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Showing papers in "International Journal of Applied Biology and P in 2015"


Journal Article
TL;DR: Different methods of Sporobolomyces ruberrimus H110 yeast cell lysis were evaluated with the objective of optimizing the recovery of intracellular pigments.
Abstract: Carotenoids are intracellular pigments produced by microorganisms, including some species of yeasts, in the stationary phase of growth by the secondary metabolic pathways. In the present study, different methods of Sporobolomyces ruberrimus H110 yeast cell lysis were evaluated with the objective of optimizing the recovery of intracellular pigments. Three extraction methods were used: vortex (glass beads and quartz stones), planetary mill (glass beads and quartz stones) and dimethyl sulfoxide. For each one of the lysis agents studied, factorial designs were developed considering as independent variables the agitation speed and lysis agent concentration. A central composite planning was defined considering as independent variables the lysis agent concentration and agitation speed, analyzing as response the estimated total number of extracted carotenoids. From the methods studied, a better extraction of total carotenoid (1.74 mg.g -1 of cells and of 1.57 mg.g -1 of cells) using the planetary mill method with 135 mg of glass beads or irregular quartz stones,

9 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the maximum optical density of the bacterium on dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate was 1.389 ± 0.110 and 1.206 − 0.108 respectively on 8 th day of incubation period.
Abstract: Mineral phosphate solubilization activities by Allochromatium sp. GSKRLMBKU-01 on dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate was investigated. The biomass, di- and tricalcium phosphate solubilization increased with the progress of incubation period upto 8 th day and decreased with further incremental incubation period. The highest solubility of dicalcium phosphate (558.0 ± 9.2 µg P/ml) and tricalcium phosphate (568.0 ± 8.0 µg P/ml) was recorded on 8 th day of incubation period. The maximum optical density of biomass of the bacterium on dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate was 1.389 ± 0.110 and 1.206 ± 0.108 respectively on 8 th day of incubation period. A positive correlation coefficient (r) was recorded between growth, dicalcium phosphate(r=0.965) and tricalcium phosphate (r=0.786) solubilization.

8 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The scanning electron microscopic study reveals the nature of stomatal pore, nature of peristomatal rims as well as the presence of epicuticular wax deposits and wax flakes which are of taxonomic significance.
Abstract: The systematic analysis between 15 different species and one species with two accessions in Solanum has been carried out and need all over revisions and investigations. In continuation to our previous morphometric analysis, currently stomatal variation is analyzed using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. In addition to classical anomocytic and anisocytic stomatal types, new types of stomata (anisotricytic, paratetracytic, diacytic and paracytic) are noticed for the first time in the genus Solanum. The scanning electron microscopic study reveals the nature of stomatal pore, nature of peristomatal rims as well as the presence of epicuticular wax deposits and wax flakes which are of taxonomic significance. This study also indicates that foliar stomatal characteristics are valuable taxonomic traits, which can be utilized to address the taxonomic issues within the genus.

6 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Investigation of the risk of parental pesticidal exposure in causing clefts in the craniofacial region in India found that among all the clefts, the risk is increased for the cleft lip palate.
Abstract: Obje ctive: The multifactorial etiology of cleft can be due to envi ronmental factors or genetic factors or combination of both. Many studies were conducted to detect the epidemiology of the clefts and the genetic factors causing clefts. There is no or very less studies conducted in India to identify the risk of pesticidal exposure in occurrence of nonsyndromic clefts. The present study is to investigate the risk of parental pesticidal exposure in causing clefts in the craniofacial region. Methods: The case-control study included 179 cases of cleft in the craniofacial region and 200 healthy controls matched for age and gender. The data were collected in the proforma from the study group in the departments of plastic surgery, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, and Paediatrics of Vydehi Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre. Result: Majority (55.3%) of the parents from the cleft group were exposed to pesticides but only 4.5% parents of the control group were exposed which is statistically significan t (p=0.001). Compared to other cleft group, more parents of cleft lip palate exposed to pesticides was also significant (p=0.041 ).The cleft cases which were exposed to pesticides (86%) were from the rural area and the controls which we re not exposed (79%) were from the urban area and is statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion: Parental pesticidal exposure is a risk factor for clefts in the craniofacial region. Among all the clefts, the risk is increased for the cleft lip palate.

5 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The data suggests that the ethanolic extracts Moringa oleifera leaves may produce its anticonvulsant effect via different mechanisms since it prevented the hind limb extension induced by MES, decreased the duration of convulsions produced by PTZ and abolished status epilepticus in pilocarpine induced seizures.
Abstract: Objectives : The aim of the study was to investigate anticonvulsant effect of Moringa oleifera on maximal electroshock (MES), pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) and pilocarpine induced seizures. Methods : The ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (200mg/ Kg) was used to study its anticonvulsant effect on MES, PTZ and pilocarpine induced seizures in Swiss albino mice. Suppression of the tonic hind limb extension, duration of convulsion, abolition of convulsions was noted respectively for the above tests. Results : The ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves (200mg/ Kg) significantly (p<0.001) abolished the hind limb extension induced by MES. The same dose also signif icantly (p<0.001) protected th e animals from PTZ induced tonic convulsions. None of the animals treated with same dos e of plant extract reached the status epilepticus state in pilocarpine induced seizures. Conclusions : The data suggests that the ethanolic extracts Moringa oleifera leaves may produce its anticonvulsant effect via different mechanisms since it prevented the hind limb extension induced by MES, decreased the duration of convulsions produced by PTZ and abolished status epilepticus in pilocarpine induced seizures.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: It is concluded that adenocarcinoma is now the most common lung carcinoma in all race and sex groups.
Abstract: Aims : The aims are to study the spectrum of non-neoplastic and neoplastic lesions of lung and to study the incidence of lung cancers with reference to ag e, gender, lifestyle and occupation. Materials and Methods: The study is done over a period of 2 years (May 2009 to April 2011) in the Department of Pathology, GGH,Guntur. Total of 52 lobectomy specimens were studied. Formalin fixed, paraffin embedded H & E stained tissue sections were studied. Special stains (Gomorri ’s methenamine silver stain and Periodic acid schiff) were done whenever necessary. Immunohistochemistry was done in diagnostically difficult cases. Results : Neoplasms constituted 38.4% of total lesions.Majority of lung tumors occurred in the fifth and sixth decade. M:F sex ratio is 4:1. On chest x-ray/CT scan chest, majority of lung tumors presented as mass lesion. Right side of the lung is more commonly affected than the left.Cigarette smoking is the major etiological factor in the causation of lung carcinoma. Among the primary tumors, adenocarcinoma constituted largest group followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: from the present study it is concluded that adenocarcinoma is now the most common lung carcinoma in all race and sex groups.There is a strong association betw een lung cancer and smoking.Chest radiograph and CT scan aid in the diagnosis and anatomical localisation of lung tumor.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: Phytochemical analysis of active plant extracts showed the presence of triterpenes, glycosides and flavonoids and antibiofilm activity against bacteria, and the ability to adhere and build biofilm was assessed in few biofilm formers at sub-MIC concentrations.
Abstract: The incessant and vital need to discover new antimicrobial compounds with diverse chemical structures and novel mode of action is stimulated by the increasing failure of chemotherapeutics and expanded antibiotic resistance exhibited by pathogenic agents. In the present research work, antimicrobial activity of few plant extracts and ayurvedic samples were screened against bacteria. Phytochemical analysis of active plant extracts showed the presence of triterpenes, glycosides and flavonoids. Both aqueous and acetone extracts of Holoptelia integrifolia leaf and Barringtonia acutangula flower; and methanolic extract of Glycyrrhiza glabra and Meera powder exhibited activity against S. aureus. Aqueous mortar pestle and soxhlet extracts of B. acutangula flower exhibited activity against both P. aeruginosa and E. coli. Further, the ability to adhere and build biofilm was assessed in few biofilm formers at sub-MIC concentrations using the Microtiter plate assay and the Coverslip assay. Aqueous soxhlet and mortar pestle extract of B. acutangula flower and acetone overnight extract of H. integrifolia leaf exhibited antibiofilm activity against these organisms.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: The foliar epidermal and stomata study of the Stachytarpheta species present in Awka, south eastern Nigeria showed more affinity between S. jamaicensis and S. cayannensis, hence, delimiting S. angustifolia.
Abstract: The foliar epidermal and stomata study of the Stachytarpheta species present in Awka, south eastern Nigeria was carried out using standard anatomical procedure. The genus is a family of Verbenaceae and has three species in it which are present in the region. They include Stachytarpheta jamaicensis, Stachytarpheta cayannensis and Stachytarpheta angustifolia. The study showed that epidermal cell shape, stomatal type and stomata shape both on adaxial and abaxial surfaces of the three plants were almost similar with little variation in S. cayannensis. The analysis of variance of stomata length, stomata size and epidermal cell size showed no significant difference between Stachytarpheta species (p>0.05) but thickness of upper epidermis, lower epidermis, stomata width and stomata index showed a significant difference between Stachytarpheta species (p<0.05). Finally, most of these characters studied were important taxonomic tools in the delimitation of the three species. Duncan multiple range test however, revealed the species relationship. Therefore, this study showed more affinity between S. jamaicensis and S. angustifolia, hence, delimiting S. cayannensis.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: This study aimed to assess the identification of 15 known ornamental Liliopsida plant species in North Sulawesi using matK gene as a single marker and found that species identification by the highest similarity is reliable only when the result is identical with the sequence stored in the database.
Abstract: DNA barcoding is a tool for species identification. For plant species identification, two of plastid genes (rbcL and matK) were used as standard barcodes. There are limitations of each gene marker but matK is considered to be the closest plant analogue to the CO1 animal barcode. As a mega-biodiversity country, Indonesia has many plant species used for ornamental and/or medical purposes. This study aimed to assess the identification of 15 known ornamental Liliopsida plant species in North Sulawesi using matK gene as a single marker. There were three possibilities result for species identification in this study: species level identification by top hit (1 specimen), species level identification by highest similarities (7 specimens), and genera level identification by highest similarities (7 specimens). Species identification by the highest similarity is reliable only when the result is identical with the sequence stored in the database.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the authors developed a gastrore tentive drug delivery system of ketoprofen with suitable swelling and floating properties to reduce its irritant effect on the stomach and pr olong its short duration of action up to 12 hours.
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to develop a gastrore tentive drug delivery system of ketoprofen with suitable swelling and floating properties to reduce its irritant effect on the stomach and pr olong its short duration of action up to 12 h. Floating tablets were prepared employing EC (ethylcellulose), NaCMC ( sodium carboxy methylcellulose), HPMC K4M (hydroxypropyl methylcellulose) (release retarding polymers), Sodium bicarbonate (gas-generating agent), Lactose and Avicel (fillers) by gas formation technique. Tablets were evaluated for drug content, weight variation, hardness, thickness, floating be havior, swelling ability and invitro drug release in 0.1 N HCl containing tween 20. The optimized formulations of F3, F4 and E2 exhibited prolonged drug release for 12 h, with short lag time ( ≤ 3 min) and long floating duration ( ≥ 24 h). ANOVA post hoc multiple comparisons was conducted for significance at P<0.05. Based on kinetic studies, formulations best fitted to Higuchi model. The results indicated that type and amount of polymer, ty pe of fillers and amount of gas generating agent have influenced on drug release and floating behavior.

4 citations


Journal Article
TL;DR: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2012-13 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, with an aim to find out the effect of foliar nutrition on water potent ial, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and yield of mung bean under rece ding soil moisture conditions in split plot design with irrigation and no irrigation as main treatments and folia r sprays as sub treatments as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: A field experiment was conducted during Rabi season of 2012-13 at Regional Agricultural Research Station, Lam, Guntur, with an aim to find out the effect of foliar nutrition on water potent ial, photosynthetic rate, dry matter production and yield of mung bean under rece ding soil moisture conditions in split plot design with irrigation and no irrigation as main treatments and folia r sprays as sub treatments. Under receding soil moisture condition (moisture stress) KNO 3 @ 1% proved superior over other foliar sprays by recording more plant height, leaf area, shoot dry weight, and photosyn thetic rate by maintaining high chloro phyll content, high proline and high leaf water potential. KNO 3 @ 1% gave higher yields under receding soil moisture condition compared to other foliar sprays. Under irrigated conditions urea @ 2% record ed higher yield. Among all treatments controlled (no spray) under unirrigated conditions recorded lower yiel ds due to moisture stress and nutrient deficiency.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Evaluate from recent literature available different exogenous and endogenous markers used for the determination of GFR and which marker found suitable for the determined according to literature available on PubMed to determine their reliability in the detection and monitoring of CKD and its stages.
Abstract: The National Kidney Foundation (NKF), through its Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (K/DOQI), and other National institutions proposed glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to describe, classify, screen and examine chronic kidney disease (CKD). GFR is the standard measure of renal function but cannot be practically measured for clinical and research purposes, so serum creatinine (Scr) is used to calculate estimated GFR (eGFR) which is affected by age, weight, muscle mass, race, various medications and extra-glomerular elimination. To overcome this Cystatin C (CysC) is new and reliable marker for renal function due to its low molecular weight it is freely filtered through glomerulus, completely reabsorbed and catabolized, but not secreted, by tubular cells. Various equations used for GFR estimation such as the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study equation, Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) and Cockcroft-Gault (CG) equation based on Scr , Grubb and Hoek equation based on CysC and Stevens equation based on both SCr and CysC are used. CKD-EPI is preferred for identifying patients with CKD and for staging the disease. The risk of underestimation of kidney function with MDRD is highest when the GFR is 30 mL/minute/1.73 m 2 so GFR is calculated by CKD-EPI equation for these persons. CKD-EPI is recommended for diagnosis and staging when the addition of appropriate prophylactic drugs or avoidance of certain nephrotoxic drugs should occur. The aim of this review is to evaluate from recent literature available different exogenous and endogenous markers used for the determination of GFR and which marker found suitable for the determination of GFR according to literature available on PubMed and determine their reliability in the detection and monitoring of CKD and its stages. Key words: Glomerular filtration rate, chronic kidney disease, Creatinine, Cystatin C, Measurement of GFR Abbreviations - Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), chronic kidney disease (CKD), Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD), Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI), Cockcroft-Gault (CG), Serum creatinine (Scr), serum cystatin C (CysC), National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative (KDOQI), Cardiovascular disease (CVD), Food and drug administration (FDA), Diethylene triamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA)

Journal Article
TL;DR: This study will be helpful in developing novel antiviral drugs from plant sources against aquatic important pathogens by identifying the antiviral potentiality of Cynodon dactylon derived phytochemicals with docking tec hnique.
Abstract: White spot disease is a major infectious disease of penaeid shrimps caused by the white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The viral structural proteins are responsib le for binding virus to the cellular membranes of the host that is being systematically infected. An In silic o attempt was made to identify the potential drug to inhibit the WSSV spread of diseases. For that an effort , was made to deduce the antiviral potentiality of Cynodon dactylon derived phytochemicals with docking tec hnique. To stimulate the structure based drug design the, 3D structure of the VP26 (PDB-ID: 2EDM), a tegument protein thought to be i nvolved in the entry of WSSV nucleocapsid into the host nucleus, is retrieved from PDB datab ase and docking studies are carried out with the sketched phytochemical structures using GOLD software. Among the phytochemicals scr eened, luteolin and apigenin shows the best binding affinity with binding energies of 42.51 and 38.92 K.cal/m ol exhibiting the potential to block VP26 (2EDM) protein of WSSV. This study will be helpful in developing novel antiviral drugs from plant sources against aquatic important pathogens.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An in vitro micropropagation of Lavandula angustifolia is explored, which recorded complete callus formation after 6 weeks of incubation at 25±1oC and growth was very steady and originating from the base.
Abstract: Lavandula angustifolia ( Family Labiates) is a medicinal herb found in Mediterranean area. It is a well known herb in ayurvedic system of medicines and has traditi onally been used to treat disorder of liver, fever and several conditions including infertility, infection and anxiety. There are few reports on tissue culture of Lavandula angustifolia that too mainly on micropropagation. Present study explored an in vitro micropropagation of Lavandula angustifolia . In vitro callus formation was established by using nodal segments on Murashique and Skoog, (1962) medium (MS) supplemented with IAA at 0.1mg/l, l BAP at 0.002mg/l and 2-4D at 0.2mg/l, significantly recorded complete callus formation after 6 week s of incubation at 25±1oC. The callus was allowed for organogenesis and then shoot multiplication was carried out at 4 concentrations of BAP (0.5, 1, 2 and 1mg/L) and IAA (0.5, 0.5, 0.5 and 1mg/L) on MS medium. The shoot regeneration medium for shoot multiplication and prolif eration with higher number of shoots was recorded at 0.5mg/l of IAA and 2.0mg/l BA P. However, the growth was very steady and originating from the base. MS medium without any growth regulators tabulated the tallest shoot length of 35 mm, but the shoots were clustered not pr operly differentiated.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Diversity of benthic fauna was higher in WIN season followed by RMON, PRM and MON season and availability of different species of mollusks indicated the good cultural and unpolluted condition of Chaur.
Abstract: Qualitative and quantitative estimation of macrobenthic fauna was done during pre and post drought period. A total of 18 species of macrobenthos were recorded during pre drought and 17 in post drought period. Maximum number of species was reported in Mollusca followed by Diptera and Oligochaeta. The average contribution of Mollusca was 94.72%, Dipetra 2.98% and Oligochaeta 2.30% to total benthic species of the Chaur. Bellamya bengalensis, Gabbia orcula, Gyraulus convexiusculus, Lymnaea acuminata and Lymnaea auricularia were the molluccs which were found in all the monthly samples. Number wise Gyraulus convexiusculus was most abundant followed by Gabbia orcula while Lamellidens marginalis and Pila glabosa were the least abundant. In pre drought period average number of macrobenthos was 3176/m2 while in post drought period, it was 2676/m2. Analysis of the various index showed that diversity of benthic fauna was higher in WIN season followed by RMON, PRM and MON season. Winter seems to be a favourable season for benthic organisms. Availability of different species of mollusks indicated the good cultural and unpolluted condition of Chaur.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, a new HPLC with ultraviolet detection method was developed for simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen and tramadol in bulk and in its combined pharmaceutical dosage form.
Abstract: A new high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet detection method is developed for the simultaneous quantification of acetaminophen and tramadol in bulk and in its combined pharmaceutical dosage form. The chromatographic separation was performed on Waters symmetry C8 column (250 mm × 4.6 mm I.D., 5 µm particle size) using isocratic elution. The optimized mobile phase consists of phosphate buffer (pH 6.8) and methanol (80:20, v/v). The eluted analytes are monitored at 215 nm wavelength using a UV detector. The developed method separates acetaminophen and tramadol within a run time of 6 min. The developed method was validated as per International Conference of Harmonization guidelines with respect to linearity, sensitivity (limit of detection and limit of quantification), selectivity, accuracy, precision and robustness. The developed and validated method was successfully applied to the determination of acetaminophen and tramadol in combined pharmaceutical dosage forms without any interference from the excipients with good recovery, precision and accuracy.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Fresh water C. punctatus were exposed to different concentrations of sodium arsenite for varied span of time in controlled laboratory condition to measure physiological responses and data is indicative of cellular stress in C.unctatus that may lead to decline population size in its natural habitat.
Abstract: Channa punctatus is a common fresh water fish abundantly distributed in ponds, beels and canals of India. The fish is regularly consumed because of its high nutritional value. Heavy metals are common pollutants of the aquatic environment because of their pers istent and tendency to concentrate in a quatic organisms. This freshwater fish is continuously exposed to arsenic toxicity as this meta lloid enters the body through gills and arsenic contaminated food. Fresh water C. punctatus were exposed to different concentrations of sodium arsenite for varied span of time in controlled laboratory condition to me asure physiological responses. Data is indicative of cellular stress in C. punctatus that may lead to decline population size in its natural habitat.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In vivo insecticidal analysis revealed significant antifeedan t, larvicidal and pupicidal activities at all the concentrations against 5 th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura .
Abstract: Bryophytes were diverse, primitive non vascular am phibious taxa distributed worldwide and form the second largest category of plants. Bryophytes synthesize an array of phytochemicals to combat against the unhospitable environmental conditions including predation, UV radiation, high temperature and pest and pathogens. The present investigation was undertaken to elucidate flavonoids from in vitro cell cultures of the liverwort Marchantia linearis Lehm. & Lindenb. its fractionation and analysis of insecticidal potentialities. Initially, callus culture was initiated from spores in MS/5 media containing gr owth regulators BAP and NAA at the concentration of 2 mg/L and 0.5 mg/L. Agitation of the friable callus at lowe r rpm bring about lower leve l of cell dispersion, on the contrary at higher rpm might have risk of cell collision that is why rpm was kept at moderate speed i.e., 110 rpm. Continuous sub culturing process substantially improves cell growth and biomass. In the second phase, the flavonoids were isolated from cell suspension cultures of M. linearis and were fractionated by TLC and HPLC PAD chromatogram, which revealed the presence of quer cetin, luteolin, apigenin , rutin and kaempferol. In vivo insecticidal analysis revealed significant antifeedan t, larvicidal and pupicidal activities at all the concentrations against 5 th instar larvae of Spodoptera litura . The extract also exhibited feeding deterrent activity with M. linearis. Similarly, the nutritional parameters were also affected i.e., reduced ECI (Efficiency of conversion of ingested food) and ECD (Efficiency of conversion of digested food) and increased AD (Approximate digestibility) and metabolic cost for the larvae, when compared with the control. The consumption of the basal diet with the incorporation of flavonoids by S. litura larvae was not significantly different compared to the co nsumption of the control diet by the larvae. Faecal production reduced proportionally with concentrations of the extract.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Increasing age and long-term pesticide exposure reduce AChE levels in farmers, particularly in farmers from Kelantan and Selangor.
Abstract: Agriculture is an important component of the Malaysian economy. Pesticides are widely used by farmers to increase crop production. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is known to play an important role in the degradation of acetylcholine (ACh) at the neuromuscular junction of the nervous system. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pesticide exposure on serum levels of AChE of farmers. A cross-sectional study was conducted. A total of 95 farmers from Kelantan (n = 49) and Selangor (n = 46) aged between 23 and 71 years were recruited. AChE concentration was measured by spectrophotometry. The results of this study showed that the mean AChE concentrations in farmers from Kelantan and Selangor were 2,715 and 2,660 U/L, respectively, significantly different (p < 0.05) from normal reference value (3500 U/l). Pearson correlation test showed a moderate correlation between AChE level and age (r = 0.551) and a strong correlation between AChE level and working period (r = -0.872) in farmers in Kelantan. AChE levels in Selangor were also moderately correlated with age (r = -0.353) and working period (r = -0.515). In conclusion, increasing age and long-term pesticide exposure reduce AChE levels in farmers.

Journal Article
TL;DR: Ten mungbean genotypes were evaluated to estimate the genotypic variation for seed yield components and Nitrogen and Phosphorus uptake after inoculating with three microbial treatments (Rhizobium, Piriformospora indica and their combined inoculation).
Abstract: Ten mungbean genotypes were evaluated to estimate the genotypic variation for seed yield components and Nitrogen and Phosphorus uptake after inoculating with three microbial treatments (Rhizobium, Piriformospora indica and their combined inoculation). Significant genotypic differences for all characters indicated presence of considerable variability. All the microbial treatments and genotype x microbial interaction differed significantly except for maturity, branches/plant and seeds/pod. The traits affected most by Rhizobium inoculation in majority of the genotypes were plant height, pods/plant and seed yield. Above 50 per cent P. indica infection in roots was observed in eight genotypes, however, its effect was observed only in a few genotypes on plant height, P content in shoot, 100-seed weight and seed yield. The effect of combined inoculation was observed on seed yield only. Effect of all the three inoculants was observed in only MH-810 and MH-721. Maximum response of Rhizobium and dual inoculation was observed in MH-421.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, an attempt to synthesize and characterize the ligand 4-chloro-2-[(2- furanylmethyl) - amino]-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid, and its Fe-III and Co-II complexes was made.
Abstract: The present investigation is an attempt to synth esize and characterize the ligand 4-chloro-2-[(2- furanylmethyl) - amino]-5-sulfamoylbenzoic acid, and its Fe-III and Co-II complexes. The nature of bonding and the geometry of the complexes have be en deduced from elemental analysis, magnetic moment measurements and conductivity measurements. Conduc tometric titrations have suggested meta l-ligand ratio of 1:2 for both Fe(III) and Co(II) complexes. The ligand behaves as a bidentate with N, O donor atoms. The electronic absorption spectra and magnetic susceptibility measurements of th e complexes indicates octahedral geometry for both the complexes. IR, UV-Visible and SEM studies have been carried out to s uggest the tentative structure for the complexes. The synthesized ligand as well as their metal complexes were scree ned for diuretic activity. The results revealed that the complexes are more potent diuretic than the ligand.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The data suggests that Olanzapine, the atypical antipsychotic drug has a proconvulsant action on maximal electroshock induced seizures in Wistar albino rats.
Abstract: Objectives : The aim of the study was to investigate the chronic effect of Olanzapine; an atypical antipsychotic drug on maximal electroshock (MES) induced seizures in Wistar albino rats. Methods : Olanzapine (2mg/kg, 10 days orally) was used to study its effect on MES induced seizures in Wistar albino rats. Duration of the tonic hind limb extension was noted. Results : Olanzapine (2mg/kg) significantly (p<0.001) increased the duration of hind limb extension induced by MES. Conclusions : The data suggests that Olanzapine, the atypical antipsychotic drug has a proconvulsant action.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the electro oxidation of methanol has been studied in alkaline medium NaOH 0.1 M and acid medium H2SO4 0.5 M on a platinum electrode and a platinum modified by adatom adsorption (Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd).
Abstract: The electro oxidation of methanol has been studied in alkaline medium NaOH 0.1 M and acid medium H2SO4 0.5 M on a platinum electrode and a platinum modified by adatom adsorption (Ni, Cu, Pb, and Cd). The influence of different experimental variables (methanol concentration, and temperature) is reported. Preliminary investigations by cyclic voltammetry showed that the catalytic activity of platinum is still too low to be considered as a practical catalyst. Underpotential deposition of lead, nickel, cadmium, or copper adatoms at platinum allowed increasing significantly the current densities.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, an experiment was conducted with blackgram (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) cv T-9 in Open top chambers (OTCs) to assess the impact of moisture deficit and its interacti on with two levels of CO 2 (550ppm and 700ppm) on biomass and seed yield.
Abstract: An experiment was conducted with blackgram ( Vigna mungo L. Hepper) cv T-9 in Open top chambers (OTCs) to assess the impact of moisture deficit and its interacti on with two levels of CO 2 (550ppm and 700ppm) on biomass and seed yield. At flowering stage mois ture deficit was imposed by withholding irrigation. Both elevated CO 2 levels improved the total biomass and the ex tent of improvement was 2.7% and 23.5% under irrigated conditions, while 9.0% and 26.1% under moisture stress conditions at 550ppm and 700ppm of CO 2 respectively. Higher improvement in seed yield than biomass at both elevated CO 2 levels was recorded and under irrigated condition the seed yield improved by 26.3% and 58.9% while under moisture deficit conditions by 9.0% and 34.7% at 550ppm and 700ppm respectiv ely. Though moisture deficit reduced the total biomass, seed yield and HI at all CO 2 levels, however the magnitude of reduction was less at elevated CO 2 levels. The ameliorative effect of enhanced CO 2 concentrations under moisture deficit cond ition was observed through better pod number in blackgram as compared with ambient control which reflected as higher seed yield.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this article, the physic o-chemical parameters like TDS, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Nitrogen, NO 3 -, Cl -, SO 4 -2, Ca +2, Mg +2, and Phosphate were analyzed.
Abstract: Water samples were collected from konandur pond in Theerthalli (T). The physic o-chemical parameters like TDS, Total Hardness, Total Alkalinity, Nitrogen, NO 3 - , Cl - , SO 4 -2 , Ca +2 , Mg +2 , and Phosphate were analyzed. The results were considered for correlation analysis and it was observed that many of the parameters bear a good positive correlation and some bears a nega tive correlation. The study revealed th at, pond water was not much polluted. In the light of standard of water quality recommended by WHO, the pond water should be used for drinking and cooking after proper treatment.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An investigation was carried out in Koteganguru tank near Shivamogga town on physico-chemical characteristics during January to December 2007 as mentioned in this paper, which revealed that, tank water is polluted as it possesses high BOD, CO2, phosphate and nitrogen.
Abstract: An investigation was carried out in Koteganguru tank near Shivamogga town on physico-chemical characteristics during January to December 2007. The results of physico-chemical parameters were compared with the standard values prescribed by the Bureau of India Standards (BIS) and World Health Organization (WHO). The study revealed that, tank water is polluted as it possesses high BOD, CO2, phosphate and nitrogen. In the light of standard of water quality recommended by WHO, the tank water should not be used by human beings especially for drinking and cooking.

Journal Article
TL;DR: The objective of this research is to find out the best ligand molecule each for the two drug targeting protein present in the JEV by studying the complete structure of JEV drug targeting proteins and their interaction with their respective ligand.
Abstract: Japanese Encephalitis (JE) is a vector- borne, viral zoonosis that may affect humans. The disease periodically becomes endemic in areas such as northern India, parts of central and southern India. Japanese Encephalitis virus belongs to the mostly vector-borne flaviviriade, which are single stranded RNA viruses. The envelope glycoprotein of JE Viruses contain specific as well as cross relative, neutralizing epitopes. The objective of this research to find out the best ligand molecule each for the two drug targeting protein present in the JEV. This will be done by studying the complete structure of JEV drug targeting proteins and their interaction with their respective ligand. The envelope protein and NS1 protein have been studied. The minimum energies were recorded after the docking studies for all the inhibitors docked with the protein. After comparison of the minimum energies recorded, the ligand with the least minimum docking energy has been considered as the best ligand. The entire study indicates that the inhibitor Mycophenolate with minimum energy -5.00605kj/mol is the most effective against Envelope protein. However in case of NS1 protein, the inhibitor Deoxynojirimycin with the minimum energy of - 6.75932kj/mol is found to be the most effective. Key words-Envelope protein, NS1 protein, Molecular Docking, Japanese Encephalitis Virus, Homology modelling

Journal Article
TL;DR: Reduction in serum albumin was seen in postmenopausal wo men which is the reason for decrease in serum calcium level which is inturn related to ageing effect, suggesting there is high alkaline phosphotase activity in post menopausal women as a result of the inhibitory effects of estrogen on bone turnover rate which is dependent on age and body mass index.
Abstract: Menopause and ageing is associated with accelerated loss of cortical bone. Osteoporotic fractures are common cause of morbidity and mortality in adult Indian women due to ageing. This study was conducted to evaluate the levels of serum calcium, ionized calcium and total protein levels in postmenopausal women and to assess its relation with ageing. Study includes 70 women (40 post menopausal and 30 prem enopausal women) serum alkaline phosphatase, serum calcium, ionized calcium and total proteins, serum albumin were estimated in both cases and controls. There is decrease in serum calcium in postmenopausal; wo men when compared to premenopausal women. There was no significant change in ionized calcium in both cases and controls. ALP is highly significant P<0.001. In postmenopausal women suggesting there is high alkaline phosphotase activity in postmenopausal women as a result of the inhibitory effects of estrogen on bone turnover rate which is dependent on age and body mass index. Decrease in serum albumin was seen in postmenopausal wo men which is the reason for decrease in serum calcium level which is inturn related to ageing effect.

Journal Article
TL;DR: An efficient and general method for the formation of imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine from 2-amino pyridine with substituted α- haloketones in the presence of water and acidic additives in efficient yields is described in this paper.
Abstract: Green Chemistry is defined as environmentally benign chemistry. The revolution in green chemistry provides enormous scopes for discovery and even application for new synthetic approaches. An efficient and general method has been described for the formation of imidazo(1,2-a)pyridine from 2-amino pyridine with substituted α- haloketones in the presence of water and acidic additives in efficient yields.

Journal Article
TL;DR: In this paper, a total of 8 species of Barbus have been identified in all the rivers studied and among these species, Barbus ablabes was captured in all rivers investigated and constitutes the most abundant specie.
Abstract: Thirteen hydrosystems from Cote d’Ivoire were sampled between May 2000 to September 2002 and August 2004 to March 2006. A total of 8 species of Barbus have been identified in all the rivers studied. Among these species, Barbus ablabes was captured in all rivers investigated and constitutes the most abundant specie. Furthermore, 2 species were appeared only in one river. There are B. tiekoroi captured in Nero and B. macinensis in Bandana.The main factor influencing the Barbus species distribution in costal basins is the closure canopy. Nevertheless, in the other rivers, the distribution of Barbus species is influenced by pH, water temperature, width, depth, rocks and aquatic plants.