International Journal of Molecular Sciences
About: International Journal of Molecular Sciences is an academic journal. The journal publishes majorly in the area(s): Cancer & Population. It has an ISSN identifier of 1422-0067. It is also open access. Over the lifetime, 45342 publication(s) have been published receiving 715621 citation(s). The journal is also known as: Int J Mol Sci.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Effective parameters in pretreatment of lignocelluloses, such as crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose are described first, and several pretreatment methods are discussed and their effects on improvement in ethanol and/or biogas production are described.
Abstract: Lignocelluloses are often a major or sometimes the sole components of different waste streams from various industries, forestry, agriculture and municipalities. Hydrolysis of these materials is the first step for either digestion to biogas (methane) or fermentation to ethanol. However, enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocelluloses with no pretreatment is usually not so effective because of high stability of the materials to enzymatic or bacterial attacks. The present work is dedicated to reviewing the methods that have been studied for pretreatment of lignocellulosic wastes for conversion to ethanol or biogas. Effective parameters in pretreatment of lignocelluloses, such as crystallinity, accessible surface area, and protection by lignin and hemicellulose are described first. Then, several pretreatment methods are discussed and their effects on improvement in ethanol and/or biogas production are described. They include milling, irradiation, microwave, steam explosion, ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX), supercritical CO2 and its explosion, alkaline hydrolysis, liquid hot-water pretreatment, organosolv processes, wet oxidation, ozonolysis, dilute- and concentrated-acid hydrolyses, and biological pretreatments.
TL;DR: This review focuses on the role of several adipokines associated with obesity and the potential impact on obesity-related metabolic diseases.
Abstract: Accumulating evidence indicates that obesity is closely associated with an increased risk of metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Obesity results from an imbalance between food intake and energy expenditure, which leads to an excessive accumulation of adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is now recognized not only as a main site of storage of excess energy derived from food intake but also as an endocrine organ. The expansion of adipose tissue produces a number of bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines or adipokines, which trigger chronic low-grade inflammation and interact with a range of processes in many different organs. Although the precise mechanisms are still unclear, dysregulated production or secretion of these adipokines caused by excess adipose tissue and adipose tissue dysfunction can contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases. In this review, we focus on the role of several adipokines associated with obesity and the potential impact on obesity-related metabolic diseases. Multiple lines evidence provides valuable insights into the roles of adipokines in the development of obesity and its metabolic complications. Further research is still required to fully understand the mechanisms underlying the metabolic actions of a few newly identified adipokines.
TL;DR: A first systematic analysis of microbiota changes in the ileum and colon using multiple diets and investigating both fecal and mucosal samples demonstrates correlations between the microbiota and dysfunctions of gut, adipose tissue, and liver, independent of a specific disease-inducing diet.
Abstract: Development of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is linked to obesity, adipose tissue inflammation, and gut dysfunction, all of which depend on diet. So far, studies have mainly focused on diet-related fecal microbiota changes, but other compartments may be more informative on host health. We present a first systematic analysis of microbiota changes in the ileum and colon using multiple diets and investigating both fecal and mucosal samples. Ldlr−/−.Leiden mice received one of three different energy-dense (ED)-diets (n = 15/group) for 15 weeks. All of the ED diets induced obesity and metabolic risk factors, altered short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), and increased gut permeability and NAFLD to various extents. ED diets reduced the diversity of high-abundant bacteria and increased the diversity of low-abundant bacteria in all of the gut compartments. The ED groups showed highly variable, partially overlapping microbiota compositions that differed significantly from chow. Correlation analyses demonstrated that (1) specific groups of bacteria correlate with metabolic risk factors, organ dysfunction, and NAFLD endpoints, (2) colon mucosa had greater predictive value than other compartments, (3) correlating bacteria differed per compartment, and (4) some bacteria correlated with plasma SCFA levels. In conclusion, this comprehensive microbiota analysis demonstrates correlations between the microbiota and dysfunctions of gut, adipose tissue, and liver, independent of a specific disease-inducing diet.
TL;DR: This review extensively discusses the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral,Anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti- cancer activity of Ag NPs.
Abstract: Recent advances in nanoscience and nanotechnology radically changed the way we diagnose, treat, and prevent various diseases in all aspects of human life. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are one of the most vital and fascinating nanomaterials among several metallic nanoparticles that are involved in biomedical applications. AgNPs play an important role in nanoscience and nanotechnology, particularly in nanomedicine. Although several noble metals have been used for various purposes, AgNPs have been focused on potential applications in cancer diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we discuss the synthesis of AgNPs using physical, chemical, and biological methods. We also discuss the properties of AgNPs and methods for their characterization. More importantly, we extensively discuss the multifunctional bio-applications of AgNPs; for example, as antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, anti-angiogenic, and anti-cancer agents, and the mechanism of the anti-cancer activity of AgNPs. In addition, we discuss therapeutic approaches and challenges for cancer therapy using AgNPs. Finally, we conclude by discussing the future perspective of AgNPs.
TL;DR: This article surveys tyrosinase inhibitors newly discovered from natural and synthetic sources and the inhibitory strength is compared with that of a standard inhibitor, kojic acid, and their inhibitory mechanisms are discussed.
Abstract: Tyrosinase is a multifunctional, glycosylated, and copper-containing oxidase, which catalyzes the first two steps in mammalian melanogenesis and is responsible for enzymatic browning reactions in damaged fruits during post-harvest handling and processing. Neither hyperpigmentation in human skin nor enzymatic browning in fruits are desirable. These phenomena have encouraged researchers to seek new potent tyrosinase inhibitors for use in foods and cosmetics. This article surveys tyrosinase inhibitors newly discovered from natural and synthetic sources. The inhibitory strength is compared with that of a standard inhibitor, kojic acid, and their inhibitory mechanisms are discussed.