Showing papers in "International Journal of Electronics and Telecommunications in 2012"
TL;DR: The third annual meeting of the EuCARD -Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development as mentioned in this paper focused on building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments.
Abstract: Accelerator science and technology is one of a key enablers of the developments in the particle physic, photon physics and also applications in medicine and industry. The paper presents a digest of the research results in the domain of accelerator science and technology in Europe, shown during the third annual meeting of the EuCARD – European Coordination of Accelerator Research and Development. The conference concerns building of the research infrastructure, including in this advanced photonic and electronic systems for servicing large high energy physics experiments. There are debated a few basic groups of such systems like: measurement – control networks of large geometrical extent, multichannel systems for large amounts of metrological data acquisition, precision photonic networks of reference time, frequency and phase distribution.
TL;DR: Different intensities of emotions and their influence on pitch features have been studied and the results show that the recognition accuracy of the system is over 50% for primary emotions, and over 70% for its intensities.
Abstract: Machine recognition of human emotional states is an essential part in improving man-machine interaction. During expressive speech the voice conveys semantic message as well as the information about emotional state of the speaker. The pitch contour is one of the most significant properties of speech, which is affected by the emotional state. Therefore pitch features have been commonly used in systems for automatic emotion detection. In this work different intensities of emotions and their influence on pitch features have been studied. This understanding is important to develop such a system. Intensities of emotions are presented on Plutchik's cone-shaped 3D model. The k Nearest Neighbor algorithm has been used for classification. The clas- sification has been divided into two parts. First, the primary emotion has been detected, then its intensity has been specified. The results show that the recognition accuracy of the system is over 50% for primary emotions, and over 70% for its intensities.
TL;DR: A set of algorithms dedicated for synthesis of reconfigurable logic controllers implemented on FPGA platform and programmed according to IEC1131 and EN61131 is presented, which allows flexible implementing the control algorithms.
Abstract: The paper presents a set of algorithms dedicated for synthesis of reconfigurable logic controllers implemented on FPGA platform and programmed according to IEC1131 and EN61131. The program is compiled to hardware structure with a massive parallel processing. The developed method automatically allocates resources and operations. It controls resource usage and operation timing. Using mixed concept of operation allocation that considers operation timing and forms combinatorial chains of operations number of execution cycles can be reduced. An example of logic functions, PID controller and mixed arithmetic and logic programming examples are considered. Introducing the automatic implementation method allows flexible implementing the control algorithms. The maximal possible parallelism (limited only by the algorithm dependencies and available resources) is introduced. Keywords—PLC, LD, IL, FPGA, high level synthesis, logic synthesis, arithmetic circuits, reconfigurable hardware.
TL;DR: The paper presents the concept of passive radar exploiting the active Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar as the source of illumination, and the primary results of the measurement campaign carried out at the DSP Laboratory of the Warsaw University of Technology.
Abstract: The paper presents the concept of passive radar exploiting the active Air Traffic Control (ATC) radar as the source of illumination, and the primary results of the measurement campaign carried out at the DSP Laboratory of the Warsaw University of Technology. The system, built using commercial off the shelf components, was able to detect and track airliners landing at Warsaw airport. To verify the system accuracy the IFF mode S messages were recorded, providing ground truth of the observed planes. Keywords—bistatic radar, non-cooperative radar, passive radar, Passive Coherent Location, PCL.
TL;DR: In the paper a two-stage tracking algorithm is presented, using bistatic and Cartesian tracking, and a target localization algorithm is applied to initialize Cartesian tracks from bistatics measurements.
Abstract: In the paper the problem of target tracking in passive radar is addressed. Passive radar measures bistatic parameters of a target: bistatic range and bistatic velocity. The aim of the tracking algorithm is to convert the bistatic measurements into Cartesian coordinates. In the paper a two-stage tracking algorithm is presented, using bistatic and Cartesian tracking. In addition, a target localization algorithm is applied to initialize Cartesian tracks from bistatic measurements. The tracking algorithm is tested using simulated and real data. The real data were obtained from an FM-based passive radar called PaRaDe, developed at Warsaw University of Technology. Keywords—Passive coherent location, passive bistatic radar, target tracking.
TL;DR: Two algorithms solving the problem of finding the solution that is minimized against one of the criteria under certain constraints with regard to the others and a new solution proposed by the authors are presented.
Abstract: Due to the process of network convergence, the variety of types of traffic transmitted over a single medium increases steeply. This phenomenon can be handled by the existing networking structure although the protocols that are used and, especially, the underlying routing protocols need to be improved. The problem of finding the shortest path on the Internet can no longer be easily defined as there is an increasing number of different characteristics to describe a point-to-point link. The definition of the shortest path may differ for different traffic types. Therefore, in the mathematical models used to solve the modern routing problems multiple criteria must be taken into account. One of the interesting classes of the optimization problem is the problem of finding the solution that is minimized against one of the criteria under certain constraints with regard to the others. In this paper, two algorithms solving this kind of problems are presented and compared with a new solution proposed by the authors. Keywords—Lagrangian relaxation, Quality of Service, routing.
TL;DR: The MTD method adaptive to current target speed, in which suboptimal iterative algorithms for the reflected signal parameters estimation are synthesized, is suggested to detect a slowly moving targets with radial speed 3-4 times less, than for pulse-pair subtraction.
Abstract: The MTD method adaptive to current target speed, in which suboptimal iterative algorithms for the reflected signal parameters estimation are synthesized, is suggested. This method allows to detect a slowly moving targets with radial speed 3-4 times less, than for pulse-pair subtraction (PPS). Keywords—RADAR, detection, moving targets, frequency estimation, adaptive algorithms, Bayesian empirical approach.
TL;DR: An application of UML technol-ogy in a discrete system development process, where UML diagrams are fundamental tool and a basis for formal models exploited at the design stage, and two formal models of good graphical appeal are proposed.
Abstract: —The paper presents an application of UML technol-ogy in a discrete system development process. In the process at theanalysis stage UML diagrams are fundamental tool. The outcomeof this stage is a basis for formal models exploited at the designstage, where the design is symbolically veriﬁed and treated as arule-based system. Two formal models of good graphical appealare proposed: Petri nets and state machine diagrams. Both areheavily using Boolean expressions what makes that design caneasily be implemented in modern programmable structures.Keywords—UML modelling, binary controller, decomposition,digital synthesis, formal analysis, veriﬁcation. I. I NTRODUCTION D ISCRETE system is a system with countable number ofstates. One of such systems is a discrete control system,where the controller generates signals to the controlled objectand the controlled object responds to the controller (Fig. 1) .Moreover, the controller receives signals from an operator andgenerates signals to the operator. For an engineer the designof the system mainly involves the control unit design and thecontrolled object and its behaviour are requirements given bya client. If the signals are of binary value the controller is abinary controller and can be produced as a digital circuit (eg.FPGA or CPLD) , .
TL;DR: Two types of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs are presented: noise radar with digital generation of sounding signal and analog evaluation of cross-correlation and stepped frequency noise radar.
Abstract: Conventional digital signal processing scheme in noise radars has certain limitations related to combination of high resolution and high dynamic range. The bandwidth of radar signal defines range resolution of any radar: the wider the spectrum the better the resolution. In noise radar with conventional processing the sounding and reference signals are to be digitized at intermediate frequency band and to be processed digitally. The power spectrum bandwidth of noise signal which can be digitized with ADC depends on its sampling rate. In currently available ADCs the faster is sampling rate the smaller is its depth (number of bits). Depth of the ADC determines relation between the smallest and highest observable signals and thus limits its dynamic range. Actually this is the main bottleneck of high resolution Noise Radars: conventional processing does not enable getting high range resolution and high dynamic range at the same time. In the paper we discuss ways to go around this drawback by changing signal processing ideology in noise radar. We present results of our consideration and design of two types of high resolution Noise Radar which uses slow ADCs: noise radar with digital generation of sounding signal and analog evaluation of cross-correlation and stepped frequency noise radar. We describe main ideas of these radar schemes and results of experimental tests of the approaches. Keywords—noise waveform, stepped frequency, stepped delay.
TL;DR: The method of decreasing of a number of functions de-pending of logic conditions and internal variables of FSM is proposed in given article and is based on the innovate encoding of microinstruction split into subsets.
Abstract: —The method of synthesis of the logic circuit of ﬁnitestate machine (FSM) with Mealy’s outputs is proposed in thispaper. Proposed method is based on the innovate encoding ofmicroinstructions split into subsets. Code of microinstructionis represented as a part of current state code and code ofmicroinstruction inside of current subset. It leads to realizationof FSM as s double-level structure. It leads to diminishing ofnumber of variables required for encoding of microinstructions.Such approach permits to decrease the number of requiredoutputs of combinational part of FSM.Keywords—Boolean algebra, circuit synthesis, Field Pro-grammable Gate Arrays, sequential circuits. I. I NTRODUCTION F INITE state machines (FSMs) with Mealy’s outputs , are one of the most popular method of control units(CUs) design. Nowadays, ﬁeld programmable gate arrays(FPGAs) are used very often for implementation of logiccircuits of FSMs , . One of the main features of FPGAis existence of logic elements with restricted number ofinputs . On the other hand, logic functions of FSMs havemuch more arguments than number of inputs of typical logicelement. This imbalance leads to necessity of decompositionof logic functions describing the behavior of FSM , ,. The negative results of functional decomposition areboth increasing a number of levels of the FSM circuit anddecreasing of a digital system performance in comparison tosingle-level implementation of control unit.One of methods of decreasing a number of logic functionsdepending on big number of arguments is multi-level imple-mentation of FSM , . Such methods required additionalinternal variables and very often consume more hardwarethen single-level implementation of FSM. But, this issue canbe resolved by usage of both, logic elements and embeddedmemory blocks, that are available in modern FPGA devices.The method of decreasing of a number of functions de-pending of logic conditions and internal variables of FSM isproposed in given article. There is proposed method of joinedmultiple encoding of microinstructions. A set of microinstruc-tion is divided into subsets based on a current state . Then,subset are joined into pairs . Each pair is identiﬁed basedon a part of state code . Next, microinstruction are en-coded separately in each pair of subsets. The microinstructionencoding leads to decrease the number of implemented logicfunctions by combinational part of the logic circuit. And the
TL;DR: An efficient algorithm to solve the task of attributes/arguments reduction is presented for the important task of the efficient representation of data in information systems and as well as in logic systems.
Abstract: This paper is dedicated to two seemingly different problems. The first one concerns information theory and the second one is connected to logic synthesis methods. The reason why these issues are considered together is the important task of the efficient representation of data in information systems and as well as in logic systems. An efficient algorithm to solve the task of attributes/arguments reduction is presented.
TL;DR: The WILGA 2012 Symposium on Photonics and Internet Engineering as mentioned in this paper was an annual summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems.
Abstract: This paper is a research survey of the WILGA Symposium work. It presents a digest of technical effort results shown by young researchers from different universities during the Jubilee XXX SPIE-IEEE-Photonics Society of Poland Wilga 2012 symposium on Photonics and Internet Engineering. Topical tracks of the symposium embraced: nanomaterials and nanotechnologies for photonics, sensory and nonlinear optical fibers, object oriented design of hardware, photonic metrology, optoelectronics and photonics applications, photonics-electronics co-design, optoelectronic and electronic systems for astronomy and high energy physics experiments, JET tokamak and pi-ofthe sky experiments development. The symposium is an annual summary in the development of numerable Ph.D. theses carried out in this country in the area of advanced electronic and photonic systems. It is also a great occasion for SPIE, IEEE, OSA and PSP students to meet together in a large group spanning the whole country with guests from this part of Europe. A digest of Wilga references is presented –. This paper is the first part of the digest focused on astronomy, space, astroparticle physics, accelerators, and high energy physics experiments. Keywords—Astronomy, optical observations, telescopes, space technology, accelerators, free electron laser, industrial standards for advanced electronics, photonic and electronic systems.
TL;DR: The proposed optimal sensors location approach is based on the difference between sensor information if sensor is present and information calculated by linear interpolation if sensors is not present and indicates that together with intelligent signal processing it could be suitable for practical application.
Abstract: The strategy of predictive maintenance monitoring is important for successful system damage detection. Maintenance monitoring utilizes dynamic response information to identify the possibility of damage. The basic factors of faults detection anal- ysis are related to properties of the structure under inspection, collect the signals and appropriate signals processing. In vibration control, structures response sensing is limited by the number of sensors or the number of input channels of the data acquisition system. An essential problem in predictive maintenance mon- itoring is the optimal sensor placement. The paper addresses that problem by using mixed integer linear programming tasks solving. The proposed optimal sensors location approach is based on the difference between sensor information if sensor is present and information calculated by linear interpolation if sensor is not present. The tasks results define the optimal sensors locations for a given number of sensors. The results of chosen sensors locations give as close as possible repeating the curve of structure dynamic response function. The proposed approach is implemented in an algorithm for predictive maintenance and the numerical results indicate that together with intelligent signal processing it could be suitable for practical application.
TL;DR: In this article, a novel method for designing near-perfect reconstruction oversampled non-uniform cosine-modulated filter banks is proposed, which combines frequency warping and subband merging, and thus offers more flexibility than known techniques.
Abstract: A novel method for designing near-perfect recon- struction oversampled nonuniform cosine-modulated filter banks is proposed, which combines frequency warping and subband merging, and thus offers more flexibility than known techniques. On the one hand, desirable frequency partitionings can be better approximated. On the other hand, at the price of only a small loss in partitioning accuracy, both warping strength and number of channels before merging can be adjusted so as to minimize the computational complexity of a system. In particular, the coefficient of the function behind warping can be constrained to be a negative integer power of two, so that multiplications related to allpass filtering can be replaced with more efficient binary shifts. The main idea is accompanied by some contributions to the theory of warped filter banks. Namely, group delay equalization is thoroughly investigated, and it is shown how to avoid significant aliasing by channel oversampling. Our research revolves around filter banks for perceptual processing of sound, which are required to approximate the psychoacoustic scales well and need not guarantee perfect reconstruction. Keywords—warped near-perfect reconstruction oversam- pled non-uniform cosine-modulated filter bank, allpass fil- ter/transformation, subband/channel merging, frequency warp- ing, critical bands, Bark scale.
TL;DR: A new method of Petri net array-based synthesis is proposed, based on decomposition of colored interpreted macro PetriNet into state machine subnets, which allows balanced usage of different kinds of resources available in modern FPGAs.
Abstract: In this paper a new method of Petri net array-based synthesis is proposed. The method is based on decomposition of colored interpreted macro Petri net into state machine subnets. Each state machine subnet is determined by one color. During the decomposition process macroplaces are expanded or replaced by doublers of macroplace. Such decomposition leads to parallel implementation of a digital system. The structured encoding of places is done by using minimal numbers of bits. Colored microoperations, which are assigned to places, are written into distributed and flexible memories. It leads to realization of a logic circuit in a two-level concurrent structure, where the combinational circuit of the first level is responsible for firing transitions, and the second level memories are used for generation of microoperations. Such an approach allows balanced usage of different kinds of resources available in modern FPGAs. Index Terms—Decomposition, FGPAs, logic synthesis, Petri nets.
TL;DR: Modifications of the USRP's FPGA configuration and GNU Radio code are proposed for developing six/nine synchronous input channel receiver based on two/tree USRPs respectively and the solution of the problem of the alignment of the data streams being sent from USRP devices via USB to the PC host is proposed.
Abstract: In this paper we present results of research on multichannel receiver using Software Defined Radio technology. This receiver is a part of the experimental FM based passive radar being designed. The hardware platform of the receiver consists of the Universal Software Defined Radio Peripheral devices. In the paper we propose modifications of the USRP's FPGA configuration and GNU Radio code. These modifications allow for developing six/nine synchronous input channel receiver based on two/tree USRPs respectively. Issues of synchronization of separate USRP devices by assuring synchronous sampling were presented. We also propose the solution of the problem of the alignment of the data streams being sent from USRP devices via USB to the PC host.
TL;DR: It has been presented that the MPLS technology may be effectively applied in building corporate networks requiring network services of highest quality parameters with lossless packet transmission and maximum delay guarantee.
Abstract: The paper presents the examination of quality of transmission designed and built based on IP/MPLS technology as well as BGP and OSPF routing protocols of corporate network. It indicates the factors forming and affecting the service quality in IP network, including QoS support network architecture, particularly the architecture of DiffServ differentiated services. Main problems occurring in these architectures have been discussed. The analysis of data and voice transmission via IP network of Best Effort architecture and in Differentiated Service architecture of differentiated transmission quality have been conducted. It has been presented that the MPLS technology may be effectively applied in building corporate networks requiring network services of highest quality parameters with lossless packet transmission and maximum delay guarantee. with its virtual version VPN (Virtual Private Networks) (2). MPLS plays a vital role, contributing efficient TE (Traffic Engineering), high speed, QoS (Quality of Service) and optimized resource allocation by balancing the load. The QoS architecture in IP networks is required to provide the resource reservation guarantees that allow differentiation and prioritization of flows. Application of algorithms and QoS mechanisms (3) in the IP network supports providing a strict guarantee of packet transfer quality for the selected traffic flows belonging to the so-called traffic/service classes, which allow the operators to render advanced telecommunication services. Voice and picture transmission cannot be exposed to any packet damage or loss, as retransmission or excessive delays of IP packets transferring voice data make such a transmission useless (4). In order to prevent such situations from happening, the guaranteed quality of such services as voice or picture transmission is introduced, called QoS methods (3), (5). ITU-T (International Telecommunication Union) (6), (7) and IETF (Internet Engineering Task Force) (8) indications point out that IP QoS networks should fulfil the strict QoS guarantees for such applications as voice, video, video-conferences or transfer of longer data sets. Currently, a developed telecommunication infrastructure of an organisation must no longer provide only phone calls and regular access to the Internet network, but it also requires 'custom-made' business solutions prepared regarding specific needs of the enterprise, such as VoIP voice services with band and delay guaranty or safe information exchange in the IP/VPN channels. The objective of this paper is to analyse the transmission quality in IP/MPLS corporate networks. The transmission quality has been examined in a network built with application of data transmission technologies, used in building wide area corporate networks. The analysis of data and voice transmis- sion via IP network of BE (Best Effort) architecture and in the DiffServ (Differentiated Services) architecture of differentiated transmission quality supporting QoS have been conducted. Performance tests for a designed and built network that may be used in building a wide area corporate network based on IP/MPLS technology as well as BGP (Border Gateway Pro- tocol) and OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) routing protocols have been presented.
TL;DR: The study has been carried out at Biebrza Wetlands, one of the largest in Europe natural rich biotope with the large amount of unique species of flora and important zone for nesting and wintering for fauna to develop methods for monitoring and mapping biophysical parameters.
Abstract: The study has been carried out at Biebrza Wetlands situated in the N-E part of Poland, a NATURA 2000 and Ramsar Convention test site in 2003-2009. It is one of the largest in Europe natural rich biotope with the large amount of unique species of flora and important zone for nesting and wintering for fauna. Data from microwave and optical satellite images and soil-vegetation ground measurements were analyzed to develop methods for monitoring and mapping biophysical parameters. Satellite data applied for the study included: ENVISAT.ASAR, ENVISAT.MERIS, ALOS.PALSAR, ALOS.AVNIR-2, and NOAA.AVHRR data. Optical images were used for classification of wetlands communities and calculation of vegetation index NDVI. Also, latent heat flux has been calculated using NOAA.AVHRR data and meteorological data. Microwave images acquired in different modes (ASAR IS2 and IS6, ALPSR.FBD) and polarizations (HH, HV, VV) were used for assessment and mapping of Leaf Area Index (LAI) and soil moisture (SM) for every habitat classified from optical images. Backscattering coefficient calculated from ALOS.PALSAR HV and ENVISAT.ASAR IS6 VV was applied for assessment of vegetation bio-parameters. Backscattering coefficient calculated from ALOS.PALSAR.FBD HH and ENVISAT.ASAR HH IS2 was used for SM assessment. The study was conducted in the framework of ESA PECS project No 98101 and ESA PI projects: C1P.7389 and AOALO.3742. Keywords—ENVISAT, ALOS, NOAA, LAI, biomass, heat fluxes, H/LE, soil moisture.
TL;DR: A novel two stage algorithm for improving video coding efficiency by combining video cut detection and adaptive GOP structure and comparing actual frame with its motion estimated prediction.
Abstract: In this paper we present a novel two stage algorithm for improving video coding efficiency. The proposed method combines video cut detection and adaptive GOP structure. At first, we have proposed a new technique of frames’ comparison for the shot cut detection. The majority of existing methods compare pairs of successive frames. We compare actual frame with its motion estimated prediction. We also present adaptive threshold. The efficiency of novel technique for video cut detection was confirmed through experiment and compared to the commonly used ones in the terms of recall and precision. The next step is to situate I frames to the positions of detected cuts during the process of video encoding. Finally the proposed method is verified by simulations and the obtained results are compared with fixed GOP structures of sizes 4, 8, 12, 16, 32, 64, 128 and GOP structure with length of entire video. Proposed method achieved the gain in bit rate from 15,33% to 50,59%, while not degrading PSNR in comparison to simulated fixed GOP structures. Keywords—shot cut detection, Pearson correlation coefficient, motion estimation, adaptive threshold, video encoding, adaptive GOP structure.
TL;DR: The neuro fuzzy classifier is applied for the automated characterization of atheromatous plaque to identify the fibrotic, lipidic and calcified tissues in Intravascular Ultrasound images (IVUS).
Abstract: The medical imaging field has grown significantly in recent years and demands high accuracy since it deals with human life. The idea is to reduce human error as much as possible by assisting physicians and radiologists with some automatic techniques. The use of artificial intelligent techniques has shown great potential in this field. Hence, in this paper the neuro fuzzy classifier is applied for the automated characterization of atheromatous plaque to identify the fibrotic, lipidic and calcified tissues in Intravascular Ultrasound images (IVUS) which is designed using sixteen inputs, corresponds to sixteen pixels of instantaneous scanning matrix, one output that tells whether the pixel under consideration is Fibrotic, Lipidic, Calcified or Normal pixel. The classification performance was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity and accuracy and the results confirmed that the proposed system has potential in detecting the respective plaque with the average accuracy of 98.9%. Keywords—Intravascular ultrasound, atheromatous plaque, pixel intensity, neuro fuzzy classifier.
TL;DR: An overview of the performances obtained with ripple-carry adders based on a do-spy-undo structure processed in standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and used in true reversible calculation.
Abstract: Quantum computing and circuits are of growing interest and so is reversible logic as it plays an important role in the synthesis of quantum circuits. Moreover, reversible logic provides an alternative to classical computing machines, that may overcome many of the power dissipation problems in the near future. Some ripple-carry adders based on a do-spy-undo structure have been designed and tested reversibly. This paper presents a brief overview of the performances obtained with such chips processed in standard 0.35 μm CMOS technology and used in true reversible calculation (computations are performed forwards and backwards such that addition and subtraction are made reversibly with the same chip). Adiabatic signals used are known to allow the signal energy stored on the various capacitances of the circuit to be redistributed rather than being dissipated as heat while allowing to avoid calculation errors introduced by the use of conventional rectangular pulses. Through the example of both simulations and experimental results, this paper aims at providing a base of knowledge and knowhow in physical implementation of reversible circuits. Keywords—reversible computation, design, implementation, pass-transistor logic, ripple-carry adder, sum-difference block, Spectre simulation, quantum computation, adiabatic signal, test and measurement, error propagation.
TL;DR: The analysis of the obtained results of multistage simulation experiments confirms the conclusion that the proposed and implemented algorithms are characterized by very good performance and characteristics.
Abstract: This paper concerns Directed Acyclic Graph task scheduling on parallel executors. The problem is solved using two new implementations of Tabu Search and genetic algorithm presented in the paper. A new approach to solution coding is also introduced and implemented in both metaheuristics algorithms. Results given by the algorithms are compared to those generated by greedy LPT and SS-FF algorithms; and HAR algorithm. The analysis of the obtained results of multistage simulation experiments confirms the conclusion that the proposed and implemented algorithms are characterized by very good performance and characteristics. Keywords—Tasks scheduling, DAG, genetic algorithm, Tabu
TL;DR: This paper proposes a low complexity, yet accurate SNR estimation technique that is sufficient to yield meaningful estimation for short data records and shows that the estimator is fairly close to the CRLB for high SNR values.
Abstract: Signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) information is required in many communication receivers and their proper operation is, to a large extent, related to the SNR estimation techniques they employ. Most of the available SNR estimators are based on approaches that either require large observation length or suffer from high computation complexity. In this paper, we propose a low complexity, yet accurate SNR estimation technique that is sufficient to yield meaningful estimation for short data records. It is shown that our estimator is fairly close to the (CRLB) for high SNR values. Numerical results also confirm that, in terms of convergence speed, the proposed technique outperforms the popular moment based method, M2M4. Keywords—digital communication, statistical analysis, AWGN channels.
TL;DR: The main objective of the research is to investigate mathematical methods for evaluating the feasibility of using a more efficient approach for utility services provision, compared to the current diversity of utility products delivered to households.
Abstract: Utility service provision is designed to satisfy basic human needs. The main objective of the research is to investigate mathematical methods for evaluating the feasibility of using a more efficient approach for utility services provision, compared to the current diversity of utility products delivered to households. Possibilities for alternative utility service provision that lead to more sustainable solutions include reducing the number of delivered utility products, on-site recycling and use of locally available natural resources. The core of the proposed approach is the simulation system that enables carrying out feasibility study of so-called transformation graph, which describes direct transformations and indirect transformations of the utility products into defined services. The simulation system was implemented in C# and .NET 3.5, while the XML database was implemented using eXist-db. The XML database stores information about all devices, utility products, services and technologies that can be used to define and solve services-provision problems. An example of such problem and its solution is presented in this paper. This research is a part of the All-in-One Project. Keywords—Modelling, simulation, utility provision, graphs, transformations, sustainable development.
TL;DR: The paper presents method for hierarchical configurable Petri nets description in VHDL language, which is realized by the description of HCfgPN model by means of hardware description language.
Abstract: The paper presents method for hierarchical configurable Petri nets description in VHDL language. Dual model is an alternative way for behavioral description of the discrete control process. Dual model consists of two correlated models: UML state machine diagram and hierarchical configurable Petri net (HCfgPN). HCfgPN are Petri nets variant with direct support of exceptions handling mechanism. Logical synthesis of dual model is realized by the description of HCfgPN model by means of hardware description language. The paper presents placesoriented method for HCfgPN description in VHDL language.
TL;DR: In this paper, the continuity and consistency of the MODIS 8-day LAI products are improved using a method based on Caterpillar singular spectrum analysis, which is compared with other standard methods: Savitzky-Golay filter, Empirical Mode Decomposition, Low Pass filtering and Asymmetric Gaussian fitting.
Abstract: Time Series Analysis of Leaf Area Index (LAI) is vital to the understanding of global vegetation dynamics. The LAI time series derived from satellite observations are usually not complete and noisy due to cloud contamination and uncertainties in the retrieval techniques. In this paper, the continuity and consistency of the MODIS 8 day LAI products are improved using a method based on Caterpillar Singular Spectrum Analysis. The proposed method is compared with other standard methods: Savitzky-Golay filter, Empirical Mode Decomposition, Low Pass filtering and Asymmetric Gaussian fitting. The experiment demonstrates the smoothing and gap- filling ability of the developed method, which is more robust across the biomes both in terms of root mean square error metrics and bias metrics as compared to the standard methods.
TL;DR: The requirements analysis is provided and the design of a software system middleware that provides a scalable solution for ad-hoc sensor network infrastructure made of both stationary and mobile sensors and actuators is presented.
Abstract: Architects of ad-hoc wireless Sensor-Actor Networks (SANETS) face various problems and challenges. The main limitations relate to aspects such as the number of sensor nodes involved, low bandwidth, management of resources and issues related to energy management. In order for these networks to be functionally proficient, the underlying software system must be able to effectively handle unreliable and dynamic distributed communication, power constraints of wireless devices, failure of hardware devices in hostile environments and the remote allocation of distributed processing tasks throughout the wireless network. The solution must be solved in a highly scalable manner. This paper provides the requirements analysis and presents the design of a software system middleware that provides a scalable solution for ad-hoc sensor network infrastructure made of both stationary and mobile sensors and actuators. Keywords—Sensor-Actor Networks (SANETS), Ad-hoc Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNS), middleware, distributed software services.
TL;DR: A research survey of the WILGA Symposium work is presented, focused on optoelectronics, communications, multimedia, cryptography, virtual worlds, ontology of information systems.
Abstract: Wilga Symposium gathers two times a year, together around 300 young scientists active in advanced photonics, electronics and software systems, including Internet engineering. May 2012 marked a jubilee XXXth meeting in Wilga Resort. There were presented over 250 papers from nearly all technical universities in this country. The organizers present here a research survey of the WILGA Symposium work. Also a digest of chosen Wilga references is presented –. This paper is the second part of a concise review digest focused on optoelectronics, communications, multimedia and ontology of information technologies. Keywords—Photonics, optical fibers, optoelectronics, communications, multimedia, cryptography, virtual worlds, ontology of information systems.
TL;DR: It is shown how the numerical complexity of this problem can be further reduced via the circuit decomposition and parallel solution of blocks taking as a departure point the Bordered-Block Diagonal (BBD) matrix structure.
Abstract: Newton-Raphson DC analysis of large-scale nonlin- ear circuits may be an extremely time consuming process even if sparse matrix techniques and bypassing of nonlinear models calculation are used. A slight decrease in the time required for this task may be enabled on multi-core, multithread computers if the calculation of the mathematical models for the nonlinear elements as well as the stamp management of the sparse matrix entries is managed through concurrent processes. In this paper it is shown how the numerical complexity of this problem (and thus its solution time) can be further reduced via the circuit decomposition and parallel solution of blocks taking as a departure point the Bordered-Block Diagonal (BBD) matrix structure. This BBD-parallel approach may give a considerable profit though it is strongly dependent on the system topology. This paper presents a theoretical foundation of the algorithm, its implementation, and numerical complexity analysis in virtue of practical measurements of matrix operations.
TL;DR: A method for bound set selection in functional decomposition targeted FPGAs with heterogeneous structure is presented, which delivers optimal or near optimal results and is much faster than other methods.
Abstract: The functional decomposition has found an application in many fields of modern engineering and science, such as combinational and sequential logic synthesis for VLSI systems, pattern analysis, knowledge discovery, machine learning, decision systems, data bases, data mining etc. It is perceived as one of the best logic synthesis methods for FPGAs. However, its practical usefulness for very complex systems depends on efficiency of method used in decomposition calculation. One of the most important steps in functional decomposition construction is selection of the appropriate input variable partitioning. In case of modern heterogeneous programmable structures efficiency of methods used to solve this problem becomes especially important. Since the input variable partitioning problem is an NP-hard, heuristic methods have to be used to efficiently and effectively search for optimal or near-optimal solutions. The paper presents a method for bound set selection in functional decomposition targeted FPGAs with heterogeneous structure. This heuristic algorithm delivers optimal or near optimal results and is much faster than other methods.