership; third, Participative leadership is not significantly correlated with Independent & Critical thinking.
Abstract: A study was conducted to measure the relationship between leadership styles and followership style (i.e. Independent thinking and Active Engagement) using 79 usable questionnaires obtained from employees who are working in Delhi NCR, showed important findings by using Pearson Correlation analysis: first, the most preferred style of leadership is Participative leadership style; second, Exemplary style of followership is most preferred followership style; third, Participative leadership is not significantly correlated with Independent & Critical thinking.

6 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present an attempt in identifying the risk involved in succession management process, how to develop a plan and to integrate succession management with business strategy and policies, which is one of the best ways to build competitive advantage by ensuring steady and uninterrupted supply of required talent for the various management levels in the organization.
Abstract: Today's environments are changing rapidly that organizations are facing serious unpredictability and uncertainty, which sometimes causes instability in the business operations. In this dynamic environment, organizations need to rely on the most important assets: their people. Today's businesses must have the right people in the right jobs at the right times. They cannot afford to be without either enough people or the right people who can quickly fill a key role that could become vacant. Organizations need to strategize to motivate and connect their employees in order to create competitive advantage and achieving higher profitability. Organizations may consider methods like succession planning and management to promote their employees’ knowledge, skills, talents, and capabilities to tackle problems created by the challenging environments. An effective succession management is one of the best ways to build competitive advantage by ensuring steady and uninterrupted supply of required talent for the various management levels in the organization. Modern succession management is not only about finding replacement for top-level managerial roles, but it's also about finding the right talent and preparing them for the next role at all levels of management in the organization. The present paper is an attempt in identifying the risk involved in succession management process, how to develop a plan and to integrate succession management with business strategy and policies.

5 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigate the managerial perspectives on the firm characteristics and corporate cash holdings among in private manufacturing firms in Kenya and conclude that growth opportunities, leverage and debt structure, firm size, likelihood of financial distress and cash flow variability are all important drivers of corporate cash holding policy.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to investigate the managerial perspectives on the firm characteristics and corporate cash holdings among in private manufacturing firms in Kenya. Several international studies show that companies retain important cash holdings. Yet, the prevalent questions have been: Why do firms hold huge amount of cash? Is there an optimum level of cash holdings? A review of the extant literature reveals that mostly the current studies depend on secondary data to provide evidence on corporate cash holdings. This survey-based study sought to bridge this gap in the literature by examining chief finance officers of private manufacturing firms to comprehensively investigate the corporate cash holdings from a managerial perspective. A sample of 156 firms was selected for the survey using stratified random sampling technique from which 117 questionnaires were returned. The primary data was sourced through personally administered survey questionnaires to the chief finance officers. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics (independent sample t-test). The study concludes that CFOs of private manufacturing firms in Kenya are of the view that growth opportunities, leverage and debt structure, firm size, likelihood of financial distress and cash flow variability are all important drivers of corporate cash holding policy.

5 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The authors analyzes the role of media about women's participation in national politics and also analyzes whether or not women's voices and issues are articulated to the public as matters of importance.
Abstract: Political participation of women in any country gives an overview of how women are treated in society. The development of any country also depends on the equal participation of men and women. Since women's presence is seemed to be low in Indian politics, it is the duty of every human being to make them aware of their rights and motivate them for participating in mainstream politics. The constitution of India not only guarantees equality in society but also suggests states to make special provisions for women. Women still are fighting for equal status in society. Because of their low representation in Indian politics, their issues and problems are generally unseen and unnoticed. Their genuine demands are not raised before the decisions makers. Women need be dependent to make their own decisions. The media plays a significant role in determining how women in politics and decision-making bodies are viewed and perceived by society in general. It does not only play an important role in shaping the values of society but also reflects those values. It plays the role of an informer, educator and a mediator for social change. To have strong democratic governance, women's equal participation is must and therefore their contribution to this processes needs to be analyzed in the appropriate context by the media. There cannot be a real democracy if the voices and issues of women that constitute half the population of the country are ignored or sidelined. This paper analyzes the role of media about women's participation in national politics and also analyzes whether or not women's voices and issues are articulated to the public as matters of importance.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors compared the achievement of two groups of students-one taught economics through "Advance Organizer Model" and the other with conventional method, and found that the group of students who were trained through A.O.M. had significantly higher on the criterion achievement test.
Abstract: Education is the training for life for complete living. It has become a complex process with the passage of time because of the complex nature of modern industrial civilization and explosion of knowledge due to scientific discoveries and inventions. Education not only plays an important role in the teaching learning process, but also develops the innovative characteristics as confidence, economical standard and moral values in an individual. To meet the challenges of time and educational aspiration of society, there is need for an effective system of education. A traditional teacher equates the teaching with telling. But the task of a modern teacher is not only different but requires a varied and diversified approach. To raise achievement and hence to improve the quality of education in the classroom and to make the effective use of school curriculum, it is required to select and implement the appropriate teaching strategies. The research for good teaching models has agitated the minds of Bruce Joyce and Weil Marsha. They have grouped the models of teaching into four families as per the nature of specific objectives to be achieved through these models. The present study is an effort in the direction of comparing the achievement of two groups of students-one taught economics through ‘Advance Organizer Model and other with conventional method. It was found that the group of students taught economics through A.O.M.-Advance Organizer Model has scored significantly higher on the criterion achievement test.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors explored the e-commerce management in Indian market, including a few with significant international brand profiles, and concluded the different strategies and tactics adopted by marketing companies and helps to identify the buzz created by companies to create the demand and brand equity.
Abstract: This study explores the E-Commerce management in Indian market, including a few with significant international brand profiles. It contributes by concluding secondary data and getting insights into the e-commerce branding. Analysis results suggest a widespread appreciation of the importance of e-commerce, different branding building strategies including co-branding and affiliating with established online and offline brands, distribution partnerships, content alliances and personalized e-mail contacts. These communication vehicles included newspapers, radio, magazines, television, public relations, trade events and promotions, personalized e-mail notifications, affiliate programmes with other websites and banner advertisements. This study is based on collection and analysis of secondary data and it conclude the different strategies and tactics adopted by marketing companies and helps to identify the buzz created by companies to create the demand and brand equity.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors collected data from a purposive sample of 100 expecting mothers through a self reporting questionnaire and focus group discussions and found that most mothers preferred female midwives than male midwives.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to gather expecting mothers’ preference of midwife gender. This was motivated by the fact that, catering for expecting mothers’ preferences in midwife deployment is a strategy to promote client centered service delivery in hospitals. It is also expected to reduce home deliveries by woman who fear exposing their bodies to males who are not their husbands. A combination of a descriptive survey and historical research design was applied in this study. Data was collected from a purposive sample of 100 expecting mothers through a self reporting questionnaire and focus group discussions. The study found that, male midwives were only allowed to train and practice as midwives when the Sex Discrimination Act of 1975 was implemented. Otherwise midwifery was a female to female affair. The majority of expecting mothers prefer female midwifes. There was an association between midwife preference and location. The majority of mothers in rural areas prefer female midwives. Factors contributing to these preferences include, age (mature mothers prefer female midwives while young mothers (10 – 20) years do not mind. Culture and religious beliefs are the other factors that contribute to female midwife preference. This study recommends that: (1)Gweru provincial hospital school of midwifery should train more female midwives than males. The study suggests a ratio of 2:3 for male: female midwife trainees. This midwife gender imbalance is based on the finding that more mothers prefer female midwives than male midwives. (2) More female midwives should be deployed in the rural areas and growth points where they are mostly preferred.(3) Further studies at a larger scale are called for since this research's findings are just a tip of an iceberg in the midlands province of Zimbabwe.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the challenges and opportunities of social workers in industrial establishment are examined and the challenges of social work in industrial organizations are discussed. But, they do not consider the role of women in industrial social work.
Abstract: Industrial social work's development is influenced by the historical forces — social, economic and cultural in a particular country at a specific point of time. The field of industrial social work is still evolving in India as well as other parts of the world. The scope of social work in an industrial organization is within the administrative purview of the personnel or labour welfare department, as the department is concerned with the welfare of the operative employees. This paper examines the challenges and opportunities of social workers in industrial establishment.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The Look East Policy as discussed by the authors was proposed by India's Prime Minister Narasimha Rao's Singapore lecture in 1994, the precursor of what is now known as India's Look East policy, which mobilizes its diplomatic, political and economic resources to its optimal level so much as to achieve a multi-dimensional relation with the countries of Southeast Asia.
Abstract: India's Relations have passed through many phases and experienced ups and downs with Southeast Asia, a region which has indeed occupied a place in India's foreign policy. But the options and capabilities that were required to achieve desired goals and objectives were never put into operation until recently when India suddenly felt a sense of envy for the overall development and progress that region had accomplished within a period of three decades, and evolved to the extent of helping India to integrate itself with the global economy. That the line of thinking in India's relations towards Southeast Asia found its expression more concretely in the then India's Prime Minister Narasimha Rao's Singapore lecture in 1994, the precursor of what is now known as India's Look East policy. From that time onwards, India mobilized its diplomatic, political and economic resources to its optimal level so much as to achieve a multi-dimensional relation with the countries of Southeast Asia.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the role of remuneration and career advancement practices on the retention of employees in organization by reviewing existing theoretical and empirical evidences from textbooks and journals has been reviewed.
Abstract: In a globalized environment, attraction and retention of high prospective employees is a huge challenge to organizations especially in times of high turnover rates. In many instances even engaged employees are sometimes dissatisfied with the human resource management practices in place which may lead them to look elsewhere. This theoretical paper investigates the role of remuneration practices and career advancement practices on the retention of employees in organization by reviewing existing theoretical and empirical evidences from textbooks and journals. Remuneration and career advancement practices that enhance employee retention have also been reviewed. The review revealed that these practices are crucial in influencing employee satisfaction hence retention. Thus organizations should formulate appropriate remuneration and career advancement practices to reduce turnover rate and increase retention rates. However these require a commitment from employers, but will be worth the investment in the long term.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors highlight some basic aspects of regional cooperation in South Asia through the emergence of SAARC as a forum of economic integration, and highlight the fact that India and Pakistan are known as the states to disturb peace and tranquility of this region.
Abstract: The fact is that the idea of regionalism in South Asia is not new one. But as a regional forum, it emerged in 1985 as well as the idea of regional cooperation was mooted by Bangladesh. After that such cooperation is taking place both bilaterally and multilaterally among the member states of SAARC as a regional organization. However, some of the scholars assume the fact that South Asia is a turbulent region. Today India and Pakistan are known as the states to disturb peace and tranquility of this region. But in spite of this, SAARC is making progress in the economic perspectives, and transport connectivity among South Asian Countries may be observed. Thus, the present paper highlights some basic aspects of regional cooperation in South Asia through the emergence of SAARC as a forum of economic integration.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a study was conducted to explore the awareness of the students and government employees on the different environmental issues and problems and the perceived remedial measures and found that the respondents are aware of the environmental issues but may be they are not fully aware of environmental issues due to insufficient role of media/public forum, lack of environmental education, and lack of government initiatives to make people aware.
Abstract: Environment can have formative impacts on students and employees perspectives regarding environment issues. This study was conducted to explore the awareness of the students and government employees on the different environmental issues and problems and the perceived remedial measures. Specifically it sought for the answers of the following problems: 1. To determine if the two groups of respondents are aware of the environmental issues. 2. To find out the reasons why do the respondents are not fully aware of the environmental issues; 3. To determine what environmental issues do the two groups of respondents aware of; 4. To find out what are the actions or initiatives were taken by the government that the respondents aware of; 4.1 There is no significant difference of the responses of the two groups of respondents on the actions or initiatives were taken by the government that the respondents aware of; 5) To determine what remedial measures can be further done to reduce environmental problems. 5.1 To determine if there is a significant difference between the responses of the two groups of respondents on what remedial measures can be further done to reduce environmental problems. This study surveyed 90 undergraduate students and 30 graduate students and 30 government employees at Dagupan, Tabuk City in October 2014. Results of the study revealed that the respondents are aware of the environmental issues but may be they are not fully aware of the issues due to insufficient role of media/public forum, lack of environmental education, lack of government initiatives to make people aware. On what they are most aware, both the responded that they are most aware of the following environmental issues/problems such as air pollution, deforestation, water pollution, and depletion of ozone layer. The respondents said that the following actions were taken by the government to control the environmental issues such as sanitation program, agriculture fair, anti-smoking law, social forestry, and Prohibition of using Poly bag (plastic bags). The correlation showed that there is significant difference between the responses of the two groups of respondents on the actions taken by the government to control environmental issues. It was found out that the following remedial measures are suggested: Efficient public awareness, Promoting Urban Green Spaces, Enhance the promotion of Clean Energy Vehicles and high efficiency vehicles, Enhance the promotion and development of New Energy Saving Technologies, Promote Efficiency of Distribution System Nationwide to minimize traffic issues are to be considered. Based on this, the correlation showed that there is significant difference between the responses of the two groups of respondents on the remedial measures to control environmental issues.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The concept of work-life balance is increasingly becoming important in India as more and more women with children are joining the workforce, and the families are increasingly becoming nuclear and dual-earner as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The concept of work-life balance is increasingly becoming important in India as more and more women with children are joining the workforce, and the families are increasingly becoming nuclear and dual-earner. As an outcome, more and more working professionals feel the need to balance their work and their personal life. Under present market forces and strict competition, the companies are forced to be competitive. The companies must seek ways to become more efficient, productive, flexible and innovative, under constant pressure to improve results. Keeping in view the sector which has huge potential for growth, the study was conducted on the employees of the insurance sector, which is now being treated to be synonymous to stress and high pressure environment.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors trace the 2009-2013 Bachelor of Arts in History graduates from their school of origin to their place of employment or self employment to obtain the needed information, and determine the extent by which factors affect the employment status of the graduates.
Abstract: In many countries a new demand is emerging: higher education institutions should provide empirical evidence regarding the professional relevance of their study Programs. This study intended to trace the 2009–2013 Bachelor of Arts in History graduates from their school of origin to their place of employment or self employment to obtain the needed information. It also determined the extent by which factors affect the employment status of the graduates. The data collected were carefully tabulated, organized, analyzed and interpreted using frequency and percentages. Weighted Mean was used to describe the extent of effect of factors on the status of the AB History graduates. The study determined that the AB History graduates are much affected by the identified factors. The study recommends that On the Job Training in large companies/organizations should be arranged for graduates to so that they can gain work experience. Moreover, the code of professional ethics should be incorporated in the curriculum to develop sound work ethics, values and professionalism among the graduates in preparation for their integration to mainstream society. Finally, it is further recommended that curriculum planning and development in higher education should place greater emphasis on multiple and practical skills acquisition or practice oriented study.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The results indicate that there is significant difference between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Adolescents.
Abstract: The aim of the study is to examine the Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Adolescents. The sample comprised of 100 college students ranging in age between 16–17 years studying in Junior and Senior Intermediate in Tirupati town. The sample consisted of 50 Boys and 50 Girl Adolescents. The participants were administered with Emotional Intelligence scale developed by Mangal and Mangal (2004). Chi – square test was used for analysis of the data. The results of the study indicate that there is significant difference between Emotional Intelligence and Academic Achievement among Adolescents.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors highlight the concept of performance attribution and discuss the different attribution models used in equity mutual funds and discuss how performance return attribution results are useful to the portfolio manager as well other stakeholders in the asset management process.
Abstract: Most of the researches carried out in the domain of mutual fund is the evaluation of the performance of various mutual funds whether actively managed or passively managed using risk adjusted performance measures. The empirical and conceptual research has paid little attention to the concept of performance attribution.”Performance attribution is a technique used to quantify the excess return of a portfolio against its benchmark into the active decisions of the investment decision process” (Bacon, 2008). Performance attribution analysis is a tool to understand the sources of return in a portfolio. This paper highlights the concept of performance attribution and discusses the different attribution models used in equity mutual funds. The performance return attribution results are useful to the portfolio manager as well other stakeholders in the asset management process. Performance attribution also provides individual investors with information necessary to guide their financial planning.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of merger and acquisitions on the financial performance of the selected banks in India were evaluated and a pre and post comparison was conducted on selected variables to analyse the effectiveness of mergers and acquisition on the banks.
Abstract: In the present era of global economy, Mergers and Acquisitions have become the most widely used business strategy of corporate restructuring and strengthening to achieve greater market share, long term profitability, entering new markets, capitalising on economies of scale etc. The present paper evaluates the effects of merger and acquisitions on the financial performance of the selected banks in India. Pre and post merger comparison is conducted on selected variables to analyse the effectiveness of mergers and acquisitions on the banks. Two cases of merger and acquisitions have been taken randomly as sample for the study, first the merger of ICICI bank and The Bank of Rajasthan, and second the merger of HDFC bank and Centurion Bank of Punjab. The results of the study indicate that there is a positive impact of mergers and acquisitions on the financial performance of the selected banks.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors used Research and Development of Borg and Gall (1989) model that consists of three stages, i.e. introduction, development of product, and implementation of product.
Abstract: Critical thinking skills are highly needed by senior high school students as they are the basic skills for understanding chemistry concepts. The evaluation tool was used to know the students’ achievement in developing their critical thinking skill. The objective of this study is to develop and validate the measurement tool of students’ critical thinking skill in chemistry. This research used Research and Development of Borg and Gall (1989) model that consists of three stages, i.e. introduction, development of product, and implementation of product. The location of study was at some senior high schools (SMA) in Cirebon City (Coastal area), Kuningan Regency (agricultural area), and Majalengka Regency (industrial area). The subjects in this study were students at second grade of some senior high schools majoring in natural science selected randomly totaling 1,314 people. The instrument used in this study was a graded multiple choice written test. Quantitative data in the form of students’ critical thinking scores are processed using Anova test. Study results show that: Indicators of critical thinking accommodated in developing measurement tools for senior high school students’ critical thinking in chemistry are: (1) elementary clarification (37.9%), basic support (3.16%), inference (55.8%), advance clarification (2.11%), and strategy and tactics (1.00%); (2) The characteristics of critical thinking test items developed met the requirement of good test items. In the concept of hydrocarbon, thermochemistry, and chemical equilibrium, discrimination index ranges 0.4 < DP ≤ 0.7, difficulty index ranges 0,1 < IK ≤ 0.7, coefficient of correlation ranges 0.2 < rxy ≤ 0.6, and reliability ranges 0.4 < r11 ≤ 1.0)- (3) average senior high school students’ critical thinking increased in Majalengka Regency at (=29.2), Kuningan Regency at (=27,0), and Cirebon City at (=33,4)-and (4) !verage students’ critical thinking skill in the concepts increased on: chemical equilibrium at (=21.13), thermochemistry at (=33.6), and hydrocarbon at (=33.7).

Journal Article
TL;DR: The role of volunteerism in the development trajectory cannot be underestimated as discussed by the authors, and a quantum of volunteers exist doing multifarious activities with the ultimate goal being to help the community, a plethora of activities that are being done by volunteers include conducting informational sessions on HIV and AIDS and similar concomitants like STIs, contraceptives, medical male circumcision and gender based violence.
Abstract: A volunteer is an individual who provides services to the community without any stated form of payment or benefit. Since time immemorial volunteerism has existed in Africa, it has existed in one form or another. The role of volunteerism in Norton developmental trajectory cannot be underestimated. Volunteers are vital in the operation of NGOs. Consequently, in Norton a quantum of volunteers exists doing multifarious activities with the ultimate goal being to help the community. A plethora of activities that are being done by volunteers include conducting informational sessions on HIV and AIDS and similar concomitants like STIs, contraceptives, medical male circumcision and gender based violence. However, there has been a death of volunteerism of great proportion. Death of volunteerism manifests through neglect or abandonment of duty, a lethargic approach to duty, cheating and falsification of reports. The tumbling of the local economy and the attendant difficulties is one of the reason that has been proffered to explain the death of volunteerism. This is further aggravated by the fact that volunteers themselves are poor and vulnerable, actually in need of help. The wider community believes that volunteerism is not compatible with socio-economic environment has also worsened the situation. The paper is heavily reliant on qualitative research that was conducted in Norton. Key informant interviews and in-depth interviews were utilised to extricate data on death of volunteerism. Documentary review played an invaluable role in unpacking the concept of volunteerism.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the effect of job rotation on employee performance was investigated in 6 KCB branches in the North Rift region. And the results indicated that job rotation contributed to 55.29% of employee performance.
Abstract: Non financial motivators are very essential in maximizing the performance of employees. Literature shows that there is little study of a considerable depth that has been carried out to determine the effect of non financial motivation strategies on employee performance. The objective of the study was to determine the effect of job rotation on employee performance, a study of Kenya Commercial Bank. The study was conducted in 6 KCB branches in the North Rift region. The study adopted a case study research design approach. Census technique was used to collect data from 6 branches of Kenya Commercial Bank in the North Rift Region. The study relied on both primary and secondary data. Primary data was collected through questionnaires while secondary data was sourced through review of relevant records. Data analysis for this study was conducted through qualitative and quantitative methods. Questionnaires were tested for reliability and validity. Data coding, entry and analysis was carried out using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS Version 20.0). The analyzed data was presented using frequency tables, proportions and percentages. Research findings indicate that majority of the respondents acknowledge that job rotation affected their performance. From regression analysis, it was observed that job rotation contributed to 55.29% of employee performance.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors evaluated the success factors which effect on place branding and how these factors can lend a hand to the country to stay competitive in today's world market, and developed a framework which defined some challenges in the country as mediators which has strong influence on competitive globalizing market.
Abstract: This study is to show how a place branding can be successful in today's competitive globalized market. The goal is to evaluate the success factors which effect on place branding and how these factors can lend a hand to the country to stay competitive in today's world market. To reach the purpose of the research, we developed a framework which defined some challenges in the country as mediators which has strong influence on competitive globalizing market. The focused country of study is Malaysia since it is a potential country in the aspect of tourist attraction and also Malaysia has a rapid growth in economic and aiming to become a global business center in Southeast Asia in early future.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provided an overview of the Higher Education in India and brought out some suggestions to improve the Quality in Higher Education. But, they did not consider the quality assurance system in higher education.
Abstract: Three main key determinants of quality in higher education are the adequate availability of quality faculty, optimum and adequate infrastructure and resources and availability of third party quality assurance system. It has been observed that while majority of students in higher education go to universities and colleges which come under the state system, they lack adequate resources in terms of manpower and infrastructure. Five issues – quantity/quality, regulation, privatization, staffing, and studying abroad – form the core of this note on the state and the prospects of higher education in India. This paper provides an overview of the Higher Education in India. Students are the primary customers in an educational setup and it is strongly supported by many researchers. Students involve in different roles: they are the product of the process, the internal customer for campus facilities, the laborers of the learning process and the internal customer of the delivery of the course material. The paper gives a overview on Higher Education statistics and challenges that are being faced by Higher Education Institutions and finally tries to bring out some suggestions to improve the Quality in Higher Education.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, statistical regression models are developed among freshwater inflows and water sediments for determining the needs, and results from the models and analyses are placed into the Vaigai dam along with information on salinity viability limits, nutrient budgets and inflow bounds.
Abstract: The freshwater management of rivers reservoirs in most countries evolved as an independent program that operate with distinct mandates, authorities, policies and implementation. Study elements include hydrographic surveys, hydrodynamic modeling of circulation and salinity patterns, sediment analyses, nutrient analyses, freshwater inflow optimization modeling, and verification of needs. For determining the needs, statistical regression models are developed among freshwater inflows and water sediments. Results from the models and analyses are placed into the Vaigai dam along with information on salinity viability limits, nutrient budgets and inflow bounds. The need to better integrate river reservoir management by combining Integrated water resources management (IWRM). This approach recognizes the river and branches of them and nearby lands or water resources are all elements of freshwater inflow management (FWIFM). Long-term monitoring is recommended in order to verify that implementation of future water management strategies maintain ecological health of the Vaigai dam and to provide an early warning of needs for adaptive management strategies.