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JournalISSN: 0924-8579

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

About: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Antibacterial agent & Antibiotic resistance. It has an ISSN identifier of 0924-8579. Over the lifetime, 6805 publication(s) have been published receiving 214088 citation(s).

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2020.105949
Abstract: Background Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine have been found to be efficient on SARS-CoV-2, and reported to be efficient in Chinese COV-19 patients. We evaluate the role of hydroxychloroquine on respiratory viral loads. Patients and methods French Confirmed COVID-19 patients were included in a single arm protocol from early March to March 16th, to receive 600mg of hydroxychloroquine daily and their viral load in nasopharyngeal swabs was tested daily in a hospital setting. Depending on their clinical presentation, azithromycin was added to the treatment. Untreated patients from another center and cases refusing the protocol were included as negative controls. Presence and absence of virus at Day6-post inclusion was considered the end point. Results Six patients were asymptomatic, 22 had upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and eight had lower respiratory tract infection symptoms. Twenty cases were treated in this study and showed a significant reduction of the viral carriage at D6-post inclusion compared to controls, and much lower average carrying duration than reported of untreated patients in the literature. Azithromycin added to hydroxychloroquine was significantly more efficient for virus elimination. Conclusion Despite its small sample size our survey shows that hydroxychloroquine treatment is significantly associated with viral load reduction/disappearance in COVID-19 patients and its effect is reinforced by azithromycin.

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Topics: Hydroxychloroquine (62%), Viral load (54%), Lower respiratory tract infection (51%) ...read more

3,596 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2005.09.002
T.P. Tim Cushnie1, Andrew J. Lamb1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Flavonoids are ubiquitous in photosynthesising cells and are commonly found in fruit, vegetables, nuts, seeds, stems, flowers, tea, wine, propolis and honey. For centuries, preparations containing these compounds as the principal physiologically active constituents have been used to treat human diseases. Increasingly, this class of natural products is becoming the subject of anti-infective research, and many groups have isolated and identified the structures of flavonoids possessing antifungal, antiviral and antibacterial activity. Moreover, several groups have demonstrated synergy between active flavonoids as well as between flavonoids and existing chemotherapeutics. Reports of activity in the field of antibacterial flavonoid research are widely conflicting, probably owing to inter- and intra-assay variation in susceptibility testing. However, several high-quality investigations have examined the relationship between flavonoid structure and antibacterial activity and these are in close agreement. In addition, numerous research groups have sought to elucidate the antibacterial mechanisms of action of selected flavonoids. The activity of quercetin, for example, has been at least partially attributed to inhibition of DNA gyrase. It has also been proposed that sophoraflavone G and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate inhibit cytoplasmic membrane function, and that licochalcones A and C inhibit energy metabolism. Other flavonoids whose mechanisms of action have been investigated include robinetin, myricetin, apigenin, rutin, galangin, 2,4,2'-trihydroxy-5'-methylchalcone and lonchocarpol A. These compounds represent novel leads, and future studies may allow the development of a pharmacologically acceptable antimicrobial agent or class of agents.

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Topics: Antibacterial agent (59%), Galangin (55%), Myricetin (53%) ...read more

3,189 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2020.105924
Chih-Cheng Lai, Tzu Ping Shih, Wen Chien Ko1, Hung-Jen Tang  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2; previously provisionally named 2019 novel coronavirus or 2019-nCoV) disease (COVID-19) in China at the end of 2019 has caused a large global outbreak and is a major public health issue. As of 11 February 2020, data from the World Health Organization (WHO) have shown that more than 43 000 confirmed cases have been identified in 28 countries/regions, with >99% of cases being detected in China. On 30 January 2020, the WHO declared COVID-19 as the sixth public health emergency of international concern. SARS-CoV-2 is closely related to two bat-derived severe acute respiratory syndrome-like coronaviruses, bat-SL-CoVZC45 and bat-SL-CoVZXC21. It is spread by human-to-human transmission via droplets or direct contact, and infection has been estimated to have mean incubation period of 6.4 days and a basic reproduction number of 2.24-3.58. Among patients with pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2 (novel coronavirus pneumonia or Wuhan pneumonia), fever was the most common symptom, followed by cough. Bilateral lung involvement with ground-glass opacity was the most common finding from computed tomography images of the chest. The one case of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in the USA is responding well to remdesivir, which is now undergoing a clinical trial in China. Currently, controlling infection to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 is the primary intervention being used. However, public health authorities should keep monitoring the situation closely, as the more we can learn about this novel virus and its associated outbreak, the better we can respond.

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Topics: Pneumonia (59%), Outbreak (50%)

3,083 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2009.12.011
Niels Høiby1, Thomas Bjarnsholt1, Michael Givskov1, Søren Molin2  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Bacterial biofilms cause chronic infections because they show increased tolerance to antibiotics and disinfectant chemicals as well as resisting phagocytosis and other components of the body's defence system. The persistence of, for example, staphylococcal infections related to foreign bodies is due to biofilm formation. Likewise, chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa lung infection in cystic fibrosis patients is caused by biofilm-growing mucoid strains. Characteristically, gradients of nutrients and oxygen exist from the top to the bottom of biofilms and these gradients are associated with decreased bacterial metabolic activity and increased doubling times of the bacterial cells; it is these more or less dormant cells that are responsible for some of the tolerance to antibiotics. Biofilm growth is associated with an increased level of mutations as well as with quorum-sensing-regulated mechanisms. Conventional resistance mechanisms such as chromosomal β-lactamase, upregulated efflux pumps and mutations in antibiotic target molecules in bacteria also contribute to the survival of biofilms. Biofilms can be prevented by early aggressive antibiotic prophylaxis or therapy and they can be treated by chronic suppressive therapy. A promising strategy may be the use of enzymes that can dissolve the biofilm matrix (e.g. DNase and alginate lyase) as well as quorum-sensing inhibitors that increase biofilm susceptibility to antibiotics.

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Topics: Biofilm matrix (69%), Biofilm (62%), Multidrug tolerance (61%) ...read more

2,227 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.IJANTIMICAG.2008.12.004
Guogang Ren1, Dawei Hu2, Eileen W.C. Cheng2, M. A. Vargas-Reus2  +2 moreInstitutions (2)
Abstract: Copper oxide (CuO) nanoparticles were characterised and investigated with respect to potential antimicrobial applications. It was found that nanoscaled CuO, generated by thermal plasma technology, contains traces of pure Cu and Cu2O nanoparticles. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) demonstrated particle sizes in the range 20-95 nm. TEM energy dispersive spectroscopy gave the ratio of copper to oxygen elements as 54.18% to 45.26%. The mean surface area was determined as 15.69 m(2)/g by Brunau-Emmet-Teller (BET) analysis. CuO nanoparticles in suspension showed activity against a range of bacterial pathogens, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Escherichia coli, with minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) ranging from 100 microg/mL to 5000 microg/mL. The ability of CuO nanoparticles to reduce bacterial populations to zero was enhanced in the presence of sub-MBC concentrations of silver nanoparticles. Studies of CuO nanoparticles incorporated into polymers suggest release of ions may be required for optimum killing.

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Topics: Silver nanoparticle (59%), Copper oxide (54%), Copper (51%) ...read more

1,082 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers from the Journal in previous years
YearPapers
2021203
2020332
2019257
2018245
2017342
2016249

Top Attributes

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Journal's top 5 most impactful authors

Po-Ren Hsueh

102 papers, 6.2K citations

Didier Raoult

66 papers, 7.4K citations

Jason A. Roberts

53 papers, 1.7K citations

Ronald N. Jones

48 papers, 2.1K citations

Jeffrey Lipman

44 papers, 1.9K citations

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