Showing papers in "International Journal of Cancer in 2010"
TL;DR: The results for 20 world regions are presented, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers, and striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed.
Abstract: Estimates of the worldwide incidence and mortality from 27 cancers in 2008 have been prepared for 182 countries as part of the GLOBOCAN series published by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. In this article, we present the results for 20 world regions, summarizing the global patterns for the eight most common cancers. Overall, an estimated 12.7 million new cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths occur in 2008, with 56% of new cancer cases and 63% of the cancer deaths occurring in the less developed regions of the world. The most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide are lung (1.61 million, 12.7% of the total), breast (1.38 million, 10.9%) and colorectal cancers (1.23 million, 9.7%). The most common causes of cancer death are lung cancer (1.38 million, 18.2% of the total), stomach cancer (738,000 deaths, 9.7%) and liver cancer (696,000 deaths, 9.2%). Cancer is neither rare anywhere in the world, nor mainly confined to high-resource countries. Striking differences in the patterns of cancer from region to region are observed.
TL;DR: Investigation of whether plasma miRNAs can be used as biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal carcinoma found that plasma miR‐29a and miR-92a have significant diagnostic value for advanced neoplasia and combined ROC analyses suggest that they have strong potential as novel noninvasive biomarkers.
Abstract: MicroRNA (miRNA) opens up a new field for molecular diagnosis of cancer. However, the role of circulating miRNAs in plasma/serum in cancer diagnosis is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether plasma miRNAs can be used as biomarkers for the early detection of colorectal carcinoma (CRC). We measured the levels of 12 miRNAs (miR-134, -146a, -17-3p, -181d, -191, -221, -222, -223, -25, -29a, -320a and -92a) in plasma samples from patients with advanced colorectal neoplasia (carcinomas and advanced adenomas) and healthy controls using real-time RT-PCR. We found that plasma miR-29a and miR-92a have significant diagnostic value for advanced neoplasia. MiR-29a yielded an AUC (the areas under the ROC curve) of 0.844 and miR-92a yielded an AUC of 0.838 in discriminating CRC from controls. More importantly, these 2 miRNAs also could discriminate advanced adenomas from controls and yielded an AUC of 0.769 for miR-29a and 0.749 for miR-92a. Combined ROC analyses using these 2 miRNAs revealed an elevated AUC of 0.883 with 83.0% sensitivity and 84.7% specificity in discriminating CRC, and AUC of 0.773 with 73.0% sensitivity and 79.7% specificity in discriminating advanced adenomas. Collectively, these data suggest that plasma miR-29a and miR-92a have strong potential as novel noninvasive biomarkers for early detection of CRC.
TL;DR: Results indicate that cancer vaccines targeting tumor‐associated self‐antigens may potentially expand/activate Tregs and hamper effective antitumor immune responses, and that tumor immunity can therefore be enhanced by depleting T Regs, attenuating Treg suppressive function, or rendering effector T cells refractory to Treg‐mediated suppression.
Abstract: Recent studies have revealed that Foxp3(+)CD25(+)CD4(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are physiologically engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance, play critical roles for the control of antitumor immune responses. For example, a large number of Foxp3(+)Tregs infiltrate into tumors, and systemic removal of Foxp3(+)Tregs enhances natural as well as vaccine-induced antitumor T-cell responses. Tregs are recruited to tumor tissues via chemokines, such as CCL22 binding to CCR4 expressed by Tregs. They appear to expand and become activated in tumor tissues and in the draining lymph nodes by recognizing tumor-associated antigens as well as normal self-antigen expressed by tumor cells. These results indicate that cancer vaccines targeting tumor-associated self-antigens may potentially expand/activate Tregs and hamper effective antitumor immune responses, and that tumor immunity can therefore be enhanced by depleting Tregs, attenuating Treg suppressive function, or rendering effector T cells refractory to Treg-mediated suppression. Recent attempts have indeed demonstrated that combinations of monoclonal antibodies capable of modulating Treg functions synergistically enhance antitumor activity and are more effective than a single monoclonal antibody therapy. Combination therapy targeting a variety of molecules expressed in antigen-presenting cells, effector T cells and Tregs is envisaged to be a promising anticancer immunotherapy.
TL;DR: Catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit in patients with malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers, especially gastric cancer, with an acceptable safety profile.
Abstract: Malignant ascites is a common manifestation of advanced cancers, and treatment options are limited. The trifunctional antibody catumaxomab (anti-epithelial cell-adhesion molecule x anti-CD3) represents a targeted immunotherapy for the intraperitoneal (i.p.) treatment of malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers. In this phase II/III trial (EudraCT 2004-000723-15; NCT00836654), cancer patients (n = 258) with recurrent symptomatic malignant ascites resistant to conventional chemotherapy were randomized to paracentesis plus catumaxomab (catumaxomab) or paracentesis alone (control) and stratified by cancer type (129 ovarian and 129 nonovarian). Catumaxomab was administered as an i.p. infusion on Days 0, 3, 7 and 10 at doses of 10, 20, 50 and 150 μg, respectively. The primary efficacy endpoint was puncture-free survival. Secondary efficacy parameters included time to next paracentesis, ascites signs and symptoms and overall survival (OS). Puncture-free survival was significantly longer in the catumaxomab group (median 46 days) than the control group (median 11 days) (hazard ratio = 0.254: p < 0.0001) as was median time to next paracentesis (77 versus 13 days; p < 0.0001). In addition, catumaxomab patients had fewer signs and symptoms of ascites than control patients. OS showed a positive trend for the catumaxomab group and, in a prospectively planned analysis, was significantly prolonged in patients with gastric cancer (n = 66; 71 versus 44 days; p = 0.0313). Although adverse events associated with catumaxomab were frequent, they were manageable, generally reversible and mainly related to its immunologic mode of action. Catumaxomab showed a clear clinical benefit in patients with malignant ascites secondary to epithelial cancers, especially gastric cancer, with an acceptable safety profile.
TL;DR: This study provides the first evidence for an oncogenic activity ofmiR‐155, miR‐203, miM‐210 and miR-222 in the development of pancreatic cancer as has been reported for other tumor types.
Abstract: Pancreatic cancer is the eighth most common cancer and has an overall 5-year survival rate lower than 10%. Because of their ability to regulate gene expression, microRNAs can act as oncogenes or tumor-suppressor genes and so have garnered interest as possible prognostic and therapeutic markers during the last decade. However, the prognostic value of microRNA expression in pancreatic cancer has not been thoroughly investigated. We measured the levels of miR-155, miR-203, miR-210, miR-216, miR-217 and miR-222 by quantitative RT-PCR in a cohort of 56 microdissected pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC). These microRNAs were chosen as they had previously been shown to be differentially expressed in pancreatic tumors compared to normal tissues. The possible association of microRNA expression and patients' survival was examined using multivariate Cox's regression hazard analyses. Interestingly, significant correlations between elevated microRNA expression and overall survival were observed for miR-155 (RR = 2.50; p = 0.005), miR-203 (RR = 2.21; p = 0.017), miR-210 (RR = 2.48; p = 0.005) and miR-222 (RR = 2.05; p = 0.035). Furthermore, tumors from patients demonstrating elevated expression levels of all 4 microRNAs possessed a 6.2-fold increased risk of tumor-related death compared to patients whose tumors showed a lower expression of these microRNAs. This study provides the first evidence for an oncogenic activity of miR-155, miR-203, miR-210 and miR-222 in the development of pancreatic cancer as has been reported for other tumor types. Furthermore, the putative target genes for these microRNAs suggest a complex signaling network that can affect PDAC tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
TL;DR: The identification of tumor‐suppressive miRNAs,miR‐145, miR‐133a and miR-133b, directly control oncogenic FSCN1 gene, and could provide new insights into potential mechanisms of ESCC carcinogenesis.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), noncoding RNAs 21–25 nucleotides in length, regulate gene expression primarily at the posttranscriptional level. Growing evidence suggests that miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in many human cancers, and that they play significant roles in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A search for miRNAs with a tumor-suppressive function in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) was performed using the miRNA expression signatures obtained from ESCC clinical specimens. A subset of 15 miRNAs was significantly downregulated in ESCC. A comparison of miRNA signatures from ESCC and our previous report identified 4 miRNAs that are downregulated in common (miR-145, miR-30a-3p, miR-133a and miR-133b), suggesting that these miRNAs are candidate tumor suppressors. Gain-of-function analysis revealed that 3 transfectants (miR-145, miR-133a and miR-133b) inhibit cell proliferation and cell invasion in ESCC cells. These miRNAs (miR-145, miR-133a and miR-133b), which have conserved sequences in the 3′UTR of FSCN1 (actin-binding protein, Fascin homolog 1), inhibited FSCN1 expression. The signal from a luciferase reporter assay was significantly decreased at 2 miR-145 target sites and 1 miR-133a/b site, suggesting both miRNAs directly regulate FSCN1. An FSCN1 loss-of-function assay found significant cell growth and invasion inhibition, implying an FSCN1 is associated with ESCC carcinogenesis. The identification of tumor-suppressive miRNAs, miR-145, miR-133a and miR-133b, directly control oncogenic FSCN1 gene. These signal pathways of ESCC could provide new insights into potential mechanisms of ESCC carcinogenesis.
TL;DR: A list of known cross‐contaminated cell lines is compiled, drawn from 68 references, and it is essential to check the sample itself by performing authentication testing, even if there are no previous publications on cross-contamination for that cell line.
Abstract: Continuous cell lines consist of cultured cells derived from a specific donor and tissue of origin that have acquired the ability to proliferate indefinitely. These cell lines are well-recognized models for the study of health and disease, particularly for cancer. However, there are cautions to be aware of when using continuous cell lines, including the possibility of contamination, in which a foreign cell line or microorganism is introduced without the handler's knowledge. Cross-contamination, in which the contaminant is another cell line, was first recognized in the 1950s but, disturbingly, remains a serious issue today. Many cell lines become cross-contaminated early, so that subsequent experimental work has been performed only on the contaminant, masquerading under a different name. What can be done in response—how can a researcher know if their own cell lines are cross-contaminated? Two practical responses are suggested here. First, it is important to check the literature, looking for previous work on cross-contamination. Some reports may be difficult to find and to make these more accessible, we have compiled a list of known cross-contaminated cell lines. The list currently contains 360 cell lines, drawn from 68 references. Most contaminants arise within the same species, with HeLa still the most frequently encountered (29%, 106/360) among human cell lines, but interspecies contaminants account for a small but substantial minority of cases (9%, 33/360). Second, even if there are no previous publications on cross-contamination for that cell line, it is essential to check the sample itself by performing authentication testing.
TL;DR: A panel of miRNAs that can be used as highly sensitive and specific sputum markers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma were developed and demonstrated the potential of translation to laboratory settings for improving the early detection.
Abstract: Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of lung cancer, the leading cause of cancer deaths in the world. Early detection is the key to improve the survival of lung adenocarcinoma patients. We have previously shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) were stably present in sputum and could be applied to diagnosis of lung cancer. The aim of our study was to develop a panel of miRNAs that can be used as highly sensitive and specific sputum markers for early detection of lung adenocarcinoma. Our study contained 3 phases: (i) marker discovery using miRNA profiling on paired normal and tumor lung tissues from 20 patients with lung adenocarcinoma; (ii) marker optimization by real-time reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction on sputum of a case-control cohort consisting of 36 cancer patients and 36 health individuals and (iii) validation on an independent set of 64 lung cancer patients and 58 cancer-free subjects. From the surgical tissues, 7 miRNAs with significantly altered expression were identified, of which "4" were overexpressed and "3" were underexpressed in all 20 tumors. On the sputum samples of the case-control cohort, 4 (miR-21, miR-486, miR-375 and miR-200b) of the 7 miRNAs were selected, which in combination produced the best prediction in distinguishing lung adenocarcinoma patients from normal subjects with 80.6% sensitivity and 91.7% specificity. Validation of the marker panel in the independent populations confirmed the sensitivity and specificity that provided a significant improvement over any single one alone. The sputum markers demonstrated the potential of translation to laboratory settings for improving the early detection of lung adenocarcinoma.
TL;DR: The prospects for novel approaches in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malignant disease based on ASS1 pathophysiology and its rate‐limiting product, arginine are examined.
Abstract: Arginine, a semi-essential amino acid in humans, is critical for the growth of human cancers, particularly those marked by de novo chemoresistance and a poor clinical outcome. In addition to protein synthesis, arginine is involved in diverse aspects of tumour metabolism, including the synthesis of nitric oxide, polyamines, nucleotides, proline and glutamate. Tumoural downregulation of the enzyme argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), a recognised rate-limiting step in arginine synthesis, results in an intrinsic dependence on extracellular arginine due to an inability to synthesise arginine for growth. This dependence on extracellular arginine is known as arginine auxotrophy. Several tumours are arginine auxotrophic, due to variable loss of ASS1, including hepatocellular carcinoma, malignant melanoma, malignant pleural mesothelioma, prostate and renal cancer. Importantly, targeting extracellular arginine for degradation in the absence of ASS1 triggers apoptosis in arginine auxotrophs. Several phase I/II clinical trials of the arginine-lowering drug, pegylated arginine deiminase, have shown encouraging evidence of clinical benefit and low toxicity in patients with ASS1-negative tumours. In part, ASS1 loss is due to epigenetic silencing of the ASS1 promoter in various human cancer cell lines and tumours, and it is this silencing that confers arginine auxotrophy. In relapsed ovarian cancer, this is associated with platinum refractoriness. In contrast, several platinum sensitive tumours, including primary ovarian, stomach and colorectal cancer, are characterised by ASS1 overexpression, which is regulated by proinflammatory cytokines. This review examines the prospects for novel approaches in the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of malignant disease based on ASS1 pathophysiology and its rate-limiting product, arginine.
TL;DR: The results suggest that dysregulated miRNA expression may underlie the abnormal functioning of critical cellular processes associated with the cisplatin‐resistant phenotype.
Abstract: Cancer cells that develop resistance to chemotherapeutic agents are a major clinical obstacle in the successful treatment of breast cancer. Acquired cancer chemoresistance is a multifactorial phenomenon, involving various mechanisms and processes. Recent studies suggest that chemoresistance may be linked to drug-induced dysregulation of microRNA function. Furthermore, mounting evidence indicates the existence of similarities between drug-resistant and metastatic cancer cells in terms of resistance to apoptosis and enhanced invasiveness. We studied the role of miRNA alterations in the acquisition of cisplatin-resistant phenotype in MCF-7 human breast adenocarcinoma cells. We identified a total of 103 miRNAs that were overexpressed or underexpressed (46 upregulated and 57 downregulated) in MCF-7 cells resistant to cisplatin. These differentially expressed miRNAs are involved in the control of cell signaling, cell survival, DNA methylation and invasiveness. The most significantly dysregulated miRNAs were miR-146a, miR-10a, miR-221/222, miR-345, miR-200b and miR-200c. Furthermore, we demonstrated that miR-345 and miR-7 target the human multidrug resistance-associated protein 1. These results suggest that dysregulated miRNA expression may underlie the abnormal functioning of critical cellular processes associated with the cisplatin-resistant phenotype.
TL;DR: High frequency of tumor‐infiltrating FOXP3+ Treg is associated with early T stage and independently predicts improved disease‐specific survival in MMR‐proficient CRC patients.
Abstract: Regulatory T cells (T(reg)) inhibit the generation of host-versus-tumor immunity via suppression of tumor-specific effector T-cell responses and development of immune tolerance to neoplastic cells. The transcription factor forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is an intracellular key molecule for T(reg) development and function and is considered to represent the most specific T(reg) cell marker. The aim of this study was to analyze the frequency and prognostic impact of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) T(reg) in colorectal cancer (CRC) stratified by mismatch-repair (MMR) status. Using the tissue microarray technique, 1,420 tumor samples were immunohistochemically stained for FOXP3 and stratified into 1,197 MMR-proficient and 223 MMR-deficient CRCs. Additionally, the 1,197 MMR-proficient CRCs were randomized into 2 subgroups (Test Groups 1 and 2; n = 613 and 584, respectively). In both MMR-proficient CRC subgroups high frequency tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) T(reg) was associated with early T stage (p = 0.001 and <0.001), tumor location (p = 0.01 and 0.045) and increased 5-year survival rate (p = 0.004 and <0.001), whereas in MMR-deficient CRCs an association between FOXP3(+) T(reg) and absence of lymph node involvement (p = 0.023), absence of vascular invasion (p = 0.023) and improved 5-year survival rate (p = 0.029) could be detected. In a multivariable analysis including age, gender, T stage, N stage, tumor grade, vascular invasion, and tumor border configuration, a high FOXP3(+) T(reg) frequency was an independent prognostic factor in both MMR-proficient CRC subsets (p = 0.019 and p = 0.007), but not in the MMR-deficient CRCs (p = 0.13). Therefore, high frequency of tumor-infiltrating FOXP3(+) T(reg) is associated with early T stage and independently predicts improved disease-specific survival in MMR-proficient CRC patients.
TL;DR: The purpose of this letter is to briefly review the negative properties of curcumin so that they can be balanced against its beneficial effects and suggests that the therapeutic potential of oralCurcumin is limited.
Abstract: Dear Editor, Curcumin is a yellow–orange pigment obtained from the plant Curcuma longa. The powdered rhizome of this plant, called turmeric, is a common ingredient in curry powders and has a long history of use in traditional Asian medicine for a wide variety of disorders. In the last decade a large number of reports have been published on the beneficial effects of curcumin, and it has repeatedly been claimed that this natural product is efficient and safe for the prevention and treatment of several diseases including cancer. It is not surprising, therefore, that curcumin is currently sold as a dietary supplement and that numerous clinical trials are ongoing or recruiting participants to evaluate curcumin activity. But there is accumulating evidence that curcumin may not be so effective and safe. Because such evidence is not generally acknowledged, the purpose of this letter is to briefly review the negative properties of curcumin so that they can be balanced against its beneficial effects. Most of the evidence that supports the therapeutic potential of curcumin is mainly based on in vitro studies in which curcumin was tested at concentrations in the micromolar range. Several reports have demonstrated, however, that the plasma concentrations of curcumin in people taking relatively high oral doses of this compound are very low, typically in the nanomolar range (reviewed in Ref. 4). For instance, a recent study examined the pharmacokinetics of a curcumin preparation in 12 healthy human volunteers 0.25–72 hr after an oral dose of 10 or 12 g. Using a high-performance liquid chromatography assay with a limit of detection of 50 ng mL , only 1 subject had detectable free curcumin at any of the time points assayed. The fact that curcumin also undergoes extensive metabolism in intestine and liver means that high concentrations of curcumin cannot be achieved and maintained in plasma and tissues after oral ingestion. This is a major obstacle for the clinical development of this agent and suggests that the therapeutic potential of oral curcumin is limited. The low clinical efficiency of curcumin in the treatment of several chronic diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and cardiovascular diseases has been discussed recently. As far as cancer is concerned, in vitro studies have demonstrated that cancer cells do not die unless they are exposed to curcumin concentrations of 5–50 lM for several hours. Because of its poor bioavailability, these concentrations are not achieved outside the gastrointestinal tract when curcumin is taken orally. Because of its extensive metabolism in intestine and liver, these concentrations cannot be maintained for several hours in the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that the chemotherapeutic potential of oral curcumin is limited even for the treatment of cancers of the gastrointestinal tract. Accordingly, when 15 patients with advanced colorectal cancer were treated with curcumin at daily doses of 3.6 g for up to 4 months, no partial responses to treatment or decreases in tumor markers were observed. A search of the website www.clinicaltrials.gov in July 2009 showed 34 clinical trials using curcumin in a wide variety of diseases, particularly in cancer. In some of these trials, patients with several types of cancer are receiving or will receive curcumin through the oral route. For instance, in an ongoing Phase II clinical trial (NCT00094445), participants with pancreatic cancer are receiving 8 g of curcumin by mouth every day for several 8-week-periods. As discussed before, the plasma concentrations of curcumin in people taking relatively high oral doses of curcumin are very low, typically in the nanomolar range. This means that the oral administration of curcumin does not lead to cytotoxic concentrations outside the gastrointestinal tract. If one assumes that tumor cell death is necessary to achieve an efficient therapeutic response, one should not expect a very positive outcome from this trial. A Phase II Trial is also recruiting participants to test if a daily oral dose of 8 g of curcumin can improve the efficacy of the standard chemotherapy gemcitabine in patients with locally advanced or metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas (NCT00192842). The rationale for this trial is based on in vitro and in vivo data that suggest that noncytotoxic concentrations of curcumin may sensitize cancer cells to the effects of anticancer drugs such as gemcitabine. Although a daily dose of 1 g kg 1 of curcumin increased the antitumor effects of gemcitabine in an orthotopic model of pancreatic cancer, this dose of curcumin (e.g. 70 g in a 70-kg person) is almost 10 times higher than that used in the clinical trial testing the combination of curcumin and gemcitabine (8 g). This makes the outcome of this trial uncertain, as curcumin can either increase or reduce the efficiency of chemotherapy depending on the concentration at which it is used. Several strategies have been proposed to overcome the low oral bioavailability of curcumin. One of these strategies has entered clinical trials and consists of using the black pepper alkaloid piperine (bioperine) to increase the bioavailability of curcumin. This strategy, however, should be used cautiously, as piperine is a potent inhibitor of drug Le tt er s to th e E di to r
TL;DR: Collectively, MSCs migrate and differentiate into CAFs in tumor stroma, and they promote growth and metastasis of colon cancer by enhancing angiogenesis, migration and invasion and by inhibiting apoptosis of tumor cells.
Abstract: Recently, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were reported to migrate to tumor stroma as well as injured tissue. We examined the role of human MSCs in tumor stroma using an orthotopic nude mice model of KM12SM colon cancer. In in vivo experiments, systemically injected MSCs migrated to the stroma of orthotopic colon tumors and metastatic liver tumors. Orthotopic transplantation of KM12SM cells mixed with MSCs resulted in greater tumor weight than did transplantation of KM12SM cells alone. The survival rate was significantly lower in the mixed-cell group, and liver metastasis was seen only in this group. Moreover, tumors resulting from transplantation of mixed cells had a significantly higher proliferating cell nuclear antigen labeling index, significantly greater microvessel area and significantly lower apoptotic index. Splenic injection of KM12SM cells mixed with MSCs, in comparison to splenic injection of KM12SM cells alone, resulted in a significantly greater number of liver metastases. MSCs incorporated into the stroma of primary and metastatic tumors expressed α-smooth muscle actin and platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β as carcinoma-associated fibroblast (CAF) markers. In in vitro experiments, KM12SM cells recruited MSCs, and MSCs stimulated migration and invasion of tumor cells through the release of soluble factors. Collectively, MSCs migrate and differentiate into CAFs in tumor stroma, and they promote growth and metastasis of colon cancer by enhancing angiogenesis, migration and invasion and by inhibiting apoptosis of tumor cells.
TL;DR: The findings suggest that miR‐181b could play a role in the development of MDR in both gastric and lung cancer cell lines, at least in part, by modulation of apoptosis via targeting BCL2.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNA molecules, which posttranscriptionally regulate genes expression and play crucial roles in diverse biological processes, such as development, differentiation, apoptosis and proliferation. Here, we investigated the possible role of miRNAs in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in human gastric and lung cancer cell lines. We found that miR-181b was downregulated in both multidrug-resistant human gastric cancer cell line SGC7901/vincristine (VCR) and multidrug-resistant human lung cancer cell line A549/cisplatin (CDDP), and the downregulation of miR-181b in SGC7901/VCR and A549/CDDP cells was concurrent with the upregulation of BCL2 protein, compared with the parental SGC7901 and A549 cell lines, respectively. In vitro drug sensitivity assay demonstrated that overexpression of miR-181b sensitized SGC7901/VCR and A549/CDDP cells to anticancer drugs, respectively. The luciferase activity of a BCL2 3'-untranslated region-based reporter construct in SGC7901/VCR and A549/CDDP cells suggests that a new target site in the 3'UTR of BCL2 of the mature miR-181s (miR-181a, miR-181b, miR-181c and miR-181d) was found. Enforced miR-181b expression reduced BCL2 protein level and sensitized SGC7901/VCR and A549/CDDP cells to VCR-induced and CDDP-induced apoptosis, respectively. Taken together, our findings suggest that miR-181b could play a role in the development of MDR in both gastric and lung cancer cell lines, at least in part, by modulation of apoptosis via targeting BCL2.
TL;DR: The role of various miRNAs in invasion, migration and metastasis which are essential steps during cancer progression are described.
Abstract: MicroRNAs have emerged as a novel class of noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-translational level in almost every biological event. A large body of evidence indicates that microRNAs regulate the expression of different genes that play an important role in cancer cell invasion, migration and metastasis. In this review, we briefly describe the role of various miRNAs in invasion, migration and metastasis which are essential steps during cancer progression.
TL;DR: It is concluded that >70% of breast cancers have an alteration in at least 1 component of the PI3K pathway and this might be exploited to therapeutic advantage especially in “basal‐like” cancers.
Abstract: Breast cancer is a common malignancy with current biological therapies tailored to steroid hormone (ER, PR) and HER2 receptor status. Understanding the biological basis of resistance to current targeted therapies and the identification of new potential therapeutic targets is an ongoing challenge. The PI3K pathway is altered in a high proportion of breast cancers and may contribute to therapeutic resistance. We undertook an integrative study of mutational, copy number and expression analyses of key regulators of the PI3K pathway in a cohort of 292 invasive breast cancer patients with known treatment outcomes. The alterations identified in this cohort included PIK3CA mutations (12/168, i.e. 7%), PIK3CA copy number gain (28/209, i.e. 14%), PTEN loss (73/258, i.e. 28%) and AKT activation (62/258, i.e. 24%). Overall at least 1 parameter was altered in 72% (139/193) of primary breast cancers. PI3K pathway activation was significantly associated with ER negative (p = 0.0008) and PR negative (p = 0.006) status, high tumor grade (p = 0.032) and a "basal-like" phenotype (p = 0.01), where 92% (25/27) of tumors had an altered pathway. In univariate analysis, PI3K pathway aberrations were associated with death from breast cancer; however, this relationship was not maintained in multivariate analysis. No association was identified between an activated pathway and outcome in tamoxifen- or chemotherapy-treated patients. We concluded that >70% of breast cancers have an alteration in at least 1 component of the PI3K pathway and this might be exploited to therapeutic advantage especially in "basal-like" cancers.
TL;DR: The importance of the nature of the preexisting MHC Class I lesion in the cancer cell has a crucial impact determining the final outcome of cancer immunotherapy is discussed.
Abstract: The ability of cancer cells to escape from the natural or immunotherapy-induced antitumor immune response is often associated with alterations in the tumor cell surface expression of Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class I antigens. Considerable knowledge has been gained on the prevalence of various patterns of MHC Class I defects and the underlying molecular mechanisms in different types of cancer. In contrast, few data are available on the changes in MHC Class I expression happening during the course of cancer immunotherapy. We have recently proposed that the progression or regression of a tumor lesion in cancer patients undergoing immunotherapy could be predetermined by the molecular mechanism responsible for the MHC Class I alteration and not by the type of immunotherapy used, i.e., interleukin-2 (IL-2), Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), interferon-alpha (IFN-α), peptides alone, dendritic cells loaded with peptides, protein-bound polysaccharide etc. If the molecular alteration responsible for the changes in MHC Class I expression is reversible by cytokines (“soft” lesion), the MHC Class I expression will be upregulated, the specific T cell–mediated response will increase and the lesion will regress. However, if the molecular defect is structural (“hard” lesion), the MHC Class I expression will remain low, the escape mechanism will prevail and the primary tumor or the metastatic lesion will progress. According to this idea, the nature of the preexisting MHC Class I lesion in the cancer cell has a crucial impact determining the final outcome of cancer immunotherapy. In this article, we discuss the importance of these two types of molecular mechanisms of MHC Class I–altered expression.
TL;DR: Preclinical evidence supporting the use of PPI as novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma is shown, providing the proof of concept that PPI target human melanoma modifying tumor pH gradients.
Abstract: Metastatic melanoma is associated with poor prognosis and still limited therapeutic options. An innovative treatment approach for this disease is represented by targeting acidosis, a feature characterizing tumor microenvironment and playing an important role in cancer malignancy. Proton pump inhibitors (PPI), such as esomeprazole (ESOM) are prodrugs functionally activated by acidic environment, fostering pH neutralization by inhibiting proton extrusion. We used human melanoma cell lines and xeno-transplated SCID mice to provide preclinical evidence of ESOM antineoplastic activity. Human melanoma cell lines, characterized by different mutation and signaling profiles, were treated with ESOM in different pH conditions and evaluated for proliferation, viability and cell death. SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma were used to study ESOM administration effects on tumor growth and tumor pH by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). ESOM inhibited proliferation of melanoma cells in vitro and induced a cytotoxicity strongly boosted by low pH culture conditions. ESOM-induced tumor cell death occurred via rapid intracellular acidification and activation of several caspases. Inhibition of caspases activity by pan-caspase inhibitor z-vad-fmk completely abrogated the ESOM-induced cell death. ESOM administration (2.5 mg kg(-1)) to SCID mice engrafted with human melanoma reduced tumor growth, consistent with decrease of proliferating cells and clear reduction of pH gradients in tumor tissue. Moreover, systemic ESOM administration dramatically increased survival of human melanoma-bearing animals, in absence of any relevant toxicity. These data show preclinical evidence supporting the use of PPI as novel therapeutic strategy for melanoma, providing the proof of concept that PPI target human melanoma modifying tumor pH gradients.
TL;DR: The estimates reported here provide a baseline for future modelling, and underline the need for research into interventions to control weight in the context of endometrial, breast and colorectal cancer.
Abstract: Excess adiposity is associated with increased risks of developing adult malignancies. To inform public health policy and guide further research, the incident cancer burden attributable to excess body mass index (BMI >or= 25 kg/m(2)) across 30 European countries were estimated. Population attributable risks (PARs) were calculated using European- and gender-specific risk estimates from a published meta-analysis and gender-specific mean BMI estimates from a World Health Organization Global Infobase. Country-specific numbers of new cancers were derived from Globocan2002. A ten-year lag-period between risk exposure and cancer incidence was assumed and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated in Monte Carlo simulations. In 2002, there were 2,171,351 new all cancer diagnoses in the 30 countries of Europe. Estimated PARs were 2.5% (95% CI 1.5-3.6%) in men and 4.1% (2.3-5.9%) in women. These collectively corresponded to 70,288 (95% CI 40,069-100,668) new cases. Sensitivity analyses revealed estimates were most influenced by the assumed shape of the BMI distribution in the population and cancer-specific risk estimates. In a scenario analysis of a plausible contemporary (2008) population, the estimated PARs increased to 3.2% (2.1-4.3%) and 8.6% (5.6-11.5%), respectively, in men and women. Endometrial, post-menopausal breast and colorectal cancers accounted for 65% of these cancers. This analysis quantifies the burden of incident cancers attributable to excess BMI in Europe. The estimates reported here provide a baseline for future modelling, and underline the need for research into interventions to control weight in the context of endometrial, breast and colorectal cancer.
German Cancer Research Center1, University of Oxford2, University of Tromsø3, Aarhus University4, French Institute of Health and Medical Research5, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens6, Harvard University7, Imperial College London8, University of Naples Federico II9, Utrecht University10, Basque Government11, Lund University12, Umeå University13, University of Cambridge14, Medical Research Council15, International Agency for Research on Cancer16, Institut Gustave Roussy17
TL;DR: A reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan is confirmed and support an important role of hormonal mechanisms inendometrial carcinogenesis.
Abstract: Endometrial cancer risk has been associated with reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, age at first and last birth, time since last birth and use of oral contraceptives (OCs)]. However, these factors are closely interrelated and whether they act independently still requires clarification. We conducted a study to examine the association of menstrual and reproductive variables with the risk of endometrial cancer among the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Among the 302,618 women eligible for the study, 1,017 incident endometrial cancer cases were identified. A reduction in endometrial cancer risk was observed in women with late menarche, early menopause, past OC use, high parity and a shorter time since last full-term pregnancy (FTP). No association was observed for duration of breast feeding after adjustment for number of FTP or for abortion (spontaneous or induced). After mutual adjustment, late age at menarche, early age at menopause and duration of OC use showed similar risk reductions of 7-8% per year of menstrual life, whereas the decreased risk associated with cumulative duration of FTPs was stronger (22% per year). In conclusion, our findings confirmed a reduction in risk of endometrial cancer with factors associated with a lower cumulative exposure to estrogen and/or higher exposure to progesterone, such as increasing number of FTPs and shorter menstrual lifespan and, therefore, support an important role of hormonal mechanisms in endometrial carcinogenesis.
TL;DR: Accumulating evidence is revealing an important role of miRNAs in anticancer drug resistance and miRNA expression profiling can be correlated with the development of antic cancer drug resistance.
Abstract: Chemotherapy has been widely used in treatment of cancer, both as systemic therapy and as part of local treatment. Unfortunately, many kinds of cancer are still refractory to chemotherapy. The anticancer drug resistance mechanisms have been extensively explored, yet have not been fully characterized. Recent works have underlined the involvement of noncoding RNAs in cancer development, with several studies regarding their possible involvement in the evolution of drug resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous small noncoding RNAs (20-23 nucleotides) that negatively regulate the gene expressions at the post-transcriptional level by base pairing to the 3' untranslated region of target messenger RNAs. Evidence is emerging that particular microRNAs (miRNA) alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of human cancer. More recently, accumulating evidence is revealing an important role of miRNAs in anticancer drug resistance and miRNA expression profiling can be correlated with the development of anticancer drug resistance. The micro-RNA-mediated form of drug resistance adds yet another mechanism of drug resistance. So, exploiting the emerging knowledge of miRNAs for the development of new human therapeutic applications for overcoming anticancer drug resistance will be important.
TL;DR: The evidence that nutritional prevention of cancer through beta‐carotene supplementation should not be recommended is added, as it was associated with increased risk not only of lung cancer but also of gastric cancer at doses of 20–30 mg day−1, in smokers and asbestos workers.
Abstract: The effect of beta-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence has been investigated in several randomized controlled trials. The objective was to review the effect of beta-carotene supplementation on cancer incidence in randomized trials by cancer site, beta-carotene supplementation characteristics and study population. Relevant trials were retrieved by searching PubMed (up to April 2009). Authors involved in selected studies were contacted for additional information. Thirteen publications reporting results from 9 randomized controlled trials were included. Overall, no effect of beta-carotene supplementation was observed on the incidence of all cancers combined (RR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.98-1.04), pancreatic cancer (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.73-1.36), colorectal cancer (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.09), prostate cancer (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.91-1.07), breast cancer (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.85-1.10), melanoma (RR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.65-1.46) and non melanoma skin cancer (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.93-1.05). The incidence of lung and stomach cancers were significantly increased in individuals supplemented with beta-carotene at 20-30 mg day(-1) (RR, 1.16; 95% CI, 1.06-1.27 and RR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.06-1.70), in smokers and asbestos workers (RR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.07-1.34 and RR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.08-2.19) compared to the placebo group. Beta-carotene supplementation has not been shown to have any beneficial effect on cancer prevention. Conversely, it was associated with increased risk not only of lung cancer but also of gastric cancer at doses of 20-30 mg day(-1), in smokers and asbestos workers. This study adds to the evidence that nutritional prevention of cancer through beta-carotene supplementation should not be recommended.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that microRNA miR‐200 family‐mediated transcriptional up‐regulation of E‐cadherin in mesenchymal MDA‐MB‐231 and BT‐549 cells is associated directly with translational repression of ZEB1 and indirectly with increased acetylation of histone H3 at the E‐ cadheringin promoter.
Abstract: The conversion of early stage tumors into invasive malignancies with an aggressive phenotype has been associated with the irreversible loss of E-cadherin expression. The loss of E-cadherin expression in human tumors, including breast cancer, has been attributed to promoter CpG island hypermethylation and direct inhibition by transcriptional repressors. Recent evidence demonstrates that up-regulation of E-cadherin by microRNA-200b (miR-200b) and miR-200c through direct targeting of transcriptional repressors of E-cadherin, ZEB1, and ZEB2, inhibits epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial process in the tumor progression. We demonstrate that microRNA miR-200 family-mediated transcriptional up-regulation of E-cadherin in mesenchymal MDA-MB-231 and BT-549 cells is associated directly with translational repression of ZEB1 and indirectly with increased acetylation of histone H3 at the E-cadherin promoter. The increase in histone H3 acetylation may be attributed to the disruption of repressive complexes between ZEB1 and histone deacetylases and to the inhibition of SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase. These events inhibit EMT and reactivate a less aggressive epithelial phenotype in cancer cells. Additionally, disruption of ZEB1-histone deacetylase repressor complexes and down-regulation of SIRT1 histone deacetylase up-regulate proapoptotic genes in the p53 apoptotic pathway resulting in the increased sensitivity of cancer cells to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin.
TL;DR: The construction and composition of the CI5 databases are described, and examples of how they can be used to prepare tables and graphs comparing incidence rates between populations are provided.
Abstract: The Cancer Incidence in Five Continents (CI5) series comprises nine volumes that bring together peer-reviewed results from population-based cancer registries worldwide. The aim of each is to make available comparable data on cancer incidence from as wide a range of geographical locations as possible. In addition, the existence of long time series of data allows the evolution of risk in different populations over time to be studied. The CI5 I-IX database brings together the results from all nine volumes, spanning a period of some 50 years. In addition, unpublished annual data, with more diagnostic detail, are made available for many cancer registries with 15 or more years of recent data. We describe the construction and composition of the CI5 databases, and provide examples of how they can be used to prepare tables and graphs comparing incidence rates between populations. This is the classical role of descriptive statistics: to allow formulation of hypotheses that might explain the observed differences (geographically, over time, in population subgroups) and that can be tested by further study. Such statistics are also essential components in the planning and evaluation of cancer control programmes.
International Agency for Research on Cancer1, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill2, Imperial College London3, German Cancer Research Center4, University of Naples Federico II5, Utrecht University6, University of Oxford7, University of Cambridge8, Lund University9, University of Tromsø10, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens11, Aarhus University12, University of Paris-Sud13
TL;DR: Overall, data from the present study and previous prospective studies combined indicate a relatively modest association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF‐I.
Abstract: Several prospective studies have shown a moderate positive association between increasing circulating insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels and colorectal cancer risk. However, the associations were often statistically nonsignificant, and the relationship of cancer risk with IGF-I's major binding protein, IGFBP-3, showed major discrepancies between studies. We investigated the association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF-I, total and intact IGFBP-3, in a case-control study nested within the EPIC cohort (1,121 cases of colorectal cancer and 1,121 matched controls). Conditional logistic regression was used to adjust for possible confounders. Our present study results were combined in a meta-analysis with those from 9 previous prospective studies to examine the overall evidence for a relationship of prediagnostic serum IGF-I with colorectal cancer risk. In the EPIC study, serum concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 showed no associations with risk of colorectal cancer overall. Only in subgroup analyses did our study show moderate positive associations of IGF-I levels with risk, either among younger participants only (and only for colon cancer) or among participants whose milk intakes were in the lowest tertile of the population distribution (RR for an increase of 100 ng/ml = 1.43 [95% CI = 1.13-1.93]). Nevertheless, in the meta-analysis a modest positive association remained between serum IGF-I and colorectal cancer risk overall (RR = 1.07 [1.01-1.14] for 1 standard deviation increase in IGF-I). Overall, data from our present study and previous prospective studies combined indicate a relatively modest association of colorectal cancer risk with serum IGF-I.
TL;DR: The incidence of base of tongue cancer, as well as the proportion of HPV‐positive tumors, has increased in Sweden during the study period, suggesting that HPV may contribute to this increase.
Abstract: Numerous reports have shown that the incidence for oropharyngeal cancer is increasing and that human papillomavirus (HPV) is a risk factor. However, few studies have investigated the specific subsites of the oropharynx. Following our previous research on tonsillar cancer, we assessed the increase in the incidence of base of tongue cancer and the prevalence of HPV in this disease. Between 1998 and 2007, 109 patients were diagnosed for base of tongue cancer in Stockholm county. Ninety-five paraffin-embedded diagnostic tumor biopsies from patients were obtained and tested for HPV, both by general HPV PCR and HPV-16/HPV-33 type-specific PCR. Expression of HPV-16 RNA was analyzed to confirm E6 and/or E7 expression. Incidence data were obtained from the Swedish Cancer Registry. An overall increase in the incidence of base of tongue cancer from 0.15/100,000 person-years during 1970-1974 to 0.47/100,000 person-years during 2005-2007 was found in Sweden. The prevalence of HPV in base of tongue cancer in Stockholm county increased from 58% during 1998-2001 to 84% during 2004-2007 (p < 0.05). In the HPV-positive tumors, HPV-16 dominated (86%) but interestingly, HPV33 was detected in as many as 10%. E6 and/or E7 RNA were found in 85% of the samples tested. The incidence of base of tongue cancer, as well as the proportion of HPV-positive tumors, has increased in Sweden during the study period, suggesting that HPV may contribute to this increase.
TL;DR: Important criteria required to predict clinically active HPV infection are highlighted, new biological pathways implicated in HPV tumorigenesis are identified and the understanding of HPV‐HNSCC physiopathology is increased to develop new targets for therapy.
Abstract: Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are associated with a subset of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), particularly HPV16. This study analyzed the presence and genotype of high risk HPVs, viral DNA load and transcription of the E6/E7 mRNAs, in 231 consecutive HNSCC. Twelve out of 30 HPV16 DNA-positive tumors displayed high E6/E7 mRNAs levels and were localized in the oropharyngeal region. While HPV-free and non-transcriptionally active HPV-related patients showed similar 5-years survival rates, E6/E7 expression was associated with a better prognosis. This emphasizes the importance of considering the transcriptional status of HPV-positive tumors for patient stratification. A gene expression profiling analysis of these different types of tumors was carried out. The most significant differentially expressed gene was CDKN2A, a known biomarker for HPV-related cancer. Assessing both the expression level of the E6/E7 mRNAs and of CDKN2A in HNSCC is required to detect active HPV infection. Chromosomic alterations were investigated by Comparative Genomic Hybridation (CGH) analysis of tumors with transcriptionally active HPV and HPV-negative tumors. The loss of the chromosomal region 16q was found to be a major genetic event in HPV-positive lesions. A cluster of genes located in 16q21-24 displayed decreased expression levels, notably APP-BP1 that is involved in the modulation of the transcriptional activity of p53. In conclusion, this study highlights important criteria required to predict clinically active HPV infection, identifies new biological pathways implicated in HPV tumorigenesis and increases the understanding of HPV-HNSCC physiopathology that is required to develop new targets for therapy.
TL;DR: MiR‐15b appears to represent a particular important miRNA in melanoma that is associated with poor prognosis and tumorigenesis and can provide independent prognostic informations.
Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs ( approximately 22 bp) that posttranscriptionally regulate gene expression. MiRNAs possess oncogenic or tumor suppressor activity in various tumors but little is known about miRNA expression pattern in malignant melanoma. We determined the expression level of 16 potentially relevant miRNAs (miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-16, miR-34a, miR-210, let-7I, miR-23a, miR-23b, miR-24, miR-27a, miR-27b, miR-100, miR-137, miR-222, miR-373-1, miR-373*) by real-time PCR in 6 preparations of normal melanocytes vs. 10 melanoma cell lines and in formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue of 11 melanocytic nevi versus 16 melanomas. MiR-15b and miR-210 were significantly upregulated, miR-34a was significantly downregulated in melanomas compared with melanocytic nevi. These 3 miRNAs were analyzed in a total of 128 primary melanomas from patients with detailed clinical follow-up information. High expression of miR-15b (but not miR-210 upregulation and miR-34a downregulation) was significantly associated with poor recurrence free survival and overall survival by univariate Kaplan-Meier and multivariate Cox analyses. Downregulation of miR-15b in two melanoma cell lines with high miR-15b expression by transfection with anti-miR-15b siRNA was associated with reduced tumor cell proliferation, whereas apoptosis was increased. In summary, miRNA expression levels show distinct differences comparing benign and malignant melanocytic cell proliferations and can provide independent prognostic informations. MiR-15b appears to represent a particular important miRNA in melanoma that is associated with poor prognosis and tumorigenesis.
TL;DR: There has been an overall increase in the risk of cancer during the period in both sexes, with the incidence rates of cancers of the breast and prostate showing particularly marked increases.
Abstract: Incidence rates of different cancers have been calculated for the population of Kyadondo County (Kampala, Uganda) for a 16-year period (1991-2006). This period coincides with continuing social and lifestyle changes and the peak and subsequent wane of the epidemic of HIV-AIDS. There has been an overall increase in the risk of cancer during the period in both sexes, with the incidence rates of cancers of the breast and prostate showing particularly marked increases (4.5% annually). Prostate cancer is now the most common cancer in men. The incidence of cancer of the esophagus, formerly the most common cancer in men and second in frequency in women, has remained relatively constant, whereas the incidence of cancer of the cervix, the most common malignancy in women, continues to increase. Since the early 1990s the incidence of Kaposi sarcoma (KS) in men has declined, and while remaining relatively constant in women, it has been diagnosed at progressively later ages. The rates of pediatric KS have declined by about 1/3rd. The incidence of squamous cell cancers of the conjunctiva has also declined since the mid 1990s. Cancer control in Uganda, as elsewhere in sub-Saharan Africa, involves meeting the challenge of emerging cancers associated with westernization of lifestyles (large bowel, breast and prostate); although the incidence of cancers associated with poverty and infection (liver, cervix, esophagus) shows little decline, the residual burden of the AIDS-associated cancers remains a major burden.
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that GTP has dual potential to alter DNA methylation and chromatin modeling, the 2 global epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation and their lack of toxicity makes them excellent candidates for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer.
Abstract: Epigenetic silencing of gluthathione-S-transferase pi (GSTP1) is recognized as being a molecular hallmark of human prostate cancer. We investigated the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTPs) on GSTP1 re-expression and further elucidated its mechanism of action and long-term safety, compared with nucleoside-analog inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), 5-aza-2'-deoxycitidine. Exposure of human prostate cancer LNCaP cells to 1-10 microg/ml of GTP for 1-7 days caused a concentration- and time-dependent re-expression of GSTP1, which correlated with DNMT1 inhibition. Methyl-specific-PCR and sequencing revealed extensive demethylation in the proximal GSTP1 promoter and regions distal to the transcription factor binding sites. GTP exposure in a time-dependent fashion diminished the mRNA and protein levels of MBD1, MBD4 and MeCP2; HDAC 1-3 and increased the levels of acetylated histone H3 (LysH9/18) and H4. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that cells treated with GTP have reduced MBD2 association with accessible Sp1 binding sites leading to increased binding and transcriptional activation of the GSTP1 gene. Exposure of cells to GTP did not result in global hypomethylation, as demonstrated by methyl-specific PCR for LINE-1 promoter; rather GTP promotes maintenance of genomic integrity. Furthermore, exposure of cells to GTP did not cause activation of the prometaststic gene S100P, a reverse response noted after exposure of cells to 5-aza-2'deoxycitidine. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that GTP has dual potential to alter DNA methylation and chromatin modeling, the 2 global epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation and their lack of toxicity makes them excellent candidates for the chemoprevention of prostate cancer.