International Journal of Andrology
About: International Journal of Andrology is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Sperm & Semen. It has an ISSN identifier of 0105-6263. Over the lifetime, 2450 publications have been published receiving 86242 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Oven baking of polymer clays may cause short-term, high-level inhalation exposures to higher molecular weight phthalates and cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposures.
Abstract: Phthalate exposures in the general population and in subpopulations are ubiquitous and widely variable. Many consumer products contain specific members of this family of chemicals, including building materials, household furnishings, clothing, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, medical devices, dentures, children's toys, glow sticks, modelling clay, food packaging, automobiles, lubricants, waxes, cleaning materials and insecticides. Consumer products containing phthalates can result in human exposures through direct contact and use, indirectly through leaching into other products, or general environmental contamination. Historically, the diet has been considered the major source of phthalate exposure in the general population, but all sources, pathways, and their relative contributions to human exposures are not well understood. Medical devices containing di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate are a source of significant exposure in a susceptible subpopulation of individuals. Cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, nutritional supplements, herbal remedies and insecticides, may result in significant but poorly quantified human exposures to dibutyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate, or dimethyl phthalate. Oven baking of polymer clays may cause short-term, high-level inhalation exposures to higher molecular weight phthalates.
TL;DR: Based on evidence from morphological and histochemical studies and from clinical experience, the following hypotheses are proposed: carcinoma-in-situ germ cells are malignant gonocytes; the pathogenesis of classical and spermatocytic seminoma are unrelated.
Abstract: Based on evidence from morphological and histochemical studies and from clinical experience, the following hypotheses are proposed: carcinoma-in-situ (CIS) germ cells are malignant gonocytes; these CIS gonocytes have some capacity to regress into more primitive, totipotent embryonic cells which can give rise to all types of nonseminomatous germ cell tumours; the tumour germ cells of classical seminomas are malignant gonocytes derived from CIS gonocytes which have lost their ability to regress into totipotent embryonic cells; the ability of CIS gonocytes to regress into totipotent embryonic cells decreases with age, whereas the capacity to form classical seminoma cells is preserved; the transformation of CIS gonocytes into invasive tumours is dependent on factors such as gonadotrophins and/or testicular steroids; the pathogenesis of classical and spermatocytic seminoma are unrelated. As a consequence of these hypotheses an alternative nomenclature for carcinoma-in-situ, seminoma and dysgerminoma is suggested.
TL;DR: The phthalate syndrome of effects on reproductive development has parallels with the reported human testicular dysgenesis syndrome, although no cause and effect relationship exists after exposure of humans tophthalate esters.
Abstract: Certain Phthalate esters have been shown to produce reproductive toxicity in male rodents with an age dependent sensitivity in effects with foetal animals being more sensitive than neonates which are in turn more sensitive than pubertal and adult animals. While the testicular effects of phthalates in rats have been known for more than 30 years, recent attention has been focused on the ability of these agents to produce effects on reproductive development in male offspring after in utero exposure. These esters and in particular di-butyl, di-(2-ethylhexyl) and butyl benzyl phthalates have been shown to produce a syndrome of reproductive abnormalities characterized by malformations of the epididymis, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate, external genitalia (hypospadias), cryptorchidism and testicular injury together with permanent changes (feminization) in the retention of nipples/areolae (sexually dimorphic structures in rodents) and demasculinization of the growth of the perineum resulting in a reduced anogenital distance (AGD). Critical to the induction of these effects is a marked reduction in foetal testicular testosterone production at the critical window for the development of the reproductive tract normally under androgen control. A second Leydig cell product, insl3, is also significantly down regulated and is likely responsible for the cryptorchidism commonly seen in these phthalate-treated animals. The testosterone decrease is mediated by changes in gene expression of a number of enzymes and transport proteins involved in normal testosterone biosynthesis and transport in the foetal Leydig cell. Alterations in the foetal seminiferous cords are also noted after in utero phthalate treatment with the induction of multinucleate gonocytes that contribute to lowered spermatocyte numbers in postnatal animals. The phthalate syndrome of effects on reproductive development has parallels with the reported human testicular dysgenesis syndrome, although no cause and effect relationship exists after exposure of humans to phthalate esters. However humans are exposed to and produce the critical phthalate metabolites that have been detected in blood of the general population, in children and also human amniotic fluid.
TL;DR: This review focuses on the nature and source of the ROS generated by human spermataozoa as well as their operational mechanisms and their effects, which may be detrimental or beneficial.
Abstract: The role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the pathophysiology of human sperm function has been emphasized in recent years. ROS production in semen has been associated with loss of sperm motility, decreased capacity for sperm-oocyte fusion and loss of fertility. There is a current presumption that the most prolific source of ROS in sperm suspensions is an NADPH oxidase located in leukocytes or in spermatozoa which produces superoxide which is further converted to peroxide by the action of superoxide dismutase. Hydrogen peroxide has been recognized as the most toxic oxidizing species for human spermatozoa, which are very sensitive to lipid peroxidation owing to the high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids in their plasma membrane, though this is not the sole mechanism by which sperm function might be impaired by ROS. Although the excessive production of ROS is detrimental to human spermatozoa, there is a growing body of evidence which suggests that ROS are also involved in the physiological control of some sperm functions. This review focuses on the nature and source of the ROS generated by human spermataozoa as well as their operational mechanisms and their effects, which may be detrimental or beneficial.
TL;DR: The most recent revision of the 1999 laboratory guidelines summarizes the results of a 'Best Practice Meeting' held in Florence (Italy) in October 2003 as discussed by the authors, and it was agreed that the basic 1999 protocol, based on two multiplex polymerase chain reactions each covering the three AZF regions, is still fully valid and appropriate for accurate diagnosis.
Abstract: Microdeletions of the Y chromosome are the second most frequent genetic cause of spermatogenetic failure in infertile men after the Klinefelter syndrome. The molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions is routinely performed in the workup of male infertility in men with azoospermia or severe oligozoospermia. Since 1999, the European Academy of Andrology (EAA) and the European Molecular Genetics Quality Network (EMQN) support the improvement of the quality of the diagnostic assays by publication of the laboratory guidelines for molecular diagnosis of Y-chromosomal microdeletions and by offering external quality assessment trials. The present revision of the 1999 laboratory guidelines summarizes the results of a 'Best Practice Meeting' held in Florence (Italy) in October 2003. The basic protocol for microdeletion screening suggested in the 1999 guidelines proved to be very accurate, sensitive and robust. In the light of the recent advance in the knowledge of the Y chromosome sequence and of the mechanism of microdeletion it was agreed that the basic 1999 protocol, based on two multiplex polymerase chain reactions each covering the three AZF regions, is still fully valid and appropriate for accurate diagnosis.
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