scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "International Journal of the Sociology of Language in 1995"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the triglossie arabe au Maroc (arabe marocain, arabe MAROICA moyen, arabo litteraire) and sa relation avec le francais et le berbere.
Abstract: L'A. examine la triglossie arabe au Maroc (arabe marocain, arabe marocain moyen, arabe litteraire) et sa relation avec le francais et le berbere. Selon lui, bien que le nationalisme et les progres de l'education aient contribue a combler l'ecart entre l'arabe marocain et l'arabe litteraire, l'analphabetisme et l'ideologie conservatrice constituent les obstacles majeurs face a de tels changements linguistiques. La situation de triglossie a des repercussions negatives dans le champ de l'education et elle entraine un gaspillage d'energie, de temps et d'argent

88 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper examined the associations of distance from the Mexican border with three indices of Spanish language shift and explored the interrelationships of distance with measures of socioeconomic Integration, immigration, and rural vs. urban residence.
Abstract: This study examines datafrom the 1980 US Censusfor the 22 largest eitles and all 421 counties in the states of Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. It investigates the associations of distance from the Mexican border with three indices of Spanish language shift and explores the interrelationships of distance with measures of socioeconomic Integration, Immigration, and rural vs. urban residence. The results of this investigation indicate that distance from the border contributes importantly to an understanding ofthe shift process', distance appears to be a Surrogate measure of Integration into mainstream US society.

64 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined examples of Yolngu metaphors for learning that were given to us by Yirrkala Community Eiders during discussions about curriculum, and these were metaphors chosen by our eiders to show how schooling for YOLngu children must be consistent with traditional YOLNGu ways of education.
Abstract: All languages use metaphors to describe and understand what happens when we leara. In English, a common metaphor is LEARNING IS UNCOVERING SOMETHING THAT IS HIDDEN. This metaphor is at work when we say things like \"We/0wra/ out about rocks and metals,\" and \"They discovered how to make metal out of rocks.\" It is a metaphor that leads us to believe that knowledge is not something constructed through negotiation but is something we find if we look hard enough and if we are lucky enough. The metaphors that Yolngu use for learning are quite dilferent. Our school (Yirrkala Community School, Northeast Arnhemland, Australia) has been exploring the use of Aboriginal ways of making knowledge in the classroom. The school council is using Community eiders äs consultants in developing a Yolngu curriculum, which teaches the children Yolngu knowledge and Yolngu ways of knowing. We have examined examples of Yolngu metaphors for learning that were given to us by Yirrkala Community eiders during discussions about curriculum. These were metaphors chosen by our eiders to show how schooling for Yolngu children must be consistent with traditional Yolngu ways of education. Five words that we often hear when Eiders talk about education are galtha, dhinthun, lundu-nha:ma, dhudakthun, and gatjpuyun. Galtha is a connecting spot. Sometimes a place can be seen äs a galtha. Recently we have been learning about a place near Dhalinybuy, the traditional homeland of some of our students, which is known äs a galtha. This was a place where people used to gather at certain times of year, for sacred ceremonies and for the collection of cycad nuts and the preparation of sacred cycad bread. The people would sit in the galtha area, not on seats or blankets, but on the ground, different families and groups of people, gathering together from different areas, there for a special collective purpose, negotiating together and getting ready for special activities together — maybe hunting, maybe ceremonies. This is

55 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors raise a number of issues in relation to language and identity within the urban Aboriginal context, with a particular focus on the Kauraa language of South Australia.
Abstract: In this paper, I intend to raise a number of issues in relation to language and identity within the urban Aboriginal context. I will do this in the light of work carried out recently in the Nunga languages of South Australia, with a particular focus on the Kauraa language. I use the term \"Nunga languages\" to refer to those languages belonging to Aboriginal people living in and around Adelaide — specifically Ngarrindjeri, Narrunga (Narangga), and Kaurna. Formerly, Ngarrindjeri was the language of the Lower Murray and Coorong, Narrunga the language of Yorke Peninsula, and Kaurna the language of the Adelaide Plains (see Map 1). Despite the passage of more than 60 years since the last fluent Speaker of Kaurna died, the Kaurna language and Kaurna cultural heritage is still very important to Nungas in Adelaide. Despite the fact that it has not been spoken for a considerable period of time, there are good prospects for at least parts of the language to be used and spoken again. The other two Nunga languages äs they are recognized today, Ngarrindjeri and Narrunga, are perhaps of even greater importance because they are the languages associated with the former missions: Raukkan (Point Macleay) and Point Pearce, respectively. Most Nungas identify primarily äs Ngarrindjeri or Narrunga, depending on their past associations with these two missions (Jordan 1989: 48). Work in progress in the Kaurna language will lay an important foundation for work in these other two languages.

43 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper reported on an attitude survey using a matched-guise technique among speakers of the three main languages of the Eastern Cape: English, Afrikaans, and Xhosa.
Abstract: This study reports on an attitude survey using a matched-guise technique among Speakers ofthe three main languages ofthe Eastern Cape: English, Afrikaans, and Xhosa. We wished to investigate the extent to which Speakers in the area were using language and accent to make judgments aboutpeople, and to examine the stereotypical views regarding these languages and their Speakers. The relationship in South Africa between power, stereotypes, and language is briefly examined in order to show how, owing to events over the last 200 yearst power is very unequally distributed, and social position depends primarily and significantly on race and linguistic affiliation, which have determined education and employment opportunities. A detailed analysis ofresults reveals that discrimination against people may well be linked to the sort of language they use.

39 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that politeness in Indian English varies considerably from British and American English, which is evident from an analysis of the forms of address, verbalization of gratitude, politeness phraseology and politeness strategy in the native and non-native varieties of English.
Abstract: Verbalization of politeness in Indian English varies considerably from British and American English. This is evident from an analysis oftheforms of address, verbalization of gratitude, special politeness phraseology and strategy in the native andnon-native varieties of English. The Indian English politeness forms admit of greater individual Variation and stylistic range and a lower percentage of Standard, conventional, and fixed forms in comparison with British or American English. They infact draw upon the resources oftwo expression Systems and two distinct cultures — Indian and Western. They also serve to highlight some of the regional characteristics of sociolinguistics in India

36 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Four of the authors of this paper (Dalton, Edwards, Farquarson, and Oscar) live at Kalkaringi and Daguragu, 460 km. southwest of Katherine in the Northern Territory of Australia. Their language is Gurindji. \"We\" in the text refers to these authors. At the time when this paper was first written, in 1990, these authors were studying to be teachers, in the Remote Area Teacher Education program of Batchelor College. In 1988, Patrick McConvell come out to Kalkaringi to work with the Batchelor College students doing research into the language the children use. Observations by him specifically are in the third person (referring to McConvell). Although there are bilingual programs involving Aboriginal languages in schools elsewhere in the Northern Territory, there is no bilingual education in the Kalkaringi school and nö Gurindji language program in any school at present. From the research that we did we decided that something should be done about the children's language at school. So with the help of the Kimberley Language Resource Centre, we started work on a draft Gurindji language curriculum document in June 1990. We want to keep our language because we want to pass on the Law (Yumi) to our grandchildren. The Law includes all our ceremonies and the stories of the Dreamings (creator beings), äs well äs the rules of how people should behave toward each other, and toward our land. The Gurindji old people teil the younger ones that they should keep the old language alive. One of the Gurindji old people said,

32 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper explored the relative values of Spanish language along the US-Mexico border and found that Spanish is inextricably linked to Mexican ethnicity and its relative acceptance or rejection depends on historical, economic, demographic and geographic factors.
Abstract: This article explores the relative values of the Spanish language along the US-Mexico border It is proposed that Spanish is inextricably linked to Mexican ethnicity The Spanish language and the Mexican ethnicity operate as an equation Its relative acceptance or rejection depends on historical, economic, demographic and geographic factors US border communities in diverse locations (eg, southern California, southern Arizona, southwest Texas, and the Rio Grande Valley of Texas) are analyzed, discussed and compared The analysis shows the degree of continuity or discontinuity of language and ethnicity in each Community Spanish, the ancestral code may be showing signs of a reversed language shift, a process that may more advanced in older communities where the density ofthe Mexican-American population is rather high

31 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors decrit les idees que les locuteurs allemands bilingues d'une ville du sud de la Hongrie ont sur leur langage.
Abstract: L'A. decrit les idees que les locuteurs allemands bilingues d'une ville du sud de la Hongrie ont sur leur langage. L'analyse de discussions et des pratiques linguistiques dans cette ville suggere que, contrairement a l'idee repandue en sociolinguistique, le statut de la langue minoritaire n'est pas etroitement lie a la langue de l'Etat. La valeur de la langue minoritaire est construite par l'accession a un nouveau type de statut: en recontextualisant l'opposition hongrois/allemand comme etant pan-europeenne, plutot que locale

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors traces the history of French-English conflict in Quebec from the British conquest of New France in 1795 to the present and highlights the longlasting cultural and economic deprivation of the French resulted in a movement for change with the development ofan urban intellectual-managerial class, and a growing sense of ethnic pride.
Abstract: This paper traces the history of French-English conflict in Quebec from the British conquest of New France in 1795 to the present. The long-lasting cultural and economic deprivation ofthe French resulted in a movementfor change with the development ofan urban intellectual-managerial class, and a growing sense of ethnic pride. This is intensified by the fear that the French language and culture will be overwhelmed by the predominantly English-speaking surrounding Community. Thepeaceful transference of economic power and language dominance from the English- to the Frenchspeaking Community was facilitated by the electoral power of the French Community. Of growing concern is the greater need for English-language proficiency in the French-speaking Community as Quebec industry enters the international marketplace.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examine les attitudes a l'egard de la langue, considerees comme typiquement norvegiennes and qui, d'une certaine maniere, sont liees a la situation linguistique norvegienne.
Abstract: L'A examine les attitudes a l'egard de la langue, considerees comme typiquement norvegiennes et qui, d'une certaine maniere, sont liees a la situation linguistique norvegienne Au cours des deux dernieres decennies, la situation linguistique norvegienne a connu des changements, aussi bien dans les attitudes a l'egard de la langue que dans la pression ressentie par les gens pour modifier leur discours La tolerance a l'egard des varietes linguistiques s'est developpee, favorisant le maintient des dialectes et des langues non-standards L'A discute les raisons de ces changements

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Quaker plain speech was founded on a contradiction between the inclusive aims of the policy and the inherently exclusive nature of linguistic divergence as discussed by the authors, and it has a symbolic meaning of rejecting mainstream values and priorities.
Abstract: When the Singular pronoun thou began to lose ground in the 1600s in Standard English, there was one group ofnonconformists, the Quakers, who resisted this change and initiated a policy of linguistic divergence called Quaker Plain Speech. Quaker Plain Speech wasfoundedon a contradiction between the inclusive aims of the policy and the inherently exclusive nature of linguistic divergence. After the first flush of missionary zeal Quaker Plain Speech lapsed into a barrier reinforcing Quakers as a group and excluding Outsiders. In the late nineteenth Century, at a time oflow ethnolinguistic vitality, most Quakers gave up their characteristic speech marker as an accommodation to the mainstream culture. However, Quaker Plain Speech continues to be used among some Quaker families for reasons of tradition, intimacy, and Community. It has a symbolic meaning ofrejection of mainstream values and priorities. The contradiction between inclusivity and exclusivity has still not been resolved.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses the linguistic impact on work, commerce and education in El Paso and discusses the fact that Spanish has a demographic advantage in the international region of the United States, and the relationship between neighborhoods and language proficiency.
Abstract: El Paso, bilingual from the outset, becomes ever more so because its larger twin, Ciudad Juarez, is monolingual, and because Juarez grows rapidly. Thispaper discusses the linguistic impact on work, commerce andeducation of the fact that Spanish has a demographic advantage in the international region. In El Paso, many Juarez residents work with other Mexicans or Mexican Americans who emigrated after childhood, guaranteeing that certainjobs are hispanophone. El Pasoans unable or unwilling to speak English can take advantage ofthe extent to which El Paso functions in Spanish for the benefit of Juarez residents. Also discussed is the relationship between neighborhood and language proficiency; the issue of national identity; and the large number of Juarez youngsters who attend El Paso schools. For clearly instrumental reasons alone, El Paso's Mexican Americans must learn English but cannot afford to relinquish Spanish.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the issues of Spanish language use and maintenance in the Mexican-American Community of Greater Tucson were explored, and the sociolinguistic factors contributing to a low-medium ethnolinguistic rating of Spanish and, possibly, to the initial stages of a reversal in Spanish language shift were found.
Abstract: This paper contributes to the sociolinguistic study of Arizonan Spanish by exploring the issues of Spanish language use and maintenance in the Mexican-American Community of Greater Tucson. Findings show that macrosociolinguistic factors contributing to a low-medium ethnolinguistic vitality rating of Spanish and, possibly, to the initial stages of a reversal in Spanish language shift include distance of Greater Tucson from a nationstate (Mexico) where Spanish is the common or de facto official language ofits citizenry and the continual influx ofvisitors, immigrants, and workers whose dominant tongue is Spanish. Other factors include size, density, distribution, ingroup proportion, growth, and homogeneity ofthe MexicanAmerican population; the relative social and economic Subordination and distance of the Mexican-American Community from mainstream society; Mexican-American group pride and language loyalty; market value or Status of Spanish in the wider Community; and the accessibility of oral and written linguistic models of Spanish. The clear presence of Spanish in the public sector may Signal a 'reverse diglossia in progress, i.e. the private language usually typifying or reserved for primary group or intragroup interactions is also used, though perhaps with societal restrictions, in the public spheres of society, notwithstanding the legal Status of the language or variety.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the sociolinguistic Situation of the Berber language with reference to some empirical research, and show that both external and internal factors of language shift conspire to weaken the linguistic and communicative capabilities of Berber Speakers involved in linguistic contact situations.
Abstract: This study deals with language maintenance and language shift in Morocco. Its primary goal is to describe the sociolinguistic Situation of the Berber language with reference to some empirical research. The Status, attributes, functions, and usage ofthe Berber language make it a vernacular employed mostly in rural areas but also increasingly in urban areas, as a result of migration. The present paper shows that both external and internal factors of language shift conspire to weaken the linguistic and communicative competence of Berber Speakers involved in linguistic contact situations. Berbers are submitted to a linguistic and cultural assimilation process because their language has a low position within the linguistic market. As a reaction to this process, a cultural identity consciousness has emerged with the aim to develop strategies for cultural survival. These strategies are discussed and some issues suggested.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The process of Arabization in Morocco has led to three main types of discourse: governmental, nationalist and Islamist as discussed by the authors, characterized by ambiguity toward the status of French and the Situation of the local languages.
Abstract: The process of Arabization in Morocco has led to three main types of discourse: governmental, nationalist and Islamist. All these kinds of discourse are characterized by ambiguity toward the Status ofFrench and the Situation of the local languages. Whereas government discourse favors the consolidation of Arabic-French bilingualism for reasons of modernity and development, the nationalist and Islamist trends argue for the eradication of French from Moroccan society, as it is a symbol of colonization and cultural alienation. For the Islamist movement, Arabization is a means to ensure the revival and spread of Islam in Morocco, which is subject to the influence of Western civilization, that is itself associated with social and moral decadence. The three types of discourse on Arabization mirror in interesting ways the internal contradictions of present-day Morocco. Student language attitudes also reflect a certain ambivalence, expressed in their desire to maintain their cultural identity and to gain access to modernity. Thus, the Arabization process has to reconcile the identity components ofboth the past and the present.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine le changement de code (CC) arabe marocain/hollandais par rapport au CC arabe MAROCain/francais.
Abstract: L'A. examine le changement de code (CC) arabe marocain/hollandais par rapport au CC arabe marocain/francais. Elle montre que l'article defini peut etre supprime en hollandais, mais pas en francais. Dans le CC hollandais/arabe marocain, l'article defini est present ou supprime. La suppression de l'article apparait egalement dans les CC hollandais/arabe marocain dans la phrase. L'A. etablit un parallele entre ce type de CC et le style telegraphique. Pour elle, la principale raison pour changer de code et en meme temps violer les regles de grammaticalite est la volonte du locuteur de communiquer reellement et de maniere economique

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article examined language nationalism, maintenance and language shift processes in four contrasting language contact situations in the Americas which differ in pre-contactfactors, host-factors and product factors.
Abstract: From the mid sixties through the mid seventies, and again in the late eighties, we witnessed a widespread revival of ethnicity and language nationalism wherever ethnolinguistic minorities hadbeen suppressed. The ethnicity boom brought the language issue to the foreground. In spite of seeming de-ethnicization in most modern settings, mother-tongue language loyalty emerged as a constant. My purpose is to examine language nationalism, language maintenance and language shift processes in four contrasting language contact situations in the Americas which differ in pre-contact factors, host-factors and product factors: Spanish in the United States versus English in Argentina; Guarani-Spanish in Paraguay versus Quechua-Spanish in Peru.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a sociolinguistique du langage des femmes au Maroc is presented, where les femmes ont ete recueillies aupres de femme au foyer and de femmes ayant une activite professionnelle.
Abstract: L'A. propose une analyse sociolinguistique du langage des femmes au Maroc. Les donnees ont ete recueillies aupres de femmes au foyer et de femmes ayant une activite professionnelle. Elles mettent en evidence une difference entre la langue des femmes et celle des hommes, liee a la faiblesse du statut social des femmes. Le comportement verbal de ces dernieres reflete directement, non seulement leur role social dans le contexte marocain, mais egalement les attitudes defavorables de la societe envers elles

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first published account of how bilingual programs in Aboriginal community schools have been evaluated in the Northern Territory of Australia from their inception in 1973 to the present day is given in this paper.
Abstract: This paper provides the first published account of how bilingual programs in Aboriginal Community schools have been evaluated in the Northern Territory of Australia from their inception in 1973 to the present day. It comprises five main sections: (1) an introductory review of the literature on the evaluation of bilingual education; (2) a brief account of the first phase of evaluation in the NT, 1973 to 1978, when advice from technical experts was actively sought; (3) a report on the second phase, the accreditation of programs by central-office staff, 1979 to 1987, when groups of students from selected schools were comparatively assessed; (4) an analysis of the third phase, community-based appraisal, which commenced in 1988, and (5) some reflections and a conclusion. It is noted that this three-phase shift over the last two decades — from centralized decisionmaking reliant on outside technical advice, to an ambitious assessment and accreditation model, to community-based school appraisal — is in line with trends reported elsewhere by Fitzpatrick (1988) and Sanders (1988).

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In 1990, a coroner's court in the Northern Territory of Australia undertook a much-publicized investigation into the death (in April 1990) of an Aboriginal bushman who was shot by Northern Territory Task Force Police who were apprehending him on an isolated island (Elcho Island, the man's home) in Northeast Arnhemland as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: During sittings totalling 30 days over a 12-month period, a coroner's court in the Northern Territory of Australia undertook a much-publicized investigation into the death (in April 1990) of an Aboriginal bushman who was shot by Northern Territory Task Force Police who were apprehending him on an isolated beach on a remote island (Elcho Island, the man's home) in Northeast Arnhemland. The man had a history of mental illness. Prior to bis killing he had wounded one man by spearing him without apparent provocation. In avoiding capture by local police earlier, he wounded another. During the inquest public authorities äs well äs the individual police were under pressure. The shooting coincided with the final stages of a Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody and followed two controversial shootings of Aboriginal people by paramilitary-type police units in other states. At the same time the police, courts, and government in the Northern Territory were sensitized to public criticism by continuing embarrassment over the saga of Lindy Chamberlain, who went to prison after losing her baby, Azaria, to a wild dingo at Ayers Rock in Central Australia. The original inquest into the death had found thus, yet the findings were overturned. Mrs. Chamberlain was wrongfully convicted and imprisoned, in 1982, for murder. Subsequent events served to make foolish prominent judicial, police, and government officials who had struggled to uphold her \"guilt\". These circumstances combined to make an unknown bushman's death politically significant. This was reflected in the large number of lawyers (including several Queen's Counsel) engaged by the various parties who might be criticized by the coroner and were thus entitled to representation. The family of the dead man found representation through Aboriginal Legal Aid. The coroner took the quite unusual step of holding several of the sittings in the dead man's home Community on Elcho Island. In consideration of the language difficulties posed by the need to call many Aboriginal witnesses, none of whom spoke English äs their native lan-

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the relationship between the difficulties of the adolescent to integrate into the majority culture and the relationship of this struggle to language and found that the need to establish ones identity has serious implications for the way adolescents see themselves and the manner in which they present themselves to the society at large.
Abstract: The research on the influx of more than 400,000 immigrants from the former Soviel Union to Israel has ignored the adolescent population. The struggle of the adolescent to integrate into the majority culture and the relationship of this struggle to language are the central concerns of this article. The demands of adolescence and the searchfor identity are complex issues under the best of conditions. The pressures of a new culture as reflected in the acquisition of language and the relationship ofthe adolescent Immigrant were investigated in this study of adolescent immigrants who had been in Israel from three to 30 months. Our findings indicate that the need to establish ones identity has serious implications for the manner in which adolescents see themselves and the manner in which they present themselves to the society at large. These findings could have practical implications in a worid where movement across borders and cultures is commonplace.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the emissions radiodiffusees in arabe standard moderne in arabique and compare them with the arabic language of the USA.
Abstract: L'A. examine la langue des emissions radiodiffusees en arabe standard moderne sur les ondes marocaines et les journaux televises. Il s'agit d'une etude sociolinguistique des traits syntaxiques et semantiques du style journalistique. D'un point de vue syntaxique, il est caracterise par un ordre SVO frequent, la voix active, la coordination et la relativisation. D'un point de vue semantique, il se caracterise par des creations et des innovations linguistiques, ainsi que des emprunts, principalement au francais et a l'anglais

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Les As. examinent et comparent la fonction sociale des varietes standards de polonais et de norvegien as discussed by the authors. But le polonaises standard jouit d'un statut social tres eleve.
Abstract: Les As. examinent et comparent la fonction sociale des varietes standards de polonais et de norvegien. Si le polonais standard jouit d'un statut social tres eleve, la situation se revele fort differente pour le norvegien. Aucune variete standard de norvegien n'est enseignee a l'ecole et il existe deux varietes standards ecrites qui, malgre leur proximite linguistique, symbolisent pour la plupart des norvegiens des contrastes geographiques, culturels et politiques. Le developpement et les conditions sociohistoriques du norvegien et du polonais sont decrites de maniere a rendre compte des differences entre ces deux langues

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors examine the situation sociolinguisticistique d'un village particulier situe sur la region cotiere in the Nord de la Norvege.
Abstract: Apres avoir retrace de maniere generale la situation multilingue du nord de la Norvege, l'A. examine la situation sociolinguistique d'un village particulier situe sur la region cotiere. Le developpement linguistique de ce village est decrit comme un cas de changement linguistique, ou la langue du groupe dominant (norvegien) a progressivement ete adoptee par le groupe domine. L'A. tente d'expliquer ce developpement

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the Northern Territory (NT), a bilingual education program for Aboriginal children was introduced by Kinslow-Harris in 1973 as mentioned in this paper, which has been in some important ways a successful program, for example in terms of some academic gains and the promotion of Aboriginal teacher training and leadership.
Abstract: The Northern Territory (NT) has been the main arena of Aboriginal bilingual education in Australia, in terms of program size, theoretical development, and strength of influence (see early papers; for example, Kinslow-Harris 1968; papers in Brumby and Vazolyi 1977; Harris 1982; Harris et al. 1984; later papers by Gale 1990; Christie 1991; Harris and Jones 1991). In the NT, the program operates in 22 schools in 17 languages for about 3,500 students aged 5-15 years. The program began in four schools in 1973, but its most dramatic period of growth numerically and theoretically, except for recent Aboriginal initiatives, was during the late 1970s and early 1980s. It has been in some important ways a successful program, for example, in terms of some academic gains (see Devlin, this issue) and the promotion of Aboriginal teacher training and leadership. At the same time it has been a highly controversial program with respect to academic \"value for money,\" conflicting ideologies of teacher versus teacher or head office administrator, whether Aboriginal priorities or those of pro-Aboriginal whites predominate, and whether or not it is a transfer or a maintenance model. As a source of Inspiration the Rock Point Navajo school had more influence than any other, and for the theoretical foundations, the writings of Cummins, between 1978 and 1981 (applied to the NT context by Harris 1980b), were perhaps more influential than others. Non-Aboriginal educators working in the NT have been highly conscious of principles 1-3 described below for much of the life of the program, but principle 4, which is a response to Aboriginal self-assertion in the program, is recent and not yet widespread. The four major principles discussed in this paper are related to what I see äs four major phases or stages in the historical development of bilingual education theory outside Australia during the last half Century.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors found that students are able to avoid acculturation through a process of compartmentalization which allows them to identify the language with generalized "Spanish Speakers" as opposed to the local Mexican population.
Abstract: In spite of increasing numbers of Spanish Speakers concentrated in many US localities, Spanish, the language most often studied, is taught as a foreign language. Ambivalence toward local Speakers is particularly evident on the US-Mexico border where Spanish and English come into contact and conflict which is exacerbated by differences in socio-economic and political prestige. A study of English-dominant university students required to study Spanish suggests that students are able to avoid acculturation through a process of compartmentalization which allows them to identify the language with generalized "Spanish Speakers" as opposed to the local Mexican population.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Kriol, the color of the sky is a mid-gray, tinged with violet, a color associated with depression rather than joy, with dimness rather than light, with opacity rather than clarity as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: For äs long äs I can remember I have associated each day with a particular color. Thursday is a mid-gray, tinged with violet, the color of clouds hinting at storm. A few weeks ago, in the middle of a fieldwork trip to a remote Aboriginal Community in the Northern Territory, lying awake in the middle of the night, I realised that, for me, Kriol has the same color. Having made the initial observation, I began to wonder why Kriol has this particular hue. I noticed of course that this is a color associated with depression rather than joy, with dimness rather than light, with opacity rather than clarity. The grayness, while it may turn to thunder, is currently dim and unnoticeable, not a topic of conversation. In the Kriol-speaking communities I have visited in the course of several trips to the Northern Territory, Kriol has always, to varying degrees, been hidden. When I am asked about my work by members of the Community I say that I am a linguist, that I work on languages. However, when I elaborate and say that I am interested in Kriol, the face of the enquirer usually falls. It should be noted that, in Kriol and related forms of Aboriginal English, \"language\" refers to ancestral Aboriginal languages; it does not refer to English or Kriol. My work in Kriol is a disappointment because it seems that I am, after all, uninterested in learning from Aboriginal people and have come, like so many others, to pursue my own interests rather than to listen to, and learn from, Aboriginal people. Over the years when I have been paying sometimes brief but regulär visits to the Northern Territory I have developed relationships with a few people with whom I have been able to talk in detail about my work, showing them the results of previous labors, and while not always confident that my motives are understood or accepted (my own confusion over these is similar) at least we can work and exist together harmoniously. In general, however, my work with Kriol makes me an object of suspicion, and it is about this that I shall write. Instead of ignoring the natural sense of discomfort that being an object of suspicion engenders,