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Showing papers in "International Journal of Aerospace Engineering in 2020"


Journal ArticleDOI
Jong-Jin Shin1, Hyochoong Bang1
TL;DR: The suggested method to solve the problem of path planning for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in adversarial environments including radar-guided surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and unknown threats is presented and the suggested method is statistically better than existing methods.
Abstract: This paper presents the method to solve the problem of path planning for an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in adversarial environments including radar-guided surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) and unknown threats. SAM lethal envelope and radar detection for SAM threats and line-of-sight (LOS) calculation for unknown threats are considered to compute the cost for path planning. In particular, dynamic SAM lethal envelope is taken into account for path planning in that SAM lethal envelope does change its direction according to the flight direction of UAV. In addition, terrain masking, nonisotropic radar cross section (RCS), and dynamic constraints of UAV are considered to determine the cost of the path. An improved particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is proposed for finding an optimal path. The proposed algorithm is composed of preprocessing steps, multi-swarm PSO algorithm, and postprocessing steps. The Voronoi diagram and Dijkstra algorithm as preprocessing steps provide the initial path for the multi-swarm PSO algorithm which uses multiple swarms with sub-swarms for the balance between exploration and exploitation. Postprocessing steps include waypoint insertion and 3D path smoothing. The computation time is reduced by using the map generation, the coordinate transformation, and the graphic processing unit (GPU) implementation of the algorithm. Various simulations are carried out to compare the performance of the proposed method according to the number of iterations, the number of swarms, and the number of cost evaluation points. The - test results show that the suggested method is statistically better than existing methods.

30 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a comprehensive review of previous efforts to develop concepts for ABEP systems is presented, where different kinds of space propulsion system are analyzed to determine the suitable propulsion for atmosphere-breathing S/C.
Abstract: To develop the satellites for a low-Earth-orbit environment, atmosphere-breathing electric propulsion (ABEP) systems have become more attractive to researchers in the past decade. The system can use atmospheric molecules as the propellant to provide thrust compensation, which can extend the lifetime of spacecraft (S/C). This comprehensive review reviews the efforts of previous researchers to develop concepts for ABEP systems. Different kinds of space propulsion system are analysed to determine the suitable propulsion for atmosphere-breathing S/C. Further discussion about ABEP systems shows the characteristic of different thrusters. The main performance of the ABEP system of previous studies is summarized, which provides further research avenues in the future. Results show great potential for thrust compensation from atmospheric molecules. However, the current studies show various limitations and are difficult to apply to space. The development of ABEP needs to solve some problems, such as the intake efficiency, ionization power, and electrode corrosion.

28 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a modified design of a Helmholtz resonator is proposed and evaluated by implementing a rigid baffle in its cavity, which is then compared with the conventional one by considering a rectangular duct with the resonator implemented in the presence of a mean grazing flow.
Abstract: To broaden its’ effective frequency range and to improve its transmission loss performance, a modified design of a Helmholtz resonator is proposed and evaluated by implementing a rigid baffle in its cavity. Comparison is then made between the proposed design and the conventional one by considering a rectangular duct with the resonator implemented in the presence of a mean grazing flow. For this, a linearized 2D Navier-Stokes model in frequency domain is developed. After validated by benchmarking with the available experimental data and our experimental measurements, the model is used to evaluate the effects of (1) the width Lp of the rigid baffle, (2) its implementation location/height Hg, (3) its implementation configurations (i.e., attached to the left sidewall or right sidewall), (4) the grazing mean flow Mu (Mach number), and (5) the neck shape on a noise damping effect. It is shown that as the rigid baffle is attached in the 2 different configurations, the resonant frequencies and the maximum transmission losses cannot be predicted by using the classical theoretical formulation ω2 = cS/VLeff , especially as the grazing Mach number Mu is greater than 0.07, i.e., Mu > 0:07. In addition, there is an optimum grazing flow Mach number corresponding to the maximum transmission loss peak, as the width Lp is less than half of the cavity width Dr, i.e., Lp/Dr ≤ 0:5. As the rigid plate width is increased to Lp/Dr = 0:75, one additional transmission loss peak at approximately 400Hz is produced. The generation of the 12 dB transmission loss peak at 400Hz is shown to attribute to the sound and structure interaction. Finally, varying the neck shape from the conventional one to an arc one leads to the dominant resonant frequency being increased by approximately 20% and so the secondary transmission loss peak by 2-5 dB. The present work proposes and systematically studies an improved design of a Helmholtz resonator with an additional transmission loss peak at a high frequency, besides the dominant peak at a low frequency.

21 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work analyzes the imaging characteristics of a satellite in space and proposes a method to detect the satellite components, based on a regional-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN), which can enable the accurate detection of various satellite components by using optical images.
Abstract: The accurate detection of satellite components based on optical images can provide data support for aerospace missions such as pointing and tracking between satellites. However, the traditional target detection method is inefficient when performing calculations and has a low detection precision, especially when the attitude of the satellite and illumination conditions change considerably. To enable the precise detection of satellite components, we analyse the imaging characteristics of a satellite in space and propose a method to detect the satellite components. This approach is based on a regional-based convolutional neural network (R-CNN), and it can enable the accurate detection of various satellite components by using optical images. First, on the basis of the Mask R-CNN, we combine the DenseNet, ResNet, and FPN to construct a new feature extraction structure and obtain the R-CNN based satellite-component-detection model (RSD). The feature maps are extracted and concatenated at a deeper multiscale level, and the feature propagation between each layer is enhanced by providing a dense connection. Next, an information-rich satellite dataset is constructed, which is composed of images of various kinds of satellites from various perspectives and orbital positions. The detection model is trained and optimized on the constructed dataset to obtain the satellite component detection model. Finally, the proposed RSD model and original Mask R-CNN are tested on the same established test set. The experimental results show that the proposed detection model has higher precision, recall rate, and score. Therefore, the proposed approach can effectively detect satellite components, based on optical images.

19 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The microservice-based platform for SSA data analytics to provide a scaffold-like platform for researchers and can provide a convenient, flexible, and efficient platform for the requirements of algorithm integration, experiment, and data display from users and researchers is proposed.
Abstract: The development, deployment, and maintenance of the current space situational awareness (SSA) information system have become increasingly complex. However, researchers cannot flexibly and conveniently apply the research results to practical applications due to the lack of basic research platforms for SSA. Inspired by X as a Service (XaaS), we propose the microservice-based platform for SSA data analytics to provide a scaffold-like platform for researchers. Based on microservice, the architecture for this platform is proposed to meet the requirements of flexible development and loosely coupled deployment. To facilitate the use of the platform, the hybrid data service layer is established to provide basic data for research and the functional service layer is designed to provide services for clients and applications. Due to the massive data processing requirements, the data analysis architecture and processing model, which can easily integrate various user-defined algorithms and significantly improve the computational efficiency, are proposed based on the Lambda architecture. To verify the platform’s effectiveness, two cases are established and implemented. The results show that this platform can provide a convenient, flexible, and efficient platform for the requirements of algorithm integration, experiment, and data display from users and researchers.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effects of numerical aspect ratios such as volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio on nonlinear static bending and free vibration of 2D-FGM plates are explored.
Abstract: Bidirectional functionally graded material (2D-FGM) plates have mechanical properties that vary continuously in both the thickness and one-edge directions; these plates are more and more widely used in design and engineering applications. When these structures are subjected to strong loads, they can be largely deformed; therefore, nonlinear calculations, in this case, are necessary. In this paper, nonlinear static bending and nonlinear free vibration behaviors of 2D-FGM plates are studied by using the finite element method based on the third-order shear deformation theory; the Newton-Raphson method is used to solve this problem. The accuracy of this approach is confirmed by comparing the results with respect to other papers. The effects of some numerical aspect ratios such as volume fraction index and thickness-to-length ratio on nonlinear static bending and free vibration of the plates are explored. This study shows that there is a big difference between the numerical results obtained from the nonlinear problem and those from the linear one.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The current radar signal research, the technical progress achieved, and the existing limitations are listed, while the future research trends and challenges of technologies of the radar signals are proposed.
Abstract: It is well known that the application of radar is becoming more and more popular with the development of the signal technology progress. This paper lists the current radar signal research, the technical progress achieved, and the existing limitations. According to radar signal respective characteristics, the design and classification of the radar signal are introduced to reflect signal’s differences and advantages. The multidisciplinary processing technology of the radar signal is classified and compared in details referring to adaptive radar signal process, pulse signal management, digital filtering signal mode, and Doppler method. The transmission process of radar signal is summarized, including the transmission steps of radar signal, the factors affecting radar signal transmission, and radar information screening. The design method of radar signal and the corresponding signal characteristics are compared in terms of performance improvement. Radar signal classification method and related influencing factors are also contrasted and narrated. Radar signal processing technology is described in detail including multidisciplinary technology synthesis. Adaptive radar signal process, pulse compression management, and digital filtering Doppler method are very effective technical means, which has its own unique advantages. At last, the future research trends and challenges of technologies of the radar signals are proposed. The conclusions obtained are beneficial to promote the further promotion applications both in theory and practice. The study work of this paper will be useful for choosing more reasonable radar signal processing technology methods.

15 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Taking advantage of the strong leaning and intelligent recognition ability and the characteristic of less information required in the negative selection artificial immune system, a fault detection method is proposed for aircraft control system based on negative selection algorithm.
Abstract: The aircraft control system controls the whole flight movement process. Its fault detection can assist the aircraft PHM system in making decisions and completing the targeted maintenance, which is of great significance to improve the safety and reliability of the aircraft. In this paper, by taking advantage of the strong leaning and intelligent recognition ability and the characteristic of less information required in the negative selection artificial immune system, a fault detection method is proposed for aircraft control system based on negative selection algorithm. Basically, after extracting the fault characteristics from the aircraft flight parameters, the negative selection module is utilized to generate fault detectors to monitor the aircraft control system. Afterward, the hypothesis test is introduced to evaluate the detector coverage more efficiently, and the detector cover area is optimized by applying geometric mathematics in the optimization of the detector center position and radius. The method is verified by simulation of a certain aircraft control system, and the results show that it has a good detection effect on the system faults.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed method provides a fast and effective high-precision model for space target feature extraction, which can give some references for solving the problem of space object efficient identification under the condition of small sample data.
Abstract: Feature extraction is the key step of Inverse Synthetic Aperture Radar (ISAR) image recognition. However, limited by the cost and conditions of ISAR image acquisition, it is relatively difficult to obtain large-scale sample data, which makes it difficult to obtain target deep features with good discriminability by using the currently popular deep learning method. In this paper, a new method for low-dimensional, strongly robust, and fast space target ISAR image recognition based on local and global structural feature fusion is proposed. This method performs the trace transformation along the longest axis of the ISAR image to generate the global trace feature of the space target ISAR image. By introducing the local structural feature, Local Binary Pattern (LBP), the complementary fusion of the global and local features is achieved, which makes up for the missing structural information of the trace feature and ensures the integrity of the ISAR image feature information. The representation of trace and LBP features in a low-dimensional mapping feature space is found by using the manifold learning method. Under the condition of maintaining the local neighborhood relationship in the original feature space, the effective fusion of trace and LBP features is achieved. So, in the practical application process, the target recognition accuracy is no longer affected by trace function, LBP feature block number selection, and other factors, realizing the high robustness of the algorithm. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, an ISAR image database containing 1325 samples of 5 types of space targets is used for experiments. The results show that the classification accuracy of the 5 types of space targets can reach more than 99%, and the recognition accuracy is no longer affected by the trace feature and LBP feature selection, which has strong robustness. The proposed method provides a fast and effective high-precision model for space target feature extraction, which can give some references for solving the problem of space object efficient identification under the condition of small sample data.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Yu Xu, Li Cheng, Chang Shu, Xuan Chen, Peiyuan Li 
TL;DR: In this paper, a FOD test was carried out with titanium alloy blades as the sample, and the damage types suffered by the blades subjected to impacts from foreign objects under different conditions were obtained.
Abstract: Foreign object damage (FOD) to fan blades has been identified as one of the main factors affecting the safety of aeroengine operation. Numerical simulations are an important means of studying FOD, but the selection of the material’s parameters in modeling is a key problem. In this work, a FOD test was carried out with titanium alloy blades as the sample, and the damage types suffered by the blades subjected to impacts from foreign objects under different conditions are obtained. A blade material test was carried out to obtain its parameters in terms of the Johnson-Cook material model, and finite element models of the impacting foreign objects are constructed. When comparing the test results with the simulated results, excellent correlation between them is found.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A model-free deep reinforcement learning (DRL) controller is proposed, which can learn continuously according to the feedback of the environment and realize the high-precision attitude control of spacecraft without repeatedly adjusting the controller parameters.
Abstract: This paper is devoted to model-free attitude control of rigid spacecraft in the presence of control torque saturation and external disturbances. Specifically, a model-free deep reinforcement learning (DRL) controller is proposed, which can learn continuously according to the feedback of the environment and realize the high-precision attitude control of spacecraft without repeatedly adjusting the controller parameters. Considering the continuity of state space and action space, the Twin Delayed Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (TD3) algorithm based on actor-critic architecture is adopted. Compared with the Deep Deterministic Policy Gradient (DDPG) algorithm, TD3 has better performance. TD3 obtains the optimal policy by interacting with the environment without using any prior knowledge, so the learning process is time-consuming. Aiming at this problem, the PID-Guide TD3 algorithm is proposed, which can speed up the training speed and improve the convergence precision of the TD3 algorithm. Aiming at the problem that reinforcement learning (RL) is difficult to deploy in the actual environment, the pretraining/fine-tuning method is proposed for deployment, which can not only save training time and computing resources but also achieve good results quickly. The experimental results show that DRL controller can realize high-precision attitude stabilization and attitude tracking control, with fast response speed and small overshoot. The proposed PID-Guide TD3 algorithm has faster training speed and higher stability than the TD3 algorithm.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: To improve the control system’s dynamic performance and robustness, the attitude active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) of the quadrotor is established and an adaptive genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (AGA-PSO) is used to optimize the controller parameters to solve the problem that the controllers parameters are difficult to tune.
Abstract: The internal uncertainty and external disturbance of the quadrotor will have a significant impact on flight control. Therefore, to improve the control system’s dynamic performance and robustness, the attitude active disturbance rejection controller (ADRC) of the quadrotor is established. Simultaneously, an adaptive genetic algorithm-particle swarm optimization (AGA-PSO) is used to optimize the controller parameters to solve the problem that the controller parameters are difficult to tune. The performance of the proposed ADRC is compared with that of the sliding mode controller (SMC). The simulations revealed that the dynamic performance and robustness of the ADRC is better than that of the SMC.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A reaching law-based adaptive fixed-time terminal sliding mode control law, which is used for coupled spacecraft tracking maneuver in the presence of large inertia parametric uncertainties and external disturbances, is proposed.
Abstract: In this paper, a reaching law-based adaptive fixed-time terminal sliding mode control law, which is used for coupled spacecraft tracking maneuver in the presence of large inertia parametric uncertainties and external disturbances, is proposed. The coupled 6-DOF kinematics and dynamics for spacecraft motion are modeled on Lie group SE(3). The relative configuration is expressed by a local coordinate (exponential coordinate) of SE(3). In order to estimate the inertia parameters and external disturbances, we also propose a novel adaptive update law, which can make the control law be applied without the inertia parameters of the spacecraft a priori. Fixed-time convergence property of the closed-loop feedback system is proved in the framework of Lyapunov. Numerical simulations are performed to demonstrate the performances of the proposed control scheme for coupled spacecraft tracking maneuver.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of the co-flow jet (CFJ) on the unsteady dynamic stall characteristics of the rotor airfoil is numerically investigated via numerical simulations of the URS equations coupled with the S-A turbulence model.
Abstract: In this study, a dynamic stall control strategy, called the co-flow jet (CFJ), is applied to the rotor airfoil. The effect of the CFJ on the unsteady dynamic stall characteristics of the rotor airfoil is numerically investigated via numerical simulations of the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations coupled with the Spalart-Allmaras (S-A) turbulence model. The numerical methods are validated by a NACA0012 pitching airfoil case and a NACA6415 airfoil case based on the CFJ, and good agreement with experiments is found. Via the study of the typical conditions of CFJ control to suppress the dynamic stall of the OA212 rotor airfoil, it is verified that this method has a good effect on dynamic stall suppression. The diffusion and blending of the turbulent shear layer between the CFJ injection jet and the main flow excite the main flow and enhance its ability to resist the reverse pressure gradient; this suppresses the generation and development of the separation vortex, thereby enhancing the aerodynamic characteristics, improving the hysteresis effect, and increasing the system stability. On this basis, the control parameters of the CFJ are further studied, including the influences of the jet momentum coefficient and the positions and sizes of the injection and suction slots on suppressing the dynamic stall of the rotor airfoil. It is found that there is a jet momentum coefficient that optimizes the suppression effect of the dynamic stall of the rotor airfoil. Moreover, the position of the injection slot is found to have a greater effect on the dynamic stall suppression, while the size of the injection slot and the position and size of the suction slot have little effect.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A genetic programming method to simultaneously optimize the topology and parameters of a satellite system and the application to the design of an earth observation satellite demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Abstract: In this paper, a genetic programming method for satellite system design is proposed to simultaneously optimize the topology and parameters of a satellite system. Firstly, the representation of satellite system design is defined according to the tree structure. The genetic programming method is designed based on that representation. Secondly, according to the tree structure of different satellite schemes, different multiscale satellite models are established, in which various physical fields couple together. Then, an evaluation system is also proposed to test the performances of different satellite schemes. Finally, the application to the design of an earth observation satellite demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of the initial particle diameter on the combustion characteristics of a LOX/GCH4 pintle rocket engine was analyzed using the Euler-Lagrange method.
Abstract: LOX/GCH4 pintle injector is suitable for variable-thrust liquid rocket engines. In order to provide a reference for the later design and experiments, three-dimensional numerical simulations with the Euler-Lagrange method were performed to study the effect of the initial particle diameter on the combustion characteristics of a LOX/GCH4 pintle rocket engine. Numerical results show that, as the momentum ratio between the radial LOX jet and the axial gas jet is 0.033, the angle between the LOX particle trace and the combustor axial is very small. Due to the large recirculation zones, premixed combustion mainly occurs in the injector wake region. As the initial LOX particle diameter increases, the LOX evaporation rate and the combustion efficiency decrease until the combustion terminates with the initial LOX particle diameter greater than 110 μm. The oscillation amplitude of the combustor pressure increases significantly along with the increase of the initial LOX particle diameter, and the low-frequency unstable combustion occurs when the initial LOX particle diameter exceeds 60 μm. The combustor pressure oscillation at about 40 Hz couples with the swinging process of spray and flame, while the unsteady LOX evaporation amplifies the combustor pressure oscillations at 80 Hz and its harmonic frequency.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A generic model of a nanosatellite attitude control and stabilization system was developed on the basis of magnetorquers and reaction wheels, which are controlled by PID controllers with selectable gains, which proved the efficiency of the proposed approach.
Abstract: A generic model of a nanosatellite attitude control and stabilization system was developed on the basis of magnetorquers and reaction wheels, which are controlled by PID controllers with selectable gains. This approach allows using the same architectures of control algorithms (and software) for several satellites and adjusting them to a particular mission by parameter variation. The approach is illustrated by controlling a satellite attitude in three modes of operation: detumbling after separation from the launcher, nominal operation when the satellite attitude is subjected to small or moderate disturbances, and momentum unloading after any reaction wheel saturation. The generic control algorithms adjusted to each mode of operation were implemented in a complete attitude control system. The control system model was embedded into a comprehensive simulation model of satellite flight. The simulation results proved the efficiency of the proposed approach.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the steady and transient thermal performance of a bent copper-water heat pipe is studied based on a performance test system and the effects of cooling temperature, working conditions on the critical heat flux, and equivalent thermal conductivity have been examined and analyzed.
Abstract: Vapor-liquid phase change is regarded as an efficient cooling method for high-heat-flux electronic components. The copper-water bent heat pipes are particularly suited to the circumstances of confined space or misplaced heat and cold sources for high-heat-flux electronic components. In this paper, the steady and transient thermal performance of a bent copper-water heat pipe is studied based on a performance test system. The effects of cooling temperature, working conditions on the critical heat flux, and equivalent thermal conductivity have been examined and analyzed. Moreover, the influences of heat input and working conditions on the thermal response of a bent heat pipe have also been discussed. The results indicate that the critical heat flux is enhanced due to the increases in cooling temperature and the lengths of the evaporator and condenser. In addition, the critical heat flux is improved by extending the cooling length only when the operating temperature is higher than 50°C. The improvement on the equivalent thermal by increasing the heating length is more evident than that by increasing cooling length. It is also demonstrated by the experiment that the bent copper-water heat pipe can respond quickly to the variation of heat input and possesses superior transient heat transfer performance.

Journal ArticleDOI
Zhe Zhang1, Jian Wu2, Jian Wu1, Jiyang Dai1, Cheng He1 
TL;DR: The improved A-Star algorithm based on the multiple step search approach to deal with the uprising problem of Bogie or Bandit threats for stealth unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is proposed.
Abstract: This paper presents the flight penetration path planning algorithm in a complex environment with Bogie or Bandit (BB) threats for stealth unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). The emergence of rigorous air defense radar net necessitates efficient flight path planning and replanning for stealth UAV concerning survivability and penetration ability. We propose the improved A-Star algorithm based on the multiple step search approach to deal with this uprising problem. The objective is to achieve rapid penetration path planning for stealth UAV in a complex environment. Firstly, the combination of single-base radar, dual-base radar, and BB threats is adopted to different threat scenarios which are closer to the real combat environment. Besides, the multistep search strategy, the prediction technique, and path planning algorithm are developed for stealth UAV to deal with BB threats and achieve the penetration path replanning in complex scenarios. Moreover, the attitude angle information is integrated into the flight path which can meet real flight requirements for stealth UAV. The theoretical analysis and numerical results prove the validity of our method.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The space debris catalogue in LEO is fulfilled using multipoint of view (MPOV) observations constructed by a spacecraft formation because it has higher cost-benefit ratio and it required that the target is detectable for multiple optical sensors simultaneously.
Abstract: In this paper, the space debris catalogue in LEO is fulfilled using multipoint of view (MPOV) observations constructed by a spacecraft formation. The dual-point of view (DPOV) observation is employed because it has higher cost-benefit ratio than other MPOV methods, and it required that the target is detectable for multiple optical sensors simultaneously. This condition is matched by designing the orbit of formation and the installation angles of sensors without frequent attitude maneuvers. The design parameters are optimized to maximize the matching degree of observation constraints to improve the coverage performance of the formation, and the equivalent ranging error is taken into account to ensure the orbit determination accuracy. Finally, the system capabilities of different schemes are compared by simulations. For the schemes with the same number of platforms, simulation results show that the initial orbit determination accuracy of the proposed scheme is higher.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the aerodynamic performance analysis and blade planform design of a coaxial rigid rotor in forward flight were carried out utilizing CFD solver CLORNS, and a kind of blade plan-form combining swept-back tapered tip and nonlinear chord distribution was optimized to improve the rotor efficiency for a given high-speed level flight based on geometric parameter studies.
Abstract: The aerodynamic performance analysis and blade planform design of a coaxial rigid rotor in forward flight were carried out utilizing CFD solver CLORNS. Firstly, the forward flow field characteristics of the coaxial rotor were analyzed. Shock-induced separation occurs at the advancing side blade tip and severe reverse flow occurs at the retreating side blade root. Then, the influence of geometrical parameters of the coaxial rigid rotor on forward performance was investigated. Results show that swept-back tip could reduce the advancing side compressibility drag and elliptic shape of blade planform could optimize the airload distribution at high advance ratio flights. A kind of blade planform combining swept-back tapered tip and nonlinear chord distribution was optimized to improve the rotor efficiency for a given high-speed level flight based on geometric parameter studies. The optimized coaxial rotor increases lift-to-drag ratio by 30% under the design conditions.

Journal ArticleDOI
Ming Tan, Chunyang Wang, Hui Yuan, Juan Bai, Lei An 
TL;DR: Taking advantage of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique and multiple matched filters, a new FDA framework using Hamming window weighted linear frequency increments is proposed and a more focusing beampattern can be achieved.
Abstract: By utilizing a tiny frequency increment across the array elements, frequency diverse array (FDA) generates a beampattern possessing the property of range-angle-dependent. However, the beampattern of the conventional FDA is “S”-shaped, which means it is coupled in range-angle domains, resulting in low target indication accuracy and poor jamming suppression ability. In this paper, taking advantage of multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technique and multiple matched filters, a new FDA framework using Hamming window weighted linear frequency increments is proposed. Correct FDA-MIMO framework and multiple matched filters are used to remove the influence of the time parameter. A range-angle-decoupled beampattern with sharp pencil-shaped mainlobe and low sidelobe levels can be produced. Comparing with the existing FDA-decoupled transmit beampattern design methods, a more focusing beampattern can be achieved. Simulation results validate the superiority of the proposed system.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method to establish the relationship between the performance and the structural parameters by using the modified BP neural network is proposed, which can be chosen by the requirements of the special task in the industrial area.
Abstract: To meet the different requirements in the industrial area, a novel reconfigurable parallel mechanism is proposed based on the spatial multiloop overconstrained mechanism. The configurations can be changed by driving the low-DOF (degree-of-freedom) overconstrained mechanism. The mobility of this mechanism is investigated. And the kinematic model and Jacobian matrix are both established. Based on the Jacobian matrix, the workspace, stiffness, and conditional number are all analyzed. To focus on the application in the industrial area, this paper proposes a method to establish the relationship between the performance and the structural parameters by using the modified BP neural network. Based on this method, the structural parameters can be chosen by the requirements of the special task in the industrial area. Finally, some numerical examples are presented to verify the method.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Rigorous stability analysis is presented to prove the stability of the entire closed-loop system, and the adopted strategy for the control design consists in decoupling the quadrotor dynamics in a cascaded structure to handle its underactuated property.
Abstract: In this paper, group formation control with collision avoidance is investigated for heterogeneous multiquadrotor vehicles. Specifically, the distance-based formation and tracking control problem are addressed in the framework of leader-follower architecture. In this scheme, the leader is assigned the task of intercepting a target whose velocity is unknown, while the follower quadrotors are arranged to set up a predefined rigid formation pattern, ensuring simultaneously interagent collision avoidance and relative localization. The adopted strategy for the control design consists in decoupling the quadrotor dynamics in a cascaded structure to handle its underactuated property. Furthermore, by imposing constraints on the orientation angles, the follower will never be overturned. Rigorous stability analysis is presented to prove the stability of the entire closed-loop system. Numerical simulation results are presented to validate the proposed control strategy.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicate that the 3D revolute clearance joint will lead to more severe effects on the dynamic characteristics of the satellite antenna system, and the effects of axial clearance on the satellite antennas cannot be ignored in dynamics analysis and design.
Abstract: Clearances in the joints of real mechanisms are unavoidable due to assemblage, manufacturing errors, and wear. The dual-axis driving and positioning mechanism is one kind of space actuating mechanism for satellite antenna to implement precise guidance and positioning. However, in dynamics analysis and control of the satellite antenna system, it is usually assumed that the revolute joint in the satellite antenna system is perfect without clearances or imperfect with planar radial clearance. However, the axial clearance in an imperfect revolute joint is always ignored. In this work, the revolute joint is considered as a 3D spatial clearance joint with both the radial and axial clearances. A methodology for modeling the 3D revolute joint with clearances and its application in satellite antenna system is presented. The dynamics modeling and analysis of the satellite antenna system are investigated considering the 3D revolute clearance joint. Firstly, the mathematical model of the 3D revolute clearance joint is established, and the definitions of the radial and axial clearance are presented. Then, the potential contact modes, contact conditions, and contact detection of the 3D revolute clearance joint are analyzed. Further, the normal and tangential contact force models are established to describe the contact phenomenon and determine the contact forces in the 3D revolute clearance joint. Finally, a satellite antenna system considering the 3D revolute clearance joint with spatial motion is presented as the application example. Different case studies are presented to discuss the effects of the 3D revolute clearance joint. The results indicate that the 3D revolute clearance joint will lead to more severe effects on the dynamic characteristics of the satellite antenna system. Therefore, the effects of axial clearance on the satellite antenna system cannot be ignored in dynamics analysis and design of the satellite antenna system.

Journal ArticleDOI
X. Yao1, Y. Yang1
TL;DR: A comprehensive adaptive compensation control strategy based on feedback linearization design is proposed for multivariable nonlinear systems with uncertain actuator fault and unknown mismatched disturbances and an integrated algorithm based on adaptive weighted fusion could provide an effective compensation.
Abstract: A comprehensive adaptive compensation control strategy based on feedback linearization design is proposed for multivariable nonlinear systems with uncertain actuator fault and unknown mismatched disturbances. Firstly, the linear dynamic system is obtained through nonlinear feedback linearization, and the dynamic model of the mismatched disturbances as well as its relevance to the nonlinear system is given. The effect of disturbances on the system output is suppressed with the basic controller of the linearized system. Then, a direct adaptive controller is developed for the multiple uncertain actuator faults. Finally, an integrated algorithm based on adaptive weighted fusion could provide an effective compensation for the effect of multiple uncertain faults and mismatched disturbances. Thus, the stability and asymptotic tracking performance of the closed-loop system are ensured. The feasibility and performance of the proposed control strategy are validated by the numerical simulation results.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A new method of integrating the BP neural networks and genetic algorithm is used for structure optimization and is proven effective and the optimum result of the structure of the NACA ram air inlet system is deduced.
Abstract: With the development of the increasing demand for cooling air in cabin and electronic components on aircraft, it urges to present an energy-efficient optimum method for the ram air inlet system. A ram air performance evaluation method is proposed, and the main structural parameters can be extended to a certain type of aircraft. The influence of structural parameters on the ram air performance is studied, and a database for the performance is generated. A new method of integrating the BP neural networks and genetic algorithm is used for structure optimization and is proven effective. Moreover, the optimum result of the structure of the NACA ram air inlet system is deduced. Results show that (1) the optimization algorithm is efficient with less prediction error of the mass flow rate and fuel penalty. The average relative error of the mass flow rate is 1.37%, and the average relative error of the fuel penalty is 1.41% in the full samples. (2) Predicted deviation analysis shows very little difference between optimized and unoptimized design. The relative error of the mass flow rate is 0.080% while that of the fuel penalty is 0.083%. The accuracy of the proposed optimization method is proven. (3) The mass flow rate after optimization is increased to 2.506 kg/s, and the fuel penalty is decreased by 74.595 Et kg. The BP neural networks and genetic algorithms are studied to optimize the design of the ram air inlet system. It is proven to be a novel approach, and the efficiency can be highly improved.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article deals with the design of the airborne ISP control systems consisting of two stages: the parametric optimization of the PI feedback control based on composite “performance-robustness” criterion and the augmentation of the obtained system with feedforward gain.
Abstract: The design of the control systems of the inertially stabilized platforms (ISPs) as part of airborne equipment for the majority of aircraft has its peculiarity. The presence of rate gyros in the inertial measurement unit gives the possibility to measure the rotation rate of the ISP base, which is the main disturbance interfering with the ISP accuracy. Inclusion of the feedforward disturbance gain in the control law with the simplest PI feedback significantly improves the accuracy of stabilization by the invariance theory. A combination of feedback and feedforward controllers produces a synergetic effect, thus, improving ISP accuracy. This article deals with the design of the airborne ISP control systems consisting of two stages: the parametric optimization of the PI feedback control based on composite “performance-robustness” criterion and the augmentation of the obtained system with feedforward gain. To prove the efficiency of the proposed control laws, the simulation of the ISP was undertaken. We have used a simulation of the heading-hold system of the commuter aircraft Beaver and the yaw rate output of this closed-loop system we have used as a source of the disturbance. The results of modeling proved the efficiency of the proposed design method.

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TL;DR: This paper describes the design of a morphing droop nose conceived to increase the performance in high-lift conditions of a twin-prop regional aircraft, while ensuring the natural flow laminarity of the wing.
Abstract: This paper describes the design of a morphing droop nose conceived to increase the performance in high-lift conditions of a twin-prop regional aircraft, while ensuring the natural flow laminarity of the wing. Starting from the results obtained in a previous phase, mainly concerned with the performance augmentation, a detailed structural design is conducted. The main aim is the achievement of a feasible solution based on the use of conventional materials, such as aluminium alloy for the internal structure and glass-fibre for the skin. A finite element model of the complete device is generated for the three-dimensional shape quality evaluation and for the skin structural verification. Stress analyses on high-fidelity models of the single adaptive ribs are also performed. At the same time, various design aspects are evaluated, such as installation and inspection issues, actuation power, and weight considerations. All these requirements contribute to the definition of an advanced and complete solution for the device, up to the realization of a detailed CAD model. Final verification on the virtual prototype assesses the functionality of the device when attached to the wing-box. Moreover, the bird impact safety of the leading edge is demonstrated according to the certification rules.

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TL;DR: In this article, a study of elliptical liquid jets in supersonic flow in a Mach 2.0 is performed numerically, and the results show a remarkable difference in liquid jet disintegration morphology at different aspect ratios.
Abstract: The study of elliptical liquid jets in supersonic flow in a Mach 2.0 is performed numerically. The primary breakup process of the elliptical liquid jet is simulated for a Weber number 223, liquid/gas flux momentum 4.0. The aspect ratios of elliptical geometries are set to be 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, and 5. The results show a remarkable difference in liquid jet disintegration morphology at different aspect ratios. Under supersonic crossflow conditions, the elliptical liquid jet shows more breakup characteristics than the round liquid jet. As the aspect ratio grows, the penetration depth decreases. The elliptical liquid jet with has the largest penetration depth in all cases. Moreover, the round jet has a maximum spreading angle of 50.2°. The changing trends of the column breakup length both direction and direction are similar. The elliptical jet at a lower aspect ratio has a shorter breakup length due to the narrower windward area. The liquid jet has a pair of larger horseshoe vortex structure and a wider wake region at a higher aspect ratio. Two pairs of reversal vortex pairs with obvious characteristics can be observed in all the simulations.