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Showing papers in "International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication in 2015"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an attempt has been made to provide an overview of evolution of mobile generations by comparing the challenges and features that have evolved from each generation and explaining how improvements have been made from earlier generation to the next one.
Abstract: There has been a huge advancement in mobile wireless communication since the last few decades. This advancement consist of several generations and is still going on. The journey of mobile wireless communication began with 1G followed by 2G,3G,4G,and under research future generations 5G,6G,7G. In this paper an attempt has been made to provide an overview of evolution of mobile generations by comparing the challenges and features that have evolved from each generation and explaining how improvements have been made from earlier generation to the next one. DOI: 10.17762/ijritcc2321-8169.1505134

31 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main target of this serial research is to propose a complete novel framework which not only responses to the question, but also gives the user an opportunity to find additional information that is related to thequestion.
Abstract: The massive growth of online information obliged the availability of a thorough research in the domain of automatic text summarization within the Natural Language Processing (NLP) community. To reach this goal, different approaches should be integrated and collaborated. One of these approaches is the classification od documents. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to propose a successful framework for agricultural documents classification as a step forward for a language independent automatic summarization approach. The main target of our serial research is to propose a complete novel framework which not only responses to the question, but also gives the user an opportunity to find additional information that is related to the question. We implemented the proposed method. As a case study, the implemented method is applied on Arabic text in the agriculture field. The implemented approach succeeded in classifying the documents submitted by the user. The approach results have been evaluated using Recall, Precision and F-score measures.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A comparative analysis of various decision tree based classification algorithms is presented by comparing the results on 5 datasets from the UCI and KEEL repository.
Abstract: Classification is a technique to construct a function or set of functions to predict the class of instances whose class label is not known. Discovered knowledge is usually presented in the form of high level, easy to understand classification rules. There is various classification techniques used to classify the data, one of which is decision tree algorithms. This paper presents a comparative analysis of various decision tree based classification algorithms. In experiments, the effectiveness of algorithms is evaluated by comparing the results on 5 datasets from the UCI and KEEL repository. Keywords-classification; weka; decision tree; data mining __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes a novel opportunistic routing technique without using pre-selected list of potential forwarders for WMNs and compares it with well-known protocols, such as AODV, OLSR, and ROMER based on throughput, delivery ratio, and average end to end delay.
Abstract: Opportunistic routing is an emerging research area in Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs), which exploits the broadcast nature of wireless networks to find the optimal routing solution that maximizes throughput and minimizes packet loss. Opportunistic routing protocols mainly suffer from computational overheads, as most of the protocols try to find the best next forwarding node. In this paper we address the key issue of computational overhead by designing new routing technique without using pre-selected list of potential forwarders. We propose a novel opportunistic routing technique for WMNs. We compare it with well-known protocols, such as AODV, OLSR, and ROMER based on throughput, delivery ratio, and average end to end delay. Simulation results show that proposed protocol, gives average throughput increase up to 32%, and increase in delivery ratio (from 10% to 20%). We also analyze the performance of proposed protocol and ROMER based on various parameters, such as duplicate transmissions and network collisions, by analysis depicts that proposed protocol reduces duplicate transmissions up to 70% and network collisions up to 30%

10 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A rapid growth in semiconductor technology and increasing demand for portable devices powered up by battery has led the manufacturers to scale down the feature size, resulting reduced threshold voltage and thereby enabling integration of extremely complex functionality on a single chip.
Abstract: A rapid growth in semiconductor technology and increasing demand for portable devices powered up by battery has led the manufacturers to scale down the feature size, resulting reduced threshold voltage and thereby enabling integration of extremely complex functionality on a single chip. In CMOS circuits, increased sub-threshold leakage current refers static power dissipation is the result of low threshold voltage. For the most recent CMOS technologies static power dissipation i.e. leakage power dissipation has become a challenging area for VLSI chip designers. According to ITRS (International technology road-map for semiconductors), leakage power is becoming a dominant part of total power consumption. To prolong the battery life of portable devices, leakage power reduction is the primary goal. The main objective of this paper is to present the analysis of leakage components, comprehensive study & analysis of leakage components and to present different proposed leakage power reduction techniques.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A combination techniques of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) together with Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) model is suggested to develop new decision support system (DSS) to the industry.
Abstract: Nowadays manufacturing industry is growing rapidly and large numbers of added value in business activities has been exercised. Supplier selection problem has improved in many areas by evaluation of supplier to increase supply chain performance. Supplier selection is one of the most important aspects in manufacturing industry. This paper suggest a combination techniques of Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) together with Supply Chain Operation Reference (SCOR) model to develop new decision support system (DSS) to the industry. There are four stages in supplier selection process which employed the norm stages of supplier selection process: data gathering, AHP calculation, SCOR evaluation, and implementation of decision making. Data analyzed was aligned with evaluation of data to synthesize of priorities and consistencies measurement. Organization"s decision maker would gain benefits and acquire competitive advantage providing DSS practitioners to achieve a success of the holistic approach in future decision support system.

9 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The objective of this paper is to present a state of the art survey and classification of energy efficient schemes for WSNs.
Abstract: Recent advances in wireless sensor networks have commanded many new protocols specifically designed for sensor networks where energy awareness is an important concern. This routing protocols might differ from depending on the application and the network architecture. To extend the lifetime of Wireless sensor network (WSN), an energy efficient scheme can be designed and developed via an algorithm to provide reasonable energy consumption and network for WSN. To maintain high scalability and better data aggregation, sensor nodes are often grouped into disjoint, non-overlapping subsets called clusters. Clusters create hierarchical WSNs which incorporate efficient utilization of limited resources of sensor nodes to reduce energy consumption, thus extend the lifetime of WSN. The objective of this paper is to present a state of the art survey and classification of energy efficient schemes for WSNs.

9 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work mainly focused on document clustering for collection of documents in efficient manner using with MapReduce for well efficient retrieve of the data from massive resources of data repository through the search engines.
Abstract: Big data is a collection of data sets. It is so enormous and complex that it becomes difficult to processes and analyse using normal database management tools or traditional data processing applications. Big data is having many challenges. The main problem of the big data is store and retrieve of the data from the search engines. Document data is also growing rapidly in the eon of internet. Analysing document data is very important for many applications. Document clustering is the one of the important technique to analyse the document data. It has many applications like organizing large document collection, finding similar documents, recommendation system, duplicate content detection, search optimization. This work is motivated by the reorganization of the need for a well efficient retrieve of the data from massive resources of data repository through the search engines. In this work mainly focused on document clustering for collection of documents in efficient manner using with MapReduce. Keywords—Document Clustering, Map-Reduce, Hadoop, Document pre-processing __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

8 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Key recommendations for advancing the P300 BCI towards an easy to use, home-based system were identified, including reducing the complexity of the setup, ensuring the system becomes more responsive and increasing the overall functionality.
Abstract: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) are systems that can be controlled by the user through harnessing their brain signals. Extensive research has been undertaken within a laboratory setting with healthy users to illustrate the usability of such systems. To bring these systems to users with severe disabilities it is necessary to develop simple, easy to use systems that can be operated by non-experts outside of the lab and are evaluated by real end users preferably through a user centered design approach. This paper presents a user centered evaluation of a P300 BCI operated by non-expert users in a rehabilitation center with a control group of five healthy participants without acquired brain injury (ABI) and five end users with ABI. Each participant aimed to complete the 30-step protocol three separate times and rate his or her satisfaction from 0 to 10 on the Visual Analogue Scale after each session. Participants then rated their satisfaction with the BCI on the extended QUEST 2.0 and a customized usability questionnaire. The results indicated that end-users were able to achieve an average accuracy of 55% compared to the control group that reported an average of 78%. The findings indicated that participants were satisfied with the BCI but felt frustrated when it did not respond to their commands. This work was phase one of three to move the BCI system into end users homes. Key recommendations for advancing the P300 BCI towards an easy to use, home-based system were identified, including reducing the complexity of the setup, ensuring the system becomes more responsive and increasing the overall functionality.

7 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This project will use System Generator tool and modular construction methods to build a image algorithm platform in MATLAB to focus on implementation issues of image enhancement algorithms like brightness control, contrast stretching, negative transformation, thresholding, filtering techniques on FPGA that have become a competitive alternative for high performance digital signal processing applications.
Abstract: Digital image enhancement techniques are to improving the visual quality of images. Main objective of image enhancement is to process an image so that result is more suitable than original image for specific application. Image is one of the most fundamental and significant features. The correctness and reliability of its results affect directly the comprehension machine system made for objective world. The implementation of image enhancement algorithms on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) is having advantage of using large memory and embedded multipliers. FPGAs are providing a platform for processing real time algorithms on application-specific hardware with substantially higher performance than programmable digital signal processors (DSPs). This project focus on implementation issues of image enhancement algorithms like brightness control, contrast stretching, negative transformation, thresholding, filtering techniques on FPGA that have become a competitive alternative for high performance digital signal processing applications. This project will use System Generator tool and modular construction methods to build a image algorithm platform in MATLAB. By a brief analysis about display image and resource cons umption after achieving on Spartan-3E development board, we can see the image using System Generator for FPGA algorithm design superiority, have the vast application prospects

Journal Article
TL;DR: Key recommendations for advancing the P300 BCI towards an easy to use, home-based system were identified, including reducing the complexity of the setup, ensuring the system becomes more responsive and increasing the overall functionality.
Abstract: Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI) are systems that can be controlled by the user through harnessing their brain signals. Extensive research has been undertaken within a laboratory setting with healthy users to illustrate the usability of such systems. To bring these systems to users with severe disabilities it is necessary to develop simple, easy to use systems that can be operated b y non-experts outside of the lab and are evaluated by real end users preferably through a user centered design approach. This paper presents a user centered evaluation of a P300 BCI operated by non-expert users in a rehabilitation center with a control group of five healthy participants without acquired brain injury (ABI) and five end users with ABI. Each participant aimed to complete the 30-step protocol three separate times and rate his or her satisfaction from 0 to 10 on the Visual Analogue Scale after each session. Participants then rated their satisfaction with the BCI on the extended QUEST 2.0 and a customized usability questionnaire. The results indicated that end-users were able to achieve an average accuracy of 55% compared to the control group that reported an average of 78%. The findings indicated that participants were satisfied with the BCI but felt frustrated when it did not respond to their commands. This work was phase one of three to move the BCI system into end users homes. Key recommendations for advancing the P300 BCI towards an easy to use, home-based system were identified, including reducing the complexity of the setup, ensuring the system becomes more responsive and increasing the overall functionality.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A survey of the handoff types and their mechanisms which have been already conceptualized can be found in this paper, where the SU needs to find another channel in a different frequency band which leads to the spectral handoff.
Abstract: In a cognitive radio network, the cognitive radio (CR) devices also called as secondary users (SU's) need to change their operating frequency due to the inclusion of primary user (PU) in that frequency band. Thus when a PU arrives in a frequency band and asks for a channel in that band, it gets that band and occupies the channel which may be occupied by a SU. In this situation, the SU needs to find another channel in a different frequency band which leads to the spectral handoff. Thus in addition to the location based handoff's for the SU, spectral handoff also occur. This spectral handoff may be done several times for the SU. Thus this situation leads to the study of handoff mechanism. This paper carries out a survey of the handoff types and their mechanisms which have been already conceptualized. KeywordsCognitive Radio, handoff, spectral handoff, spectrum sensing, proactive, reactive. __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of cutting parameters on average surface roughness and material removal rate during turning of metal matrix composite using response surface methodology was investigated and the experimental studies are carried out under changing machining parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut.
Abstract: This research work investigate the effect of cutting parameters on average surface roughness and material removal rate during turning of Metal Matrix Composite using response surface methodology. The experimental studies are carried out under changing machining parameters like cutting speed, feed and depth of cut during turning of metal matrix composite. Response surface methodology based on the Face centered design technique has been used for the development of mathematical models to predict average surface roughness and metal removal rate. The conclusions revealed that the feed is the most influential machining parameter on the average surface roughness followed by depth of cut and the cutting speed. The depth of cut has significant for both the average surface roughness and metal removal rate for the MMC steel. KeywordsResponse Surface Methodology, Metal Matrix Composite, Metal removal rate, surface roughness, Cutting Speed, Feed Rate __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A robust method for detecting and measuring the circles of industrial object like water pump pulley (WPP-44), images based on circular Hough transform is presented in this paper.
Abstract: This article presents a robust method for detecting and measuring the circles of industrial object like water pump pulley(WPP-44), images based on circular Hough transform. The software of the application is based on detecting and measuring the circles surrounding of that object. The objective of this application is the recognition of circular shapes in an image. This paper presents efficient implementation of Image Processing technique for measurement of dimension of the object used in Turbine system. The proposed work makes use of the Matlab software for the said work..At First an segmentation or edge detection technique is used for finding the edges in the input image, then the characteristic points of circles are determined, after this process the pattern of the circles is extracted, and then with the help of other extraction parameter of the diameter of object(WPP-44). DOI: 10.17762/ijritcc2321-8169.150230

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work presents a framework for active contour-based visual object tracking using the level sets and combines the global shape information and the local color information to hierarchically develop gradually the contour, and a flexible shape updating model is made.
Abstract: Using a camera,the visual object tracking is one of the most important process in searching the spot of moving object over the time. In the case of the object moves fast relative to the frame rate,the visual object tracking is difficult task. The active contour evolution algorithm which is used for the tracking of object in a given frame of an image sequence. Active contour based visual object tracking using the level sets is proposed which does not consider the camera either stationary or moving. We present a framework for active contour-based visual object tracking using the level sets. The main components of our framework consist of the contour-based tracking initialization, colour-based contour evolution, the adaptive shape-based contour evolution for the non-periodic motions, the dynamic shape-based contour evolution for the periodic motions and handling of the abrupt motions. For the contour-based tracking initialization, we use an optical flow-based algorithm for the automatically initializing contours at the first frame. In the color-based contour evolution, we use Markov random field theory to measure correlations between values of the neighboring pixels for the posterior probability estimation.In the adaptive shape-based contour evolution, we combined the global shape information and the local color information to hierarchically develop gradually the contour, and a flexible shape updating model is made. In the dynamic shape based contour evolution, a shape mode transition matrix is gain to characterize the temporal correlations of the object shapes. In the handling of abrupt motions, particle swarm optimization (PSO) is used to capture the global motion which is applied to the contour in the current frame to produce an initial contour in the next frame.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: J48 has higher classification accuracy with high true positive rate (TPR) and low false negative rate (FPR) as compared to ID3 decision tree classifiers.
Abstract: As the internet size grows rapidly so that the attacks on network. There is a need of intrusion detection system (IDS) but large and increasing size of network creates huge computational values which can be a problem in estimating data mining results this problem can be overcome using dimensionality reduction as a part of data preprocessing. In this paper we study two decision tree classifiers(J48, Id3) for the purpose of detecting any intrusion and comparing their performances .first we have applied data pre processing steps on each classifier which includes feature selection using attribute selection filter , Intrusion detection dataset is KDDCUP 99 dataset which has 42 features after preprocessing 9 selected attributes remains ,then discretization of selected attribute is performed ,simple k-Mean algorithm is used for analysis of data and Based on this study, we have concluded that J48 has higher classification accuracy with high true positive rate (TPR) and low false positive rate (FPR) as compared to ID3 decision tree classifiers.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes the evaluation of a few techniques of the Image Steganography in spatial domain and frequency domain and is intended to be compared with the Watermarking Technique.
Abstract: Steganography is an intelligent art of communicating in a way which hides the endurance of the communication. The image steganography technique takes the asset of confined power of visual system of human being. The art of hiding information such that it averts ferreting out of hidden messages is getting very popular nowadays, which is referred as Steganography. The word Steganography has been educed from the two Greek words Steganos, which mean covered or secret and Graphy mean writing or drawing. There have been many techniques for hiding information or messages in images in such a manner that the modifications made to the image are perceptually undetected. This paper proposes the evaluation of a few techniques of the Image Steganography in spatial domain and frequency domain. The Image Steganography techniques in spatial domain that would be discussed are Least-Significant-Bit (LSB), LSB Replacement, LSB Matching, and Bit Plane Complexity Segmentation Steganography and frequency domain techniques to be conferred in this paper are Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) and Singular Valued Decomposition (SVD). Steganography technique is intended to be compared with the Watermarking Technique. Keywords-Image Steganography, Spatial domain, Frequency domain, LSB, DWT, DCT, DFT, SVD __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an adaptive front lighting system (AFS) is used to detect information about corner in advance with help of sensor which detect the information send it to motor to adjust headlamps to get the lighting beam which was suitable for the corner.
Abstract: The highest fatal traffic accident rate occurs on curved roads at nighttime. Night time driving with conventional headlamps is particularly unsafe. Only 25% of the driving is done at night but 55% of the driving accidents occur during this period. The existing conventional light systems do not provide illumination in the right direction on curve roads. Due to this constrain, a need to understand an alternative technology solution. The aim is to improve visibility for driver and so achieve a significant increase in safety and driving comfort. This calls for a flexible front light for automobiles to illuminate road ahead in the night at corner. Adaptive front lighting system (AFS) helps improve driver’s visibility at night time hence achieving enhance safety. AFS (adaptive front-lighting system) used to detect information about corner in advance with help of sensor which detect the information send it to motor to adjust headlamps to get the lighting beam which was suitable for the corner. Through this way, it could avoid "blind spot" caused by the fixed lighting area when coming into the corner, and improve driving safety. DOI: 10.17762/ijritcc2321-8169.1503152

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Different Leaf Area (LA) estimation methods namely Instrument based Using Li 3100 Machine, Manual Graph based Method and Software based Method are discussed, which show that LAM software gives 99.96% to 95.31% accurate results for different leaves except Jasud.
Abstract: Leaf area represents the amount of leaf material in ecosystems and controls the links between biosphere and atmosphere through various processes like photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and rain interception. It is also helpful parameter in evaluating damage caused by leaf diseases and pastes, micronutrient deficiencies, water and environmental stress, need of fertilization for effective management and treatment. Precision agriculture production adapting rapid and accurate methods to measure plant leaf area. At presently, grid counting and Leaf Area Meter (Li3100) are used as conventional methods for leaf area estimation. These methods are simple in principle and highly accurate but tend to be time consuming. The above constraints can be overcome by proposed Leaf Area Meter (LAM); a Java based Image processing software application. The software application has many advantages like User friendly, fast, accurate and reusable. The paper discusses different Leaf Area (LA) estimation methods namely Instrument based Using Li 3100 Machine, Manual Graph based Method and Software based Method. Results show that LAM software gives 99.96% to 95.31% accurate results for different leaves except Jasud. Between two image formats, .jpg format shows comparatively less error than .png format. KeywordsLeaf Area, Leaf Area Index, Image Processing(Java), Plant Leaves, Graphical Method for Leaf Area. _____________________________________________****______________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Zheng et al. investigated the optimal use of waste tyres rubber as coarse aggregate in concrete composite and focused on engineering properties of rubber concrete mixture, including workability, hybrid properties and compressive strength.
Abstract: At present days the disposal of waste tyres is becoming a major waste management problem in the world. One of the major environmental challenges facing municipalities around the world is the disposal of worn out automobile tyres. To address this global problem, several studies have been conducted to examine various application of recycled tyres rubber (Fine crumb rubber and coarse tire chips). It is estimated that 1.2 billion tons of waste tyres rubber produced globally per year. It is estimated that about 60 percent of waste tyres are disposed via unknown routes in the urban as well as rural area. This leads to varies environmental problem which include air pollution associated with open burning of tyres (Particulates, odor, visual impact, and other harm full contaminants such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) and aesthetic pollution. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize the waste effectively with technical development in each field. The waste tyres can be used as well sized aggregate in the it is cut in the form of aggregate and can be called as rubber aggregate. This not only minimizes the pollution occurred due to waste tyres but also minimizes the use of conventional aggregate which is available in exhaustible quantity. In this context, our present study aims to investigate the optimal use of waste tyres rubber as coarse aggregate in concrete composite. This paper focuses on engineering property of rubber concrete mixture. This includes workability, compressive strength. This paper presents an overview of the research carried out in an effort to utilize scrap tyres in Portland cement concrete. A concrete cubes are casted of M20 grade by replacing 1%, 2%, 5%, percent of tyre aggregate with coarse aggregate. Fresh and hardened concrete strength were identified. Keyword: Tyre, Rubber, Recycled, Compressive strength, Workability. Environmental, Pollution. __________________________________________________*****_______________________________________________ INTRODUCTION Solid waste management has gained a lot of attention to the research community in recent days. As concerned solid waste, accumulated waste tyres, has become a problem of interest because of its nonbiodegradable nature [Malladi, 2004]. Most of the waste tyre rubbers are used as a fuel in many of the industries such as thermal power plant, cement kilns and brick kilns etc .unfortunately, this kind of usage is not environment friendly and requires high cost. Thus, the use of scrap tyre rubber in the preparation of concrete has been thought as an alternative disposal of such waste to protect the environment. It has been observed that the rubberized concrete maybe used in places where desired deformability o toughness is more important than strength like the road foundations and bridge barriers. Apart from these the rubberized concrete having the reversible elasticity properties may also be used as a material with tolerable damping properties to reduce or to minimize the structural vibration under impact effects [Siddique et al.2004]. The difficulties associated to investigations to identify the mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete have necessitated the need for the experimental investigations on rubberized concrete .Therefore, in this study an attempt has been made to identify the various properties necessary for the design of concrete mix with the coarse tyre rubber chips as aggregate in a systematic manner. In recent decade’s worldwide growth of automobile industry and increasing use of car as a means of transport has tremendously boosted tyre production. This has generated massive stockpiles of used tyre. Big tyre amount of used rubber tyres cumulate in the world each year-275 million in the United States and 180 million in European Union. About 33 million vehicles are being added to Indian roads in last three years. In industry large amount of waste tyres are utilized as fuel, in bitumen pastes, roof and floor covers and for paving industries. One of the where these scrap tyres can be used is rubberized concrete. Concrete though a popular construction material has some limitation. Several studies performed earlier shows that the application of recycle tyre rubber in concrete might improve these properties. However by use of this granulated rubber with Replacement of coarse aggregate can make concrete cheaper and useful for some application. Such type of concrete is usually used in manufacturing of reinforced pavement and bridge structures. LITERATURE REVIEW Many books and Journals are refer to Carried out this work .references playing vital role are highlights below. 1) Zheng et al. 2008 worked on rubberized concrete and replaced the coarse aggregate in normal concrete with ground and crushed scrap tyre in various volume ratios. Ground rubber powder and the crushed tyre chips particles range in size from about 15 to 4 mm were used. The effect of rubber type and rubber contenton strength, modulus of elasticity were tested and studied. The stress – strain hysteresis loops were obtained by loading, unloading and reloading of specimens. Brittleness index values were calculated by hysteresis loops. Studies showed that compressive strength and modulus of elasticity of crushed rubberized concrete were lower than the ground rubberized concrete 2) Taha et al. 2008 used chipped tyre rubber and crumb tyre rubber to replace the coarse and fine aggregate respectively in the concrete at replacement levels of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% by volume. The tyre rubber was chipped in two groups of size 5 to 10mm and 10 to 20 mm. the crumb tyre rubber of size 1 to5 mm was used. These were mixed with a ratio of 1:1. 3) Khallo et al. 2008 determined the hardened properties of concrete using different types of tyre rubber particle as a replacement of aggregate in concrete. The different types of rubber particles used were tyre chips, crumb rubber and combination of tyre chips and crumb rubber. These particles were used to replace 12.5%, 25%, 37.5%, and 50% of the total mineral aggregate by International Journal on Recent and Innovation Trends in Computing and Communication ISSN: 2321-8169 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 549 553 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 550 IJRITCC | February 2015, Available @ http://www.ijritcc.org _______________________________________________________________________________________ volume. The results showed that the fresh rubberized concrete had lower unit weight and workability compared to plain concrete. Result showed large reduction in strength and modulus of elasticity in concrete when combination of tyre rubber chips and crumb rubber were used as compared to that when these were used individually. It was found that the brittle behavior of concrete was decreased with increased rubber content. The maximum toughness index indicated the post failure strength of concrete with 25%rubber content. 4) Ganjian et al. 2008 investigated the performance of concrete mixture incorporating 5%, 7.5% and 10% tyre rubber by weight as a replacement of aggregate and cement. Two set of concrete mix were made. In the first set chipped rubber replaced the coarse aggregate and in the second set scrap tyre powder replaced cement. The durability and mechanical test were performed. The result showed that up to 5%replacement in both sets no major changes occurred in concrete characteristic. 3) Methods of analysis: The methodology for this work depends on the objectives. This study work which has an objective of achieving M20 grade of concrete with maximum utilization of tyre rubber as aggregate and natural sand in concrete contains extensive experimental work Fig: Methodology Chart Experimental Research Program An experimental program is undertaken which consist of testing on basic ingredients and rubber tyres and properties with fresh and hardened concrete specimens. The methodology of the project is divided in various groups. Group A Test 1) Group A deals with the properties of the materials used in the study. A detail study on the following properties is done. Table gives the data of the properties to be study with the relevant IS codes. The materials used in the current project are Cement, Natural fine aggregate, Coarse aggregate, Shredded rubber (SR), and water. Table no 1 Group B Test 2) In Group B of set, mixes were designed with the materials tested in Group A. In this group mixes were designed using IS 10262:2009, with cement, Natural fine aggregate, coarse aggregate -20mm, and water. The mixes were designed with W/C as 0.45. These mixes were denoted as controlled mixes. Group C Test 3) Group C consisted of designing of mixes with percentage replacement of SR in 1%, 2%, and 5% mixes with W/C of 0.45. The mix with best result of Compressive strength, for further investigation, SR tested for Compressive strength. 4) The mixes are designed in each of the group were tested for fresh and hardened properties of concrete. The properties study for the concrete are 3, 7, 14, and 28 Day compressive strength of concrete, 28 day. MIXES DESIGN:  Conventional Mix(M-20): -

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identified and analyzed the critical success factor for successful functioning of public private partnership model in real estate sector, and the collected information is analyzed by using Relative Importance Index Method.
Abstract: In developing India, we are faced with the problems of infrastructure and shelter to accommodate growing migration of the people to urban areas. Indian real estate sector, if channelized properly, could catapult growth of several other sectors in India through its backward and forward linkages. Public private partnerships have existed for considerable period in infrastructure development. However, application of Public Private Partnership in real estate is Very Few and the success stories also less. There is a wide scope for application of PPP’s in real estate sector. Therefore, the objective of this Paper is to identify and analyze the critical success factor for successful functioning of public private partnership model in real estate sector. A questionnaire was designed and circulated to various respondents to obtain the information associated with various PPP project in real estate, and the collected information is analyzed by using Relative Importance Index Method. The results of this study indicate that, 15 out of 32 CSF found to be “Extremely Critical” while 10, 5 and 2 were falls under “Very Critical”, “Average critical” and “Fairly Critical” category, respectively. Keywords-Critical Success Facto, Public Private Partnership, Real Estate, Resource Management, Project Management. __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Algorithms, implemented for the problem of ad hoc wireless sensors network, are simulated on Matlab platform, with a step-bystep evaluations of a case study to maximize the lifetimes of sensors by sharing sensors subsets, according to their minimum coverage failure probabilities.
Abstract: Algorithms, implemented for the problem of ad hoc wireless sensors network, are simulated on Matlab platform, with a step-bystep evaluations of a case study. The main goal is to maximize the lifetimes of sensors by sharing sensors subsets, which cover a number of targeted zones, according to their minimum coverage failure probabilities. Different sensor subsets are activated according to their coverage failure probabilities, as well as a minimum specified value of coverage failure probability. Keyword ssensor network, ad hoc, algorithm, failure probability, lifetime, coverage __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a novel machine has designed which gives the desired comfort level at much lower cost, called an evaporative air conditioner for middle class and lower middle class people.
Abstract: Global warming is the prime concern of human being. There are various types of side effects of global warming. Weather of Globe is changing drastically and in erratic manner. Countries on equator and on tropics are facing extreme heat condition due to green house effect. Concentration of greenhouse gases are due industrialization. Average mercury level also shoots up across the globe. To develop comfort condition to scour the heat wave a novel machine has designed which gives the desired comfort level at much lower cost, called an evaporative air conditioner for middle class and lower middle class people. KeywordsEvaporative, air conditioner, heat, comfort, air, velocity, flow. __________________________________________________*****_________________________________________________

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A safety assurance approach is proposed, in which a user can inform his location for close observation if he/she feels like a potential threat, so that CCTV system can work more specifically and accurately by monitoring and tracking objects.
Abstract: The Closed Circuit Television (CCTV) have been used at very large scale for monitoring, recording and getting popular in whole world. The major goal of Closed Circuit Television system is monitoring or observing crime and tracking the objects. The smart phone Mobile world is also expanding at a rapid scale since the technology was invented. Most of smart phones users live in those countries where usage of CCTV system is very common in life. This project studies a monitoring system for smart phone mobile users based on CCTV system, where information will be sent from mobile phones to server so that CCTV system can work more specifically and accurately by monitoring and tracking objects. A safety assurance approach is proposed, in which a user can inform his location for close observation. If he/she feels like a potential threat. In that case of emergency situation, location, problem and all possible difficulties can be determined in comparatively less time by concern authorities like police as they have already monitoring the situation. DOI: 10.17762/ijritcc2321-8169.150125

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Organizations should take proper measures in building a mature Service Desk to ensure successful implementation of IT Service Help Desk.
Abstract: Due to the importance of high-quality customer service, many companies use intelligent helpdesk systems (e.g., case-based systems) to improve customer service quality. IT Service Help Desk offers a set of "best practices" for managing IT services and is one of the most widely accepted approaches to IT service management in the world. Recently, more and more enterprises implemented a centralized IT service management model based on the ITIL framework. Organizations should take proper measures in building a mature Service Desk to ensure successful implementation of IT Service Help Desk. This software will be established in a network to every employee having its access (authorization) in IT department for the IT related services provided to employees.

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TL;DR: The prospects of exploiting drug related online reviews contributed by social media groups for finding the adverse effects of drugs using opinion mining and sentiment analysis using sentiment analysis are studied.
Abstract: Pharmacovigilance is the science that focuses on identification and characterization of adverse effects of medications in populations when released to market. The focus of this paper is to study the prospects of exploiting drug related online reviews contributed by social media groups for finding the adverse effects of drugs using opinion mining and sentiment analysis. The experiences and opinions related to drug adverse reactions by patients or other contributors in these forums can be mined and analyzed as a facilitator for pharmacovigilance. This review paper highlights the usability of opinion mining and sentiment analysis as one of the approaches for pharmacovigilance. DOI: 10.17762/ijritcc2321-8169.1507115

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TL;DR: In this paper, the standard scale was used to assess the depression, anxiety and stress (DASS 42) Lovibond and lovidond (1995) and researcher intended to study the level of depression and anxiety experienced by 86 parents of children with differently abled children and the findings revealed that among Depression, Anxiety and stress, the number of parents experiencing anxiety is found to be high, which may be because the parents tend to be worried more about their children's future.
Abstract: The interplay between heredity and environment has created this beautiful world which abounds in human diversity. The quality of a child's relationships within the family matters much more than factors such as family size, the number and gender of parents, biology, whether a family is blended or extended, culture, language or religion. The relationships they have from birth help children feel secure, to believe they will be kept safe, and to trust in others and in the world - even when problems arise. Families are the biggest influence on a child's mental health and wellbeing. All children need love, encouragement, and support and especially the differently able children when the parent have a differentially able children in their home they fell depressed, anxious and stress. This study like bring out the highlights in these areas. The standard scale was used to assess the depression, anxiety and stress (DASS 42) Lovibond and lovidond (1995) and researcher intended to study the level of depression, anxiety and stress which is experienced by 86 parents of children with differently abled children and the findings reveals that among Depression, Anxiety and stress, the number of parents experiencing anxiety is found to be high, which may be because the parents tend to be worried more about their children's future. As their children grow and even the parents getting old, the parents tend to be more anxious because they are affected with a fear that what would happen after their absence owing to death or inability to care for their wards.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors proposed a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm using combination of two cryptographic algorithms AES and RSA for better security along with integrity, which is designed for better information transmitted over the network.
Abstract: The fast evolution of digital data exchange has forced the information security to be of much important in data storage and transmission. As large amount of data is transmitted over the network, it is preliminary to secure all types of data before sending them. The amount of information exchanged over the internet is completely not safe. Information and information systems need to be controlled. A key aspect of control is that an information system should be secure. This is achieved through security controls. Protecting the information transmitted over the network is a difficult task and the data security issues become increasingly important. At present, various types of cryptographic algorithms provide high security to information on networks, but they also have some drawbacks. To improve the strength of these algorithms, we propose a new hybrid cryptographic algorithm in this paper. The algorithm is designed using combination of two cryptographic algorithms AES and RSA. This new hybrid cryptographic technique has been designed for better security along with integrity. DOI: 10.17762/ijritcc2321-8169.160445