scispace - formally typeset
Search or ask a question

Showing papers in "International Review of Social History in 2011"


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the structural precariousness of freedom in nineteenth-century Brazil is analyzed, and the authors highlight situations which often blurred the distinction between slavery and freedom, therefore rendering insecure the condition of free and freed people of African descent.
Abstract: One of the main features of slavery in Brazil was that slaves had a better chance of achieving freedom than was the case in other slave societies. However difficult freedom may have been to obtain, significant rates of manumission resulted in a high percentage of free and freed people of color in the population of the country throughout the nineteenth century. This article analyzes facets of the structural precariousness of freedom in nineteenth-century Brazil. It deals with such themes as the constitutional restrictions on the political rights of freed persons; the masters’ interdiction of their slaves’ learning how to read and write; the practice of granting conditional manumissions; the masters’ right to revoke liberties; the illegal enslavement of free people of color; and police profiling of free and freed blacks under the allegation that they were suspected of being slaves. The idea is to highlight situations which often blurred the distinction between slavery and freedom, therefore rendering insecure the condition of free and freed people of African descent.

63 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the political legacy of the 1960s lies in the lasting significance of movement experiments with democracy as a prefigurative strategy for social change that is still relevant today because it is still in practice today.
Abstract: Over the past forty years, the social struggles of the “long 1960s” have been continuously reinterpreted, each interpretation allocating a new mix of relevance and irrelevance to the brief global uprising. This article is a contribution to one such interpretation: the small but growing body of literature on the central importance of experiments with democracy within movements of the 1960s. Rather than examining the transformative effect of 1960s movements on institutional politics or popular culture, this article examines the lasting transformation 1960s movements had on social-movement praxis. Based on seven years of ethnography within contemporary global movement networks, I argue that when viewed from within social-movement networks, we see that the political legacy of the 1960s lies in the lasting significance of movement experiments with democracy as part of a prefigurative strategy for social change that is still relevant today because it is still in practice today.

24 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Dasturu-l Amal manual as discussed by the authors contains information about the system of accountancy as well as about the professional ethics and norms of ideal behaviour of the secretarial class.
Abstract: In Mughal India, accounts were kept by individuals and institutions for purposes of reference and planning. Accountancy required a set of objectives and techniques for collecting, organizing, and presenting information so that it could then be put to use. It also fostered learning. Subsisting on formal or informal training, professional accountants equipped themselves with linguistic and mathematical skills, the art of notation, mnemonic devices, and the ability to translate loosely defined units into precise terms and numbers. Accountants were an important component of the state apparatus, village administration, and elite household management. In the seventeenth century manuals were produced in Persian by private individuals for the guidance of persons seeking to acquire proficiency in accountancy (siyaq) and clerical work. No study has been made so far of the manuals themselves nor of the people who compiled or used them. This introductory essay examines the manuals (generally titled Dasturu-l Amal) and the information they contain about the system of accountancy as well as about the professional ethics and norms of ideal behaviour of the secretarial class.

18 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors investigates the entangled histories of radicals in Detroit and Turin who challenged capitalism in ways that departed from "orthodox” Marxism, and how American events and debates were influenced by, and impinged on, distant countries and how local activists imagined their political identity as encompassing struggles occurring elsewhere.
Abstract: This article investigates the entangled histories of radicals in Detroit and Turin who challenged capitalism in ways that departed from ‘‘orthodox’’ Marxism. Starting from the 1950s, small but influential groups of labour radicals, such as Correspondence in Detroit and Quaderni Rossi in Turin, circulated ideas that questioned the Fordist system in a drastic way. These radicals saw the car factories as laboratories for a possible ‘‘autonomist’’ working-class activity that could take over industrial production and overhaul the societal system. They criticized the usefulness of the unions and urged workers to develop their own forms of collective organization. These links were rekindled during the intense working-class mobilization of the late 1960s, when younger radicals would also engage in a dialogue across national boundaries that influenced each other’s interpretation of the local context. These transnational connections, well-known to contemporaries but ignored by historians, show how American events and debates were influenced by, and impinged on, distant countries, and how local activists imagined their political identity as encompassing struggles occurring elsewhere.

17 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses common notions of the economic role of women as they emerged from the debates on women, gender relations, and work; how these notions were translated into practical advice in conduct literature; and with what norms women were confronted in everyday life.
Abstract: The ideology of domesticity that identified women with a domestic role became more articulated in north-western Europe throughout the early modern period. At the same time, perceptions of work changed and a new appraisal of labour emerged. These seemingly contradictory tendencies prompt the question how women fitted in with the ideology of work. This article discusses common notions of the economic role of women as they emerged from the debates on women, gender relations, and work; how these notions were translated into practical advice in conduct literature; and with what norms women were confronted in everyday life. It appears that work was valued positively for both women and men. Women's involvement in remunerated work was not considered problematic. There was a dividing line, however, and that was drawn between work within the home, which was deemed women's work, and work outside the home, which was deemed men's work. In practice, a differentiation was made between social groups; women who lacked income from capital were supposed to earn their living from work.

14 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors examine the debates about the meanings of cooperation during the period 1918-1939, focusing on the Nordic countries as a case study within the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA).
Abstract: Interest in the history of consumer cooperation has grown in recent years, but the transnational dimensions of the movement, including the International Cooperative Alliance (ICA), remain under-researched. This paper examines the debates about the meanings of cooperation during the period 1918–1939, focusing on the Nordic countries as a case study within the ICA. The paper considers how cooperators drew on the legacy of the Rochdale Pioneers as the basis for a programmatic statement for the ICA, before turning to explore the implications of this for the ordinary members who shopped in the cooperative stores. Examination of these debates within the cooperative movement can, it is argued, illuminate our understandings of both the transnational politics of consumption, and the ambitions, limits, and practices of internationalism during the interwar years. Lastly, some attention is given to the role of cooperation in the emergence of a distinctive Nordic region.

13 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The singularity of the Spanish position with regard to coverage of the risk of sickness within the context of the different welfare models described in international literature is analyzed in this paper, which enables us to verify that in Spain, as in other countries, there were initially different forms of sickness coverage which coexisted, created by the market, by workers themselves and, gradually, by the state.
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to analyse the singularity of the Spanish position with regard to coverage of the risk of sickness within the context of the different welfare models described in international literature. This analysis enables us to verify that in Spain, as in other countries, there were initially different forms of sickness coverage which coexisted, created by the market, by workers themselves and, gradually, by the state. Within this so-called mixed economy of welfare, the most extensive health coverage for the Spanish population was a result of the self-organization of workers, and this continued until the Civil War (1936–1939), not so much due to its efficacy and viability, as to the slow development of private insurance companies and the inability of the state to implement compulsory sickness insurance. The installation of the Franco dictatorship meant that the introduction of compulsory sickness insurance was further delayed, and when it was eventually passed, it offered only limited coverage, was enacted more for political than for social ends, and was to result in the virtual disappearance of friendly societies.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A study of newspaper representations of strike-induced hunger reveals that a gendered discourse evolved which repeatedly concentrated attention on the starving "innocents": the wives and children of male strikers as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: By the late nineteenth century, the hungry increasingly found themselves constructed as objects of compassion. However, there were real limits to the “humanitarian discovery of hunger”. Not every famished body was understood as deserving of sympathy. Compassionate citizens were particularly troubled by the mass distress that often accompanied lengthy strikes. How should they respond to such hunger? A study of newspaper representations of strike-induced hunger reveals that a gendered discourse evolved which repeatedly concentrated attention on the starving “innocents”: the wives and children of male strikers. The discourse was apparently apolitical but, in truth, it was nothing of the sort. It adjudged the “innocents” worthy recipients of food aid, whilst frequently ignoring the hunger of the striking male and denying him support. Labour leaders had to choose their words carefully if they were to get his suffering recognized.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Christine Moll Murata and Karin Hofmeester as discussed by the authors present a global history of work ethics, 1500-1650: some preliminaries Marcel van der Linden Part II.
Abstract: General introduction Christine Moll Murata and Karin Hofmeester Part I. Theory: 1. Towards a global history of work ethics, 1500-1650: some preliminaries Marcel van der Linden Part II. Europe: 2. Gender norms and work roles Ariadne Schmidt 3. Between sin and salvation, the seventeenth-century Dutch artisan Pieter Plockhoy and his ethics of work ca.1650: text by artisan on utopian community Henk Looijesteijn 4. Work, commerce and wages: looking for labour ideologies in early modern Italy (1500-1650) Luca Mocarelli 5. The just wage in early modern Italy: a reflection on Zacchia's 'De Salario seu Operaiorum Mercede' Andrea Caracausi 6. Religious aspects of labour ethics in medieval and early modern Russia Arkady Tarasov Part III. Islamic World/Ottoman Empire: 7. Cairo in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries Nora Lafi 8. Jewish ethics on women's work in the late medieval Islamic world: Maimonides versus social practice Karin Hofmeester.

12 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors focus on the making of vagrancy in the context of early state welfare policy, starting with the first attempts to formalize unemployment emerging in the late nineteenth century, when, based on a new understanding of unemployment as an effect of the labour market, new forms of supporting and regulating those wayfarers in search of employment were established.
Abstract: This paper deals with the making of vagrancy in the context of early state welfare policy. Vagrancy is neither understood as an anachronism nor as deviance or marginality. Rather, it raises central questions concerning social policy and the history of labour. Starting from the problems of definition in the context of contemporary transnational debates, I will then focus on the practical implementation of distinctions in Austria from the late nineteenth century to the Anschluss in 1938. Different practices of varying efficacy will be accounted for, starting with the first attempts to formalize unemployment emerging in the late nineteenth century, when, based on a new understanding of unemployment as an effect of the labour market, new forms of supporting and regulating those wayfarers in search of employment were established. Such practices also aimed at outlawing vagrancy, with consistent penalties under the law. In addition, vagrancy will be discussed with respect to changing political regimes. Focusing on the 1920s and 1930s, the paper analyses crime statistics and crime records, and last but not least, the perspective of those who were “on the tramp”.

11 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors define a number of key concepts (i.e., "work", "attitude" and "work ethics") and evaluate the various sources which might give us an insight into attitudes to work.
Abstract: The period 1500–1650 was characterized by huge global transformations. These had a major impact on a wide range of societal forms and cultures. As a result, different work ethics clashed and formed hybrid combinations, and new work ethics came into being during many-sided confrontations. The question of how the labouring poor in different parts of the world experienced these changes in the context of their work is an extremely difficult one. The present essay attempts to define a number of key concepts (“work”, “attitude”); it evaluates critically the various sources which might give us an insight into attitudes to work; and it reflects on interpretative difficulties. The essay concludes by presenting a few substantive hypotheses.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The motin de Esquilache of 1766 as mentioned in this paper was a seminal event in the development of conceptual innovations in the field of disorder, which can be found in conceptual innovations developed as early as the Enlightenment.
Abstract: The image of the crowd as an irrational, spontaneous multitude is commonly related to the works of a first generation of social psychologists writing in the early twentieth century, yet its basic features can be found in conceptual innovations developed as early as the Enlightenment. This article focuses on a particular protest in eighteenth-century Spain in order to reflect on the transformation in the meaning of essential terms which occurred in the semantic field of disorder. The so-called motin de Esquilache of 1766 forced the authorities to renew their discourse in order to deprive the movement of legitimacy, fostering semantic innovation. The redefinition of riot implied a process of conceptualization that not only stressed the protagonism of the disenfranchized but also altered a long-established tradition that linked riots to conspiracies and devised a new anthropology depicting the populace as a subject unable to produce ideas on its own.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the socio-economic conditions that pushed women into prostitution and courtesanship, and the changes that occurred at the end of the Ming dynasty that affected their status.
Abstract: This study pursues three goals: to unravel the socio-economic conditions which pushed women into prostitution and courtesanship, to analyse their position in Chinese society, and to relate what changes occurred at the end of the Ming dynasty that affected their status. According to contemporary judicial regulations, both prostitutes and courtesans were classified as “entertainers”, and therefore had the status of jianmin [mean people], which made them “outcasts” and pariahs. But there were great differences, beyond the bestowal of sexual favours, in the kind of work these women performed. That courtesans operated at the elite level of society, and that they were often indistinguishable from women born into the upper or gentry class, is indicative of this era's blurry social strata, which has prompted scholars and writers to elevate the place of the educated courtesan in Ming society.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, two separate but interlinked questions relating to India in Mughal times (sixteenth to early eighteenth century) are addressed: the terms on which labour was rendered, taking perfect market conditions as standard; and, second, the perceptions of labour held by the higher classes and the labourers themselves.
Abstract: This article addresses two separate but interlinked questions relating to India in Mughal times (sixteenth to early eighteenth century). First, the terms on which labour was rendered, taking perfect market conditions as standard; and, second, the perceptions of labour held by the higher classes and the labourers themselves. As to forms of labour, one may well describe conditions as those of an imperfect market. Slave labour was restricted largely to domestic service. Rural wage rates were depressed owing to the caste system and the “village community” mechanism. In the city, the monopoly of resources by the ruling class necessarily depressed wages through the market mechanism itself. While theories of hierarchy were dominant, there are indications sometimes of a tolerant attitude towards manual labour and the labouring poor among the dominant classes. What seems most striking is the defiant assertion of their status in relation to God and society made on behalf of peasants and workers in northern India in certain religious cults in the fifteenth to the seventeenth centuries.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article explored Confucian tenets that made a distinction between mental and physical work, and between four main occupational groups during the Ming period, and found direct and indirect evidence of the commodification of work in cities and in the countryside, and of gendered division of labour.
Abstract: In global terms, Ming China was one of the largest of the economies and political entities that saw increasing integration. Between 1500 and 1650 it experienced a phase of commercialization that influenced perceptions and valuations of work in various ways. Taking a multi-layered approach, this study explores Confucian tenets that made a distinction between mental and physical work, and between four main occupational groups. It discusses earlier Buddhist perspectives on work which were still valid during the Ming period. Further, the legal regulations concerning work in the Ming penal code and the valuations of work and particular occupations in a contemporary literary source, a carpenter's handbook, and an agricultural guide are probed for direct and indirect evidence of the commodification of work in cities and in the countryside, and of gendered division of labour. A consideration of the usefulness of work songs for studying the self-expression of workers concludes the essay.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a taxonomy of small-place communism has been presented, based on research into a number of cases in western Europe, trying to identify common characteristics which might explain their receptiveness to communist policies and ideas.
Abstract: Small communist strongholds were commonly nicknamed “Little Moscow”, both in Britain and in Europe. Small-place communism has been widespread since the interwar period, often in distinctly hostile surroundings. In this article, based on research into a number of cases in western Europe, I try to identify common characteristics which might explain their receptiveness to communist policies and ideas. My aim is to present a taxonomy for further research. Most of the places that I researched were isolated, recently developed, and mono-industrial. They were populated by a wave of migrants who had formed mono-occupational, pioneer societies. Second-generation migrants turned to communism and built “occupational communities” based on trade unions and other associational activities. Often they continued militant traditions of earlier socialism, anarchism, or syndicalism; others had a tradition of irreligiousness or religious indifference.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyse the treatment of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) by Zinnemann in The Search, a 1948 film set in the context of displaced persons in post-1945 Europe.
Abstract: This article analyses Fred Zinnemann's 1948 film, The Search, setting in the context of displaced persons in post-1945 Europe. We concentrate on Zinnemann's treatment of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), arguing that this is central to the film. We also consider the film's references to Americanism, Zionism, gender equality, and children's wartime experiences.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors explored the similarities and differences of the discourse used by the main figures from the labour unrest of Liege in 1886 and Seville in 1901 to articulate their experiences and protests, focusing on the analysis of the interpretative frameworks, that is, on the "construction of arguments".
Abstract: This article explores the similarities and differences of the discourse used by the main figures from the labour unrest of Liege in 1886 and Seville in 1901 to articulate their experiences and protests. The comparison, focused on the analysis of the interpretative frameworks, that is, on the “construction of arguments”, highlights the role of the discourse as one of the cultural ingredients which encouraged and shaped both instances of collective action.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a treatise by the jurist Lanfranco Zacchia, De Salario seu Operariorum Mercede, which appeared in the mid-seventeenth century and represented the first attempt to collate a set of rules on wages based on the traditions of Roman and canon law is presented.
Abstract: This article aims to understand norms and values pertaining to the definition of just wages in early modern Italy. The starting point is the treatise by the jurist Lanfranco Zacchia, De Salario seu Operariorum Mercede, which appeared in the mid-seventeenth century and represented the first attempt to collate a set of rules on wages based on the traditions of Roman and canon law. After a brief presentation of the treatise, I shall analyse the meanings and concepts of wages, and then consider the elements that determined the just wage. To understand how prescriptions were seen by individuals, I shall also compare them with information about court cases and rulings compiled by Zacchia in another book, the Centuria decisionum ad materiam Tractatus de Salario, and with the rest of the existing literature. Evidence from my comparison will allow us to understand the interaction and reciprocal influences between juridical thought and daily work practice, and underline the fact that wages were based on a complex system of norms and values where individuals, their social positions, skills, and experience determined the recognition of the just wage with reference to the local context.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, free and unfree labour in mining centres in the Andes during early Spanish colonial times was analyzed. But they focused on two themes: the condition of indigenous or "native" people as free labourers, and the mita system of unfree labor.
Abstract: This article analyses free and unfree labour in mining centres in the Andes during early Spanish colonial times. It focuses on two themes: the condition of indigenous or “native” people as “free labourers”, and the mita system of unfree labour. For that purpose I shall consider the cases of Potosi, the most important mining centre in the Andes, and San Antonio del Nuevo Mundo in southern Bolivia, a large mine unaffected by the mita system of labour obligations.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors compared two highly successful treatises written in the second half of the fifteenth century: Tomaso Garzoni's La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo [The Universal Workplace of All the Professions in the World], and Leonardo Fioravanti's Dello specchio di scientia universale [On the Mirror of Universal Knowledge] and examined how each of these books presented and considered commercial activities such as the manufacture and trading of silk and wool.
Abstract: This article compares two highly successful treatises written in the second half of the fifteenth century: Tomaso Garzoni's La piazza universale di tutte le professioni del mondo [The Universal Workplace of All the Professions in the World], and Leonardo Fioravanti's Dello specchio di scientia universale [On the Mirror of Universal Knowledge]. It examines how each of these books presented and considered commercial activities such as the manufacture and trading of silk and wool – which were of great importance to the Italian economy of the day – and other more humble occupations. This is an interesting comparison since Garzoni and Fioravanti personified two very different spirits of the Renaissance. The former was a learned man, anxious to construct a moralistic-literary monument, complete in every detail, while the latter was a great observer, intent on making full use of every kind of knowledge, even that which seemed lowly and contemptible.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In Japan, the transformation of labour relations from medieval forms of serfdom, lifelong service, and corvee labour to short-term contracts and wage labour was already under way by the seventeenth century as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: In Japan, the transformation of labour relations from medieval forms of serfdom, lifelong service, and corvee labour to short-term contracts and wage labour was already under way by the seventeenth century. In the second half of the seventeenth century short-term employment based on contracts became common. Indentured labour gradually changed into wage labour. Government policies included enabling greater mobility for the workers, while also trying to set limits to migration flow to the cities. Some Confucian scholars welcomed this new form of labour relations; others condemned them. The few sources about the work ethics of waged workers imply mockery about their loose morals and work attitudes, but also complaints about workloads and exploitation.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Maimonides' interpretation of Jewish law on women and work is contrasted with the daily lives of Jewish working women as portrayed in the documents of the Cairo Geniza.
Abstract: In this article, Moses Maimonides’ interpretation of Jewish law on women and work – as reflected in his Mishneh Torah – is contrasted with the daily lives of Jewish working women as portrayed in the documents of the Cairo Geniza. Later rabbinic writings and European travel accounts are analysed to show how Jewish ethics of women and work were translated into social practice in the late medieval and early modern Arab-Islamic world, where Islamic law and the existence of separate worlds for men and women rather than the contrast between public and private spheres seem to have informed general ideas about women and work.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify migration systems in north-western nineteenth-century Portugal to contribute to the understanding of the puzzle that is Portuguese migration dynamics through the analysis of the passport and parish registers from the concelho of Vila do Conde.
Abstract: This article aims to identify migration systems in north-western nineteenth-century Portugal to contribute to the understanding of the puzzle that is Portuguese migration dynamics. Through the analysis of the passport and parish registers from the concelho of Vila do Conde, it was possible to determine three systems, the Atlantic, the Lisbon, and the local. The occurrence and characteristics of the systems varied according to socio-economic contexts, both in the sending and receiving areas, and also according to the emigrants’ life cycles.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A case study of Pieter Plockhoy (c.1620-1664) is given in this paper, where it is shown that work was a central component of his philosophy of true, practical Christianity.
Abstract: There have been few attempts systematically to study the ethics of work in the early modern age on the basis of contemporary sources. Such a study should start with case studies of individual thinkers, as stepping stones to a more comprehensive study of the ethics of work. This article provides such a case study, of the seventeenth-century Dutch artisan Pieter Plockhoy (c.1620–1664). As will be shown, work was a central component of Plockhoy's philosophy of true, practical Christianity, and on the basis of his tracts a more or less coherent ethics of work can be reconstructed. Although this article concentrates on Plockhoy's philosophy of labour, his thought fits into a broader context of related contemporary thinkers, many of whom shared his concerns. Thus the article shows that for scholars wishing to study the ethics of work there is still a whole field which, though yielding a potentially rich harvest, lies fallow.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors analyzed the basic feature that defined Russian labour ethics in medieval and early modern times -its religious aspect and the role of Eastern Christianity and Church tradition in labour regulations, and the reality of everyday life in Russia and the historical peculiarities of the Russian locale, its natural conditions and climatic features.
Abstract: This article analyses the basic feature that defined Russian labour ethics in medieval and early modern times – its religious aspect. There are two main elements to the subject. First, the role of Eastern Christianity and Church tradition in labour regulations, and second, the realities of everyday life in Russia and the historical peculiarities of the Russian locale, its natural conditions and climatic features, which had an influence on working activity. Until the time of Peter the Great, the labour ethics of the Russian Orthodox Church saw no significant change, and their main content could be defined as an educational process.

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article reviewed the debate from its medieval origins in Portugal and examined what effect the arrival of the Jesuits in America had on that debate, until the final prohibition of Indian enslavement in the mid-eighteenth century, documented by letters, reports, and sermons.
Abstract: During the two first centuries of Portuguese colonization in America there was an intense debate about the legitimacy of enslaving Africans and Indians. In Portuguese America, the mission to spread the Christian faith was connected with the subjection of populations on both sides of the Atlantic Ocean to an ideology that considered labour as God's punishment for Adam's sin. In that sense, the justification of the unfree labour inflicted upon Indians and Africans in Portuguese America was a product of the same ideology, one that condemned manual work as rendering a man dishonourable. The purpose of this article is to review the debate from its medieval origins in Portugal, and to examine what effect the arrival of the Jesuits in America had on that debate, until the final prohibition of Indian enslavement in the mid-eighteenth century, documented by letters, reports, and sermons.


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Bohstedt as discussed by the authors argues that community politics gave way to class, and reciprocity now took shape in bitter battles rather than pragmatic bargaining, and that small and more spontaneous instances of disorder and rioting came to be seen as something to be managed and reduced rather than actions by people who needed to be ‘mollified.
Abstract: justice (less retaliatory than the eighteenth century), better organized military responses, better planned and more sustained philanthropic safety nets, and changes to the nature of poor relief, undermined the logic of provision politics by the early nineteenth century. The scale of this undermining, he suggests, is to be found reflected in responses to the crisis of 1810–1812 when ‘‘the main tradition of provision politics had been driven to the margins’’, and small and more spontaneous instances of disorder and rioting came to be seen as something to be managed and reduced rather than actions by people who needed to be ‘‘mollified’’. The final substantive chapter in turn deals with the death throes of provision politics in the period up to 1867, a period marked by the fact that ‘‘community politics gave way to class, and reciprocity now took shape in bitter battles rather than pragmatic bargaining’’. Of course, this brief review does not do justice either to the complexity of the arguments deployed or to the sheer scale of evidence assembled for this book. While I might disagree with the assertion that the period from 1812 marks such a clean break in the history of provision politics in particular, and such a sea change in the way that the poor negotiated in general, this is nonetheless an outstanding book. And as Bohstedt reminds us in his conclusion to the volume, the politics of provision is firmly set to become a very hot socio-political topic in the future. At a time when food-price inflation for the aged in Britain is running at close to 10 per cent per year, how long, we might wonder, until the language of necessity drives a new political radicalism when it comes to ‘‘provision’’?